Over the past few years, pupillometry is proliferation in psychological studies and eye tracking measurement. Pupil size or diameter can reflect mental activities, and affect other’s feeling and decision making. In addition, the sizes of our pupils are also influenced by the top-down processing, such as perception and attention, emotion and motivation, mental effort, social cognition and so on. Studies in pupillometry also found that large pupils give others good impressions (e.g. more attractive, more positive), and· cause more positive behaviors during the interaction (e.g. trust behaviors; honest behaviors). In this paper, we reviewed the relations between pupils and our mind with the pupil’s neural mechanisms and the adaptive-gain theory based on previous publications. As an effective eye-tracking parameter, pupil could be measured by eye tracking to explore the inner cognitive processing of our human being. In this paper, controlling interference of unrelated variables (e.g., luminance, gaze position), pupillometry raw data mining (e.g., baseline correction, blink processing), and the selection of pupil indices (e.g., pupil diameter, peak value, oscillations frequency) are also discussed for the future research.
Moral cognition focuses on the processing of information underlying the moral behavior. Recently, researchers have begun to apply computational modelling to moral cognition as to explore how moral cognition is represented in the brain. However, the research on the computational modeling of moral cognition is still at its infancy. The application of computational modelling (the Drift Diffusion Models, Utility Models, Reinforcement Learning Models and Hierarchical Gaussian Filter) in the behavioral and physiological studies of moral cognition quantified the cognitive processes and neural mechanisms underlying moral decision-making, moral judgment, and moral inference. In addition, this new approach could help to understand antisocial behavior and mental disorders. Finally, the computational modeling needs to be improved and future research need to pay attention to the potential limitations.
A person-centered approach views divergent variables as an interdependent system, and divides the sample into subgroups according to certain participant characteristics to analyze the antecedents and outcomes. This approach has earned much attention because it more closely approximates practice and easier to understand. Latent profile analysis (LPA) is one analytical tool typically used for such analysis. After comparing and contrasting person-centered and variable-centered approaches, and then LPA and similar analysis techniques, we systematically illuminate the domains of the field of organizational behavior where LPA can be applied. We then provide guidance for using LPA as a research method with regard to research theme, sample requirements, the use of theory, and the determination of profile number. Finally, we offer suggestions for the future development of LAP.
Brand name is significant brand equity. It plays a vital role in delivering brand value, building brand image and highlighting brand characteristics. Previous research found that the semantic and phonetic features of a brand name would influence consumers’ perception and preference. From the perspective of baby schema, we examine the effect of repeated two-syllable brand name on consumers’ brand perception (physical perception and psychological perception) and consumers’ attitude, and also verify the mechanism and boundary of the effect. More specific expositions are as follows: (1) Examining the effect and mechanism of repeated two-syllable brand name on consumers’ physical perception, psychological perception and attitude; (2) Verifying the moderating effect of the internal phonetic feature and the external cuing feature between the repeated two-syllable brand name and consumers’ perception; (3) Verifying the moderating effect of product type and consumers’ feature between the repeated two-syllable brand name and consumers’ attitude.
How to optimize entrepreneurial behavior and thus improve the quality of entrepreneurship is of central interest for both academics and practitioners. As a salient characteristic of entrepreneurial behavior is its dynamic match with external environment, research attention shifting from a focus on static entrepreneurial behavior to tracking dynamic changes in entrepreneurial behavior is warranted. In this study, we posit that behavior is simultaneously influenced by personality, cognition, and environment, and explore how an entrepreneur’s narcissism affects his/her behavioral change and following performance. Further, we investigate how narcissism interacts with experience in affecting behavioral change and its performance implications across different cognitive contexts and business environments. Our findings contribute to the research on entrepreneurial behavior and entrepreneurial psychology, as well as accumulate knowledge on how to help entrepreneurs understand themselves and improve their ability of decision making.
Heightening the quality of employee voice has been recognized as an important way to improve organizational effectiveness. However, previous studies have mainly focused on how to promote employees’ voice participation and quantity of voice, while ignoring the most essential issue - voice quality. To solve this problem, the present study aims to systematically research voice quality, including the connotation, measurement and antecedents of employee voice quality. The first study defines the connotation of employee voice quality based on grounded theory, and develops a scale of employee voice quality. The second study, drawing on implicit voice theory, explores the theoretical mechanisms linking leader and employee critical thinking to employee voice quality on both team and individual levels. This paper makes theoretical contributions by developing an employee voice quality framework and expanding the application of critical thinking and implicit voice theory.
Multicultural experience is a double-edged sword in the context of globalization. It could provide ample cultural resources, help open minds and foster receptiveness to foreign cultures; meanwhile, it could also increase intergroup threat, tax cognition load, and further lead to negative emotions and resistant responses. The complex influences of multicultural experience highlight the importance of the ability to manage properly and deploy flexibly of context-appropriate cultural knowledge. However, most of the existing theories on cultural competence were proposed in the early period of global study, unable to meet the new challenges brought about by globalization. To shed light on the key elements to improve intercultural effectiveness, we reconstructed multicultural competence from the perspective of polyculturalism (i.e., emphasizing the hybridity of culture), and proposed the central role meta-knowledge (i.e., the knowledge of cultural knowledge) play in improving intercultural effectiveness. We developed a line of studies to examine the new model of multicultural competence, test its role in cross-cultural collaboration, and recover its underlying mechanism. Through these studies, we hope to deepen the understanding of globalization, and provide theoretical guidance for cross-cultural collaboration in a global environment.
A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the effect of lateral trust, vertical trust, and system trust within organizations on creativity. Eighty-five relevant studies were taken into research, with a total of 99 independent effect sizes. Among them, there were 41 independent samples about the relationship between lateral trust and creativity, 34 independent samples about the relationship between vertical trust and creativity and 24 independent samples about the relationship between system trust and creativity. Meta-analysis results revealed a significant positive relationship between lateral trust (r = 0.50), vertical trust (r = 0.38), system trust (r = 0.48) and creativity. The relationship between lateral trust, vertical trust, system trust and creativity were moderated by the tools and surveys employed to investigate trust. Whilst, moderating effect of cultural background and knowledge were not significant.
The event-related potential (ERP) technique was used to investigate whether there are different neural responses to musical emotion when the same melodies are presented in the voice and instrumental timbre such as the violin. With a crossmodal affective priming paradigm, target faces were primed by affectively congruent or incongruent vocal and instrumental music. Participants were asked to judge whether the prime-target pair was affectively congruent or incongruent. The results revealed a larger late positive component (LPC) at the time window of 473~677 ms in response to affectively incongruent versus congruent trials in the vocal version, whereas a larger N400 effect at the time window of 281~471 ms was observed in the instrumental version. These results indicate differential patterns of neurophysiological responses to emotion processing of vocal and instrumental music.
Language evolution is an important issue of evolutionary psychology. Mirror System Hypothesis, Tool-making Hypothesis and Teaching Hypothesis explain the relationship between hand action and language evolution from different perspectives. All three hypotheses agree that human language originates from the experience of hand movements. Relevant empirical researches found that sign language and spoken language have some common features, language and hand movements share common neural circuits, gesture development can predict the level of language ability, and gesture can enhance the transmission efficiency of knowledge about tool making. These studies provide empirical support for specific inferences of above three hypotheses. Future research in this field needs to focus on the evolutionary relationship between sign language and spoken language, as well as the relationship between human language and other cognitive characteristics.
Semantic cognition is an important part of language systems, and thus the exploration of its development mechanism and the underlying neural mechanism is of great significance to reveal the development and cognitive mechanism of human languages. This paper focuses on the acquisition, development and aging of semantic cognition, and further explores the mechanism of aging in semantic cognition and related neural mechanism based on systematic elaboration of lexica-semantic acquisition and the development of semantic cognitive ability and strategy. Finally, discussions were made on the differences between children and adults in semantic cognition, syntactic and semantic cognitive aging, and the influencing factors of aging.
Research about face recognition shows that people are better at recognizing faces of their own groups (e.g. race, sex, and age) compared to faces of other groups. In recent years, researchers have conducted experiments to explore such own-group biases in face recognition. Two competing theoretical explanations for this own-group bias are the Perceptual Expertise Hypothesis and the Social-Cognitive Approach. Researchers proposed two models based on an integration of these two approaches: the Categorization- Individuation Model and Dual-Route Approach, and explored its neural mechanisms, implications for cognitive processing, and sensitivity to factors such as perceivers, targets, and evaluationtasks. Important future directions include improving the ecological validity of the study, putting forward with a comprehensive theoretical model and strengthening cross-cultural comparative studies.
High-functioning autism (HFA) is a term commonly used to identify patients with autism spectrum disorder who have average or above average intellectual abilities but also face severe social dysfunctions. Attention bias towards threatening emotional faces is closely related to the development of social function in individuals with HFA. By reviewing the related research, the authors found that individuals with HFA do not have threatening emotional face attention bias during the automatic processing stage or emotional target participation stage; however, in the control processing stage, where tasks are unrelated to emotions, they demonstrate threatening emotional face attention bias. The theoretical explanations for this threatening emotional face attention bias in individuals with HFA mainly include the Amygdala theory of autism, Intense world theory, and Executive function theory. In terms of neurophysiological mechanisms, it may be related to their abnormal subcutaneous and cortical pathway functions and may be affected by serotonin system genes and oxytocin levels. Based on a comprehensive consideration of research methods and individual factors, future research can further explore the relevant processing characteristics and neuro-biological mechanisms and make efforts to develop scientific and effective intervention strategies.
Dropout in psychotherapy refers to the phenomenon of the client discontinuing psychotherapy prior to recovering from the problems or distress that led him or her to seek help. Although researchers have come to a consensus as to the connotation of dropout, there are a variety of operational definitions of dropout, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. Dropout is a widespread problem in clinic practice. However, the dropout percentages, which are strongly influenced by operational definitions of dropout and types of study designs, vary widely across studies. There are limitations for the traditional static predictors of dropout, so researchers gradually place greater importance to the process-oriented predictors of dropout (e.g., therapeutic alliance), which provide a good deal of insight into dropout. In order to reduce dropout from therapy, researchers suggest clinicians offer proper pre-therapy preparation for clients, assess important variables throughout the course of therapy, and tailor strategies according to situation. Future research should improve the operational definitions of dropout and further research also should be conducted in natural treatment settings. At the same time, predictors should be explored thoroughly and more. And more attention should be paid to the effects of critical events outside therapy as well as the cultural background of clients.
There is a phenomenon of intergenerational transmission of economic attitudes and behaviors. Ample studies on intergenerational transmission of economic attitudes primarily focus on money attitude, risk attitude, reciprocity attitude, and consumption attitude, while research on intergenerational transmission of economic behaviors pays much attention to consumption behavior, donation behavior, and saving behavior. In addition to genetic mechanism, the intergenerational transmission has two important pathways of socialization: observational learning and parent-child interaction, in which the latter channel is comprised of parent-child communication and financial parenting. Parent-child communication emphasizes the interaction at the level of language, whereas financial parenting is mainly embodied in the interaction at the level of behavior. However, previous research on financial parenting is still in its preliminary stage without in-depth analyses. Therefore, it is necessary for future studies to strengthen the research of intergenerational transmission in the context of Chinese culture and reality, and to explore its mechanisms in depth.
Restructuring daily habits is one of the most effective ways to solve social problems in the field of public policy. Understanding how to build behavioral habits is valuable for policy makers to develop and implement policies that support public health and wellness. Behavioral habits are context-response associations that develop through instrumental learning and rewards. As a type of implicit memory system, behavioral habits exhibit features, such as automaticity, context-dependence, and the ability to forgo alternative, immediate rewards. Behavioral habit formation emerges through two learning mechanisms: “context-response” association learning and implicit rewards learning. Psychology reveals that building successful habits depends not only on repetition but also on the presence of stable context cues and the rewards provided. In the early stages of habit formation, goals motivate individuals to repeat beneficial behaviors. Based on the core valences in the process of cultivating good behavioral habits, we outline three intervention strategies for public policy makers, including context stability, repetition, and rewards, which will enable them to better understand habits and design strategies that assist in cultivating behavioral habits. Further research would explore habits from a more diverse range of fields, experiment with new research paradigms, examine the possibility of redesigning public facilities for the purpose of increasing access to beneficial behaviors, and collaborate with commercial businesses to nudge members of society to restructure their daily routine.