ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社
2021, Volume 29 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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Conceptual Framework
How to reconcile team innovation paradox? An explorative study from the perspectives of members’ cognitive style “composition” and “configuration”
ZHAO Kai, XIANG Shuting
2021, 29 (1):  1-18.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00001
Abstract ( 574 )   HTML ( 22 )  
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In recent years, “How to improve team innovative performance?” is a popular topic in both management practice and academia fields. Because innovation is an ambidextrous activity including both “exploration” and “exploitation”, understanding how to balance the paradoxical relationship between them is crucial to improve team innovative performance. Based on a micro-perspective of team members’ cognitive styles, “compositional approach” and “configurational approach” were adopted to explore how to reconcile this kind of paradox. Specifically, (1) the complementary effects between members’ cognitive composition and team leader behaviors will contribute to the reconciliation of team innovation paradox; (2) an appropriate “members’ cognitive styles-work role requirements” configuration incorporated with a high level of team coordination climate will be useful to reconcile team innovation paradox. Further, based on the ideology of yin-yang philosophy, the mechanism embedded in the process of reconciling team innovation paradox was also studied. To justify the relevant theoretical propositions, three sub-projects will be conducted to examine the proposed research model with both quantitative and qualitative methods. The findings will not only enrich two streams of literature regarding exploration of the antecedents of team innovation and the approaches to management paradox from a micro perspective, but also provide suggestions on the innovation management practices of companies.

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Research Method
Can trust game measure trust?
GONG Zhe, TANG Yujie, LIU Chang
2021, 29 (1):  19-30.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00019
Abstract ( 1038 )   HTML ( 20 )  
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Trust games were widely used as a classic paradigm of trust measurement. However, the accuracy of the results of the trust game had been questioned by scholars in the field all the time, making precise trust measurement an important topic for exploration. The controversy mainly includes the following two aspects. On the one hand, the appropriateness of the trust game paradigm has yet to be verified. The controversy over paradigm changes further reveals that social preferences and risk preferences might have an impact on the level of investment trust, thereby reducing the internal validity of the trust game. On the other hand, the correlation between the level of the investment trust in trust games and the trust measured by the survey is very low, which can be explained by differences in attitudes and behaviours, differences in measurement types, and the limitations of trust measured by the survey and trust game. Although trust game face with some controversy, in general, it is still a suitable method for trust measuring. Future research should focus on the following points: Verifying the scientificity of the changes in the paradigm of trust game; Clarifying the low correlation between trust game and trust measured by survey; Expanding the measurement dimensions of trust game; Improving the ecological validity of trust game.

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Gamma oscillation: An important biomarker reflecting multisensory integration deficits in autism spectrum disorders
JIA Lei, XU Yu-fan, WANG Cheng, REN Jun, WANG Jun
2021, 29 (1):  31-44.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00031
Abstract ( 186 )   HTML ( 2 )  
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Multi-sensory integration (MSI) refers to a comprehensive process of selecting, connecting, unifying, and interpreting different sensory information. It involves coordination among various brain regions to achieve temporal binding of multiple sensory information and global predictive encoding. On the other hand, gamma oscillation plays vital roles in MSI, due to its versatile functions in reflecting excitation/inhibition balance of interneuron, implementing temporal binding of multi-sensory information, and participating in global predictive encoding via a cross-frequency coupling mechanism. Multisensory integration deficits are typical symptoms of patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Research shows that patients with ASD usually exhibit abnormal gamma oscillations caused by structural and functional abnormalities in GABA interneurons. In turn, these abnormal gamma oscillations disrupt temporal binding and predictive encoding, and eventually lead to MSI deficits in ASD. As a result, future research could use gamma rhythm neural oscillation as a biofeedback indicator, in combination with non-invasive and reversible intervention technologies, to develop scientific and systematic clinical intervention treatments.

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Regular Articles
Rapid disengagement hypothesis and signal suppression hypothesis of visual attentional capture
ZHANG Fan, CHEN Airui, DONG Bo, WANG Aijun, ZHANG Ming
2021, 29 (1):  45-55.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00045
Abstract ( 238 )   HTML ( 6 )  
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In the traditional theory of visual attentional capture, the stimulus-driven theory and goal-driven theory were argued for nearly 20 years. Later, two new hybrid models were proposed, which combined bottom-up capture and top-down control settings, called the rapid disengagement hypothesis and the signal suppression hypothesis. The main content of the rapid disengagement hypothesis is that a salient distractor can always capture attention in a bottom-up manner, but attention is immediately disengaged when the distractor does not contain target’s defining attribute. Signal suppression hypothesis posits that a salient distractor can automatically produce a bottom-up “attend-to-me” signal, but this signal can be suppressed via top-down control processes so that it does not actually capture attention. The empirical evidence of the rapid disengagement hypothesis indicated that the spatial-cuing paradigm and oculomotor disengagement paradigm were most often adopted, and participants took the singleton search strategy. The empirical evidence of the signal suppression hypothesis indicated that the additional singleton paradigm was most often adopted, and participants were forced to take the feature search strategy. In the future, more studies adopting different stimuli and experimental methods are needed to support those two hybrid models. The effects of reward and training on “attentional capture-disengagement” and “signal-suppression” should also be explored in future research.

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Binocular disparity: Neural mechanisms and perceptual learning
WANG Getong, XI Jie, CHEN Nihong, HUANG Changbing
2021, 29 (1):  56-69.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00056
Abstract ( 179 )   HTML ( 6 )  
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Binocular disparity, a critical cue to stereopsis, is defined as the small horizontal displacement between the two corresponding images projected onto the retina of the two eyes. The study of binocular disparity can be dated back to the early 18th century. Recent studies on binocular disparity have advanced our understanding in two aspects. The first is using electrophysiological and brain imaging technique to investigate the functional specialization in disparity processing in the dorsal and ventral visual pathways, which reveals hierarchical and parallel processing principles in the visual system. The second is about learning-induced plasticity. Future research needs to combine brain imaging, neuromodulation and other cutting-edge techniques to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying binocular disparity, its learning effect, and the interaction between binocular disparity and other depth clues. On the application side, future research needs to optimize training paradigms (e.g., with virtual reality technique) for rehabilitation and enhancement in the binocular disparity performance.

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The influences of auditory cues and individual differences on the processing of musical tension
SUN Lijun, MA Xiaolong, YANG Yufang
2021, 29 (1):  70-78.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00070
Abstract ( 187 )   HTML ( 3 )  
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The pattern of tension-relaxation is an essential component in music. Musical tension, building a bridge between objective sound and subjective experience, is important for the generation of musical emotion. On the one hand, musical tension is influenced by acoustic elements and structural organizations of tonal hierarchy, which is supported by theoretic models and empirical studies. On the other hand, musical tension experienced by listeners is also affected by individual differences, such as cultural background and musical ability. Future studies should pay more attention to musical tension induced by temporal structure and large-scale tonal structure. Meanwhile, the mechanism of tension induction also needs to be examined, which will be helpful to deepen our understanding of tension and emotion processing in music.

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The cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying false memory: An information processing perspective
GUO Ying, GONG Xianmin, WANG Dahua
2021, 29 (1):  79-92.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00079
Abstract ( 288 )   HTML ( 4 )  
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By reviewing both behavioral and neuroimaging research, the present article illustrates how processing of information from different sources (i.e., the target event/stimulus, internal cognitive schemas, and external interference) and at different stages (i.e., the encoding, storage, re-activation/reconsolidation and retrieval stages) contributes to false memory. We conclude that false memory may arise from three mechanisms: (1) The lack of distinctive item-specific memory representations that makes it difficult to distinguish targets from related lures; (2) The engagement of cognitive schemas strengthens the memory representations of non-target information (including related lures) in the schemas; and (3) Re-activated memory representations of targets are distorted and modified by external interference. Future research may use updated approaches, e.g., multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), to further investigate the brain regions responsible for representing item-specific details, the way different types of schema (e.g., event-based script) promote the representations of related lures, and the way re-activation of schema during memory retrieval influences false memory.

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How is limb movement information stored in working memory?
XIE Tingting, WANG Lijuan, WANG Tianze
2021, 29 (1):  93-101.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00093
Abstract ( 151 )   HTML ( 2 )  
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Limb movements (movement to positions in space and body movement patterns) are one of the important ways individuals interact with their environment. Previous behavioral studies and neuroimaging studies explored the storage of information of movement to positions and body movement patterns information, respectively. They found that the storage of two kinds of limb movement information is independent of the phonological loop and the visual subsystem in the visuospatial sketchpad and needs the participation of the spatial subsystem in the visuospatial sketchpad; movement to positions in space and body movement patterns activate different movement-related cortexes that are independent of the phonological loop, the visual subsystem and the spatial subsystem in the visuospatial sketchpad. These results show that the existing multicomponent model of working memory cannot fully explain the storage of limb movement information. It is implied that there is a "limb movement system" in the working memory system that is specific to limb movement information, belongs to visuospatial sketchpad and coexists with the visual subsystem and spatial subsystem. The brain areas activated in the "limb movement system" vary with different kinds of limb movements.

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The relationship between rumination and attention disengagement and the underlying neural mechanism
LIU Qipeng, ZHAO Xiaoyun, WANG Cuiyan, XU Yiya, WANG Shuyan
2021, 29 (1):  102-111.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00102
Abstract ( 222 )   HTML ( 5 )  
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Rumination is a repetitively negative thinking which bring individual’s attention on negative and painful thoughts. Studies have shown that, rumination and impaired attentional disengagement are independent concepts, yet with closed connection. Impaired attentional disengagement can predict individual’s rumination, while impaired attentional disengagement related to rumination may be controlled by consciousness. Meanwhile, the role of rumination type and self-relevance between rumination and impaired attentional disengagement needs further exploration. In addition, training related to impaired attention disengagement significantly improves individuals’ rumination. And the excessive activation of amygdala, dysregulation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for self-related negative information, abnormal activation of right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), structural and functional abnormalities of the brain neural networks associated with attention may be the reasons for the interaction between rumination and impaired attention disengagement.

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Semantic association effect and its neural mechanism from the perspective of lexical co-occurrence frequency
LI Yutong, SUI Xue
2021, 29 (1):  112-122.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00112
Abstract ( 110 )   HTML ( 2 )  
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Word recognition and memory are influenced by the semantic associative relationship between words. The free association method has some limitations in establishing lexical semantic associations. Researchers have proposed a new method called co-occurrence association. This study analyzed the semantic association effect and its neural mechanism from the perspective of lexical co-occurrence frequency. The results showed that the number and intensity of semantic association influenced the processing of words. Words with a large number of semantic associations led to an increase in the amplitude of P200 and a decrease in the amplitude of N400. The brain regions involved in semantic association processing are mainly the superior frontal gyrus and the left medial temporal lobe. Future research should discuss the differences between free and co-occurrence association in establishing a semantic association. Based on co-occurrence association, the behavioral characteristics and neural mechanisms of semantic association are further explored. Research on the semantic association effect and neural mechanism from the perspective of co-occurrence association is recommended.

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Neural mechanisms underlying the experience of musical pleasure
ZHOU Can, ZHOU Linshu, JIANG Cunmei
2021, 29 (1):  123-130.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00123
Abstract ( 242 )   HTML ( 6 )  
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Musical pleasure is the most common psychological phenomenon in music activities. Here, recent work on the neural substrates of musical pleasure has been reviewed, and we conclude that the experience of musical pleasure is related to activities of the brain reward system and interactions between the nucleus accumbens and other cortical regions (e.g., the auditory cortex). Especially, the dopaminergic transmission plays a causal role in this experience. Furthermore, the induction of musical pleasure can be explained by reward prediction errors and the information-theoretic model from the perspective of expectation. Future studies should further examine the function of the nucleus accumbens and other cortical regions in the induction of musical pleasure and integrate different expectation theories.

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The neural basis of pride: A comparative perspective
SHEN Lei, JIANG Daitai, CHEN Ning, LIU Wei
2021, 29 (1):  131-139.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00131
Abstract ( 257 )   HTML ( 6 )  
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Pride is a positive emotional experience arising from evaluating one's own achievements. The neural basis researches have shown that the synergistic actions between regions of the brain that relate to the theory of mind, self-referencing, emotion, reward, and memory constitute the neural basis of pride. A comparison of neurological and physiological studies revealed similarities and differences in the neural basis of pride, basic emotions, and moral emotions. These findings provide the basis for understanding the complex neural mechanisms of pride. Future research should explore the neural mechanisms of different types of pride and the interaction between pride and cognitive processes.

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The external validity of delay discounting in the field of substance addiction
YANG Ling, LIU Wenxin, ZHANG Yang, ZHANG Jianxun, NIU Lulin
2021, 29 (1):  140-149.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00140
Abstract ( 143 )   HTML ( 5 )  
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Deficiency in inter-temporal decision making of substance addicts has been consistently confirmed by a lot of studies using monetary Delay Discounting Task. However, the recently emerging evidence from new variants of the monetary Delay Discounting Task (the addictive substance Delay Discounting Task, the Sexual Delay Discounting Task, and the Cross-Commodity Delay Discounting Task) highlighted some limitations in the single use of this paradigm in the delay discounting study of substance addiction, which need to be considered in terms of external validity. In the first place, delay discounting may be a domain-specific concept and the degree of delay discounting towards money may not equal to delay discounting in other aspects of addicts’ real life, as a drug, sex, and other natural rewards. Besides this, using Single-Commodity Delay Discounting Tasks may oversimplify the complicated process of inter-temporal decision making, while using paradigms like Cross-Commodity Delay Discounting Tasks may ecologically simulate dilemmas in addicts’ daily life. Last but not least, the monetary Delay Discounting Task is less sensitive to some clinical traits of addicts than its variant paradigms, it seems that specific tasks definitely have a better predictive effect on specific facets of inter-temporal decision making cared by different researchers from multiple perspectives. Future studies should further enrich and expand the research of Cross-Commodity Delay Discounting Task in the field of substance addiction to improve external validity, and further, explore the time factors that may affect the process of inter-temporal decision making.

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Immediate extinction deficit: Causes and neurobiological mechanisms
WANG Hongbo, GUAN Xuxu, LI Zimeng
2021, 29 (1):  150-159.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00150
Abstract ( 102 )   HTML ( 5 )  
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Extinction training that occurs shortly after fear conditioning fails to yield long-term extinction memory, a phenomenon that is known as the immediate extinction deficit (IED). The IED may be linked to levels of stress at the onset of extinction training and event segmentation. Under high levels of stress, the consolidation of extinction memory is impaired, resulting in the IED. Under moderate or low levels of stress, immediate extinction would be effective but susceptible to event segmentation. The neurobiological mechanisms of IED may involve stress-induced activation of the locus coeruleus norepinephrine system, which leads to hyperexcitability of the basolateral amygdala and the subsequent inhibition of activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (i.e., a region that plays a central role in fear extinction) through synaptic projections. Future studies should consider long-term outcomes of the IED and optimization of the clinical application of immediate extinction.

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Childhood poverty and cognitive aging
ZHAO Xin, ZHENG Qiaoping
2021, 29 (1):  160-166.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00160
Abstract ( 357 )   HTML ( 7 )  
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How the childhood poverty influences cognitive aging remains controversial. Some studies have shown that childhood poverty can accelerate individual cognitive aging, but other studies have found that childhood poverty can delay individual cognitive aging, which is related to the moderation of social mobility. For poor individuals in childhood, low stability or the downward mobility of socioeconomic status will make the negative effects of adversity accumulate continuously, thus accelerating the cognitive aging of individuals. However, poor childhood individuals with high psychological resilience may promote upward socioeconomic mobility, which will increase the individual's cognitive reserve and enhance specific cognitive abilities, thus delaying cognitive aging. Future research in this field should explore the relationship between childhood subjective poverty and cognitive aging and the influence of childhood poverty on the aging of different cognitive abilities. It should also focus on the survivor bias effect in studies on the relationship between childhood poverty and cognitive aging in later life.

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A multi-level integrated model of helping behavior in teams
JIN Yanghua, SHI Rongrong, XIE Jiangpei
2021, 29 (1):  167-177.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00167
Abstract ( 183 )   HTML ( 0 )  
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Helping behavior in teams consists of team member-level helping, interpersonal helping, and team helping. Research and discussions on helping behavior in teams have focused on its positive role among individuals within teams. The dyadic relationship between helpers and help recipients, the mechanism of team-level helping, and effects of varied levels of helping within teams have been absent from such research. A multi-level integrated theoretical model framework for helping behavior in teams is proposed. Furthermore, the emergence and overflow of team helping behavior and the internal psychological mechanism of negative effects could be beneficial for future.

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Psychological and neural mechanisms of trust formation: A perspective from computational modeling based on the decision of investor in the trust game
GAO Qinglin, ZHOU Yuan
2021, 29 (1):  178-189.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00178
Abstract ( 175 )   HTML ( 4 )  
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Interpersonal trust has permeated all aspects of social exchange. It is the foundation of promoting and maintaining social corporation. Using the trust game paradigm, previous studies have investigated the theoretical models, biological bases and influential factors of interpersonal trust. In recent years, computational modeling has been increasingly applied to the research field of interpersonal trust. It enables researchers to explore the psychological mechanisms underlying interpersonal trust. Combining computational modeling with neuroimaging technology can deepen our understanding of the brain mechanisms of trust behaviors. The current application of the computational modeling to the trust game primarily aimed to answer the question of “how trust is formed”. Future researchers could further combine advanced computational modeling techniques with non-invasive brain stimulation technologies to uncover the unique process of trust formation among patients with mental disorders. By doing so, we hope to gain a better understanding about the differences in the psychological and neural mechanisms of trust formation between healthy population and patients with mental disorders.

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