ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社
2021, Volume 29 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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Conceptual Framework
How does massive information affect intertemporal choice? A theoretical perspective based on attentional resources
LI Aimei, CHE Jingshang, LIU Nan, SUN Hailong, ZHOU Wei
2021, 29 (9):  1521-1533.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01521
Abstract ( 782 )   HTML ( 72 )  
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On the one hand, a large amount of information is helpful to the construction of the future and it can help individuals make far-sighted decisions. On the other hand, as the amount of information increases, the ambiguity and uncertainty of the future also increases, which may make individuals prefer smaller but sooner reward. So, how does a huge amount of information affect intertemporal decision making? It is an important scientific question that has not been well addressed.

Although there may be multiple cognitive abilities that play different roles in the process of massive information influencing intertemporal decisions, we believe that attention is the most important one. Mainly based on the following considerations: (1) The cost of processing information is attentional resources. (2) Selectivity of Attention determines what information is used for decision making. (3) The weight of attention given to different information may determine the decision outcome. Studies have shown that individuals' differences in intertemporal decision-making are mainly due to variance in attention. (4) There is important practical value in understanding how variance of attention affect intertemporal decision-making. Therefore, this study attempts to explore the question that how massive information influence intertemporal decision-making through attentional resources.

Firstly, we will explore how massive information can reduce prospection about the future. Because too much information makes information that are negative, concrete, and salient are more likely to capture a person's attention. This results in too little attentional resources left for future relevant events. Secondly, we will explore how the reduction of prospection lead to a preference for the short-term option in intertemporal decision-making. Specifically, when individuals' attention is drawn to immediate information, they simulate future events unclearly, and predict a lower likelihood of receiving long-term rewards. Therefore, people's intention to achieve long-term goals will be reduced and they are reluctant to plan for long-term goals. Changes in the four prospection patterns will lead to a reduced weighting of future options and therefore a preference for near-term options in intertemporal choice. Thirdly, long-term orientation moderates the effect of massive information on intertemporal decision-making. Individuals with long-term orientation pay more attention to the value related to long-term goals and reduce the attention bias to short-term related information. Thus, long-term orientation buffers the adverse effect of massive information on intertemporal decision-making. And last but not least, we attempt to facilitate individuals' far-sighted intertemporal decision-making in a massive information environment by setting salience and defaults that could directing subjects' attention to focus on long-term values.

Based on the theoretical perspective of attentional resources, this study proposes a theoretical framework that massive information affects intertemporal decision making by reducing prospection about the future. This is the first time to establish the relationship between massive information and intertemporal decision making directly. It reveals the cognitive process that massive information affects intertemporal decision making and helps us to deeply understand how people make intertemporal choice in the massive information environment. Consequently, our conclusions have important practical significance for both organizations and individuals to nudge farsighted decision by setting the environment to guide attention.

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The temporary knowledge workers’ autonomous motivation: Relationship-oriented human resource management construction and its mechanism
LIU Xiaolang, LIU Shanshi, ZHAO Yu, QIN Chuanyan, LU Wenzhu
2021, 29 (9):  1534-1550.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01534
Abstract ( 298 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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The rapidly changing technology environment makes “talent sharing” as a key way to acquire the required skilled and knowledge workers for organizations. Research on human resources management in sharing economy is an emerging field. Enterprises are facing great challenges for management on temporary knowledge workers. Due to the externality of identity and the weak relationship base with co-workers, the basic needs of competence and relatedness of temporary knowledge worker' are hindered, resulting in insufficient autonomous motivation, which in turn affect performance. Specifically, the challenges faced by temporary knowledge workers management are: First, temporary knowledge workers lack relationships basis with other team members due to the externality of identities, which in turn limits their professional influence, then their autonomous motivation are insufficient and in the results of low quality cooperation; Second, the relatedness needs of employees are difficult to satisfy due to the periphery identity (compared to the core employees of the organization), which hinders the formation of autonomous motivation, and then affects the workplace experience and cooperation performance. These two major challenges focus on how to deal with the insufficient autonomous motivation of temporary knowledge workers.

In the literatures, professional influence of contract experts (DiBenigno, 2020) and the establishment of workplace identity of non-core employees (Bolinger et al., 2018) both depend on the workplace relationship building. Therefore, this paper from the perspective of motivation management, explores human resource management practices and its role in the mechanisms for temporary knowledge workers combined with relational coordination theory and self-determination theory. For temporary knowledge workers who are embedded in team work, the research explores the relationship-oriented human resource management constructs based on the relational coordination theory. The self-determination theory is used to explore how the relationship-oriented HRP improve performance of temporary knowledge employees. We verify the path from the source (relation-oriented HRP; high quality relationship), the formulation (satisfaction of competence need and relatedness need), and results autonomous motivation (knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behaviors and job satisfaction). This research will: (1) exploring the composition of practices of relationship-oriented human resource management for temporary knowledge workers, by identifying the relationship-oriented human resource management practices and develop corresponding measurement tool; and (2) verifying the impact of relationship-oriented human resource management practices on performance. We will verify that the relationship-oriented human resource management practice influences the employees' autonomous motivation (satisfaction of competence needs and relatedness needs) by establishing high-quality role relationship, and then improve the cooperation attitude (willingness to share knowledge) and behaviors (knowledge sharing behavior).

Research on the content and utility of relationship-oriented HRP is helpful for a deeper understanding on the management of temporary knowledge worker and give implication for management practice in sharing economy. First of all, this research will promote the understanding of relationship-oriented human resource management under the background of “talent sharing” time. Secondly, we explored the effect of the relationship-oriented human resource management from the autonomous motivation perspective, which beyond the "resource path" and "exchange relationship" of relationship human resource management research in previous studies. Finally, the research brings the high-performance human resource management in a new context and give enlightenment for workplace diversity management.

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The formation of fear of failure and its influence on entrepreneurial behavior
HAO Xi-ling, LIU Yi-ran, DU Jing-jing, ZHENG Fang
2021, 29 (9):  1551-1560.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01551
Abstract ( 496 )   HTML ( 51 )  
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Entrepreneurship is an emotional journey that is companied with fear of failure. Fear of failure can be both an enemy and a friend. It has a dark side of discouraging entrepreneurs from carrying out entrepreneurial activities, and a bright side of motivating them to move forward. Despite mounting research on entrepreneurs' fear of failure, most studies focus on its inhibitory effect on entrepreneurial entry. Few studies pay attention to the facilitating role of fear of failure and how does it influence the key behaviors in the whole process of entrepreneurship. Based on the research gap, the study focuses on the following three research questions. (1) What induces entrepreneurs' fear of failure? (2) How does fear of failure affect entrepreneurial behavior? (3) What are the boundary conditions of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior? Following the core logic of Affective Events Theory, the study constructs the theoretical framework of 'entrepreneurial event * entrepreneur -- fear of failure -- entrepreneurial behavior', and tries to explore this complex concept together with the insights from practice.

This study aims to achieve four research goals. First, we explore the dimensions and contents of fear of failure in entrepreneurship context. From Cognitive Appraisal Theory, fear of failure is an emotional state results from the appraisal of the threats and possibility of failure in a specific situation. We thus capture this concept from two dimensions: sources of threats and ways of appraisal.

Second, we investigate the different antecedents of fear of failure and explore how does it evolve in the process of entrepreneurship. According to the assumption of Classical Stress Theory, emotion is shaped simultaneously by the objective event and individuals’ subjective interpretation. We thus focus on two important factors to address the antecedents, i.e. entrepreneurial events such as loss-relevant event and low-capability-relevant event, and characteristics of entrepreneurs, such as entrepreneurs’ passion and ways of regulatory focus. In terms of entrepreneurial events, we propose that loss-relevant event and low-capability-relevant event positively affect fear of failure. In terms of entrepreneurs’ characteristics, we propose obsessive passion and prevention focus induce fear of failure, while harmonious passion and promotion focus inhibit fear of failure.

Last but not least, we clarify how fear of failure relates to key entrepreneurial behavior. Existing studies had insufficient attention on the functional role of fear of failure. Endeavoring to start filling in this gap, this paper expounds three different effects of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior: incentive, inhibition and repression, looking at both the bright side and dark side of fear of failure. We further disentangle the boundary conditions of the relationship between fear of failure and entrepreneurial behaviors. In the micro level, when entrepreneurs get emotional support, the incentive effect of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior would be reinforced. When entrepreneurs get functional support, the inhibition and repression effect of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior would be mitigated. In the macro level, when the institutional environment is friendly and the cultural environment is more failure tolerant, the incentive effect of failure fear on entrepreneurial behavior will be increased and the inhibitory effect of failure fear on entrepreneurial behavior will be reduced.

This study contributes to an emerging strand of literature on “entrepreneurial fear of failure” by looking deeply into the dimensions of this concept. It also offers novel perspective to understand entrepreneurial behavior and entrepreneurial psychology by taking account into the functional role of fear of failure. The present research not only expands the application scope and applicable situation of fear of failure, but also enriches the Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Emotion, Affective Events Theory and Classical Stress Theory. It also tries to shed light on practice by accumulating knowledge on entrepreneurial education and offer suggestions for policy makers on managing entrepreneurial failure.

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The marketing strategy of online video based on danmaku-video: A bimodal analysis
LI Zhi, ZHU Chunhong
2021, 29 (9):  1561-1575.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01561
Abstract ( 279 )   HTML ( 22 )  
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As the rapid development of Internet, danmaku video emerges. This user-video interactive mode has new features, such as real-time dynamic emotion expression and multimodal emotion distribution. Meanwhile, the new features also bring challenges to practical research work, for instance, user portrait depiction is more difficult, video recommendation and advertising need to be more accurate. Existing research has not yet deeply analyzed new features of danmaku video, nor fully explored the academic research value for itself. Based on the theories of psychology, marketing, and some other interdisciplinary frontier knowledge, as well as combined with deep learning, natural language processing technology and system dynamics method, this study attempts to analyze and model danmaku video data from a data-driven perspective, for deeply mining the potential business value of video big data. The objective of the study is to create a high-quality online video intelligent marketing platform. A sentimental recognition approach is proposed to capture the internal relationship between sentimental features of danmaku text and visual sentimental features of video, so as to represent users’ sentiment. Considering the influence of users’ dynamic emotion on behavior, the dynamic user portrait with sentimental features is constructed to describe full picture of user characteristics, as well as to explore the access logic and behavioral preferences that are hidden behind behavior data. By positioning user roles, the sticky marketing mechanism of online video platform is established. Furthermore, focused on different advertisement types, like creative ads, interstitial ads and oral ads, this study explores the impact of video ads on the emotional and psychological changes of users, reveals the correlation between users’ sentiment changes and video ads insertion mode, and thus puts forward the “content customized” dynamic advertising strategy for danmaku video. It not only enriches the existing research, but also provides theoretical guidance and decision-making support for online video platforms to accurately locate and analyze user demands. In particularly, the contributions of the study include: (1) Previous research on marketing strategy of online video platform mainly focused on platform pricing, brand reputation and user satisfaction, ignoring external stimulus factors, such as dynamic factors of user behavior and emotional changes caused by danmaku video advertising. This paper combines big data of danmaku video to analyze users’ emotional responses to the external stimuli. Based on multimodal attention fusion, the hierarchical deep association co-attention model is designed to achieve users’ sentiment recognition. The paper reveals the correlation between video ads and users’ emotional changes, proposes the dynamic intercutting strategy of customized video ads, innovates the video advertising marketing model, and helps advertisers to enhance the brand marketing value; (2) The traditional method of constructing user portrait does not focus on the strong correlation among users’ sentiment, natural attribute and behavior. To this end, the study is driven by the sticky marketing of online video platform. Based on three dimensions of users’ sentiment, natural attribute and behavior, a dynamic user portrait model with four modules of basic data, behavior modeling, service application and evaluation feedback is established. Considering user demand and dynamic user portrait, the model of sticky marketing mechanism is constructed to recommend rich content options for users, to increase users’ stickiness and to prolong users’ usage time in online video platform. Thus, it forms a benign marketing mode of flow closed loop and completes the flow transformation between user value and content value in online video platform. Through this study, user needs will be met from a higher quality level, the accuracy of video advertising will be comprehensively improved, and the marketing value can be maximized in online video platform.

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Meta-Analysis
Empowering leadership and leadership effectiveness: A meta-analytic examination
ZHANG Jianping, LIN Shuqian, LIU Shanshi, ZHANG Ya, LI Huanrong
2021, 29 (9):  1576-1598.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01576
Abstract ( 250 )   HTML ( 23 )  
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With the ever-changing organizational environment, more and more business managers choose to empower their subordinates in exchange for more responsibilities and better performance, in order to help companies gain sustainable competitive advantages. For this reason, empowering leadership has received extensive attention from management practitioners and academic researchers, and has achieved fruitful research results. However, there are still have some disagreements about the effectiveness of empowering leadership in Chinese and foreign studies. Although Kim et al. (2018) and Lee et al. (2018) took the lead in conducting meta-analysis research on the impact of empowering leadership, their research objects were limited to English literature before 2016, and the samples based on the Chinese context were seriously small. As the second largest economy in the world and the “Cultural suzerain” of the Confucian Culture Cluster, China has a huge number of enterprises and labor force. Therefore, the meta-analysis should fully absorb research samples based on the Chinese context to more truly reflect the effectiveness of empowering leadership.

Based on 183 empirical studies (120 in English and 63 in Chinese), the authors use meta-analysis method to comprehensively examine the relationship between empowering leadership and leadership effectiveness, including individual work attitudes and individual performance (145 samples, 50509 employees), team performance (47 samples, 4856 teams) and organizational performance (9 samples, 1090 companies). The research results show that empowering leadership is significantly positively correlated with individual positive work attitudes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and subjective well-being), and significantly negatively correlated with individual negative work attitudes (turnover tendency, burnout & stress), and significantly positively correlated with individual (team) performance and its various dimensions, and is significantly negatively correlated with individual counterproductive behavior, but the positive correlation with organizational performance is not significant. Among them, the sample literatures of subjective well-being, team performance and team task performance may have publication bias, so that the meta-analysis results of empowering leadership with these variables are likely to be overestimated. In addition, the authors also examine the boundary effects of sample differences between East and West, measurement scales of empowering leadership, types of research data, and industry types of research sample on the relationship between empowering leadership and some performance indicators.

In terms of the differences between the Eastern and Western samples, the correlation between empowering leadership and individual (team) performance and individual (team) task performance are stronger in the East Asian samples and weaker in the European and American samples, but its relationship with individual (team) innovation performance and individual (team) contextual performance has no significant difference. However, the western sample of team innovation performance and the East Asian sample of team contextual performance are only one, so that the meta-analysis results of East-West comparison about team innovation performance and team contextual performance may be unstable and unreliable. In addition, the measurement scale of empowering leadership and types of research data are significantly moderated the relationship between empowering leadership and individual performance, but the industry types of research sample had no significant moderating effect on the relationship between empowering leadership and individual performance. The conclusion of this study provides a more comprehensive stage conclusion for the research on effectiveness of empowering leadership.

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Regular Articles
Encoding mechanism in directed forgetting
KOU Dongxiao, GU Wentao
2021, 29 (9):  1599-1606.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01599
Abstract ( 293 )   HTML ( 33 )  
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Forgetting is a cognitive process that individuals tend to avoid under many circumstances, but it does not always have negative effects. Erasing some outdated information (e.g., phone numbers a long time ago) or negative information (e.g., negative emotions) from memory will not only improve one’s efficiency of memorization, but also improve one’s mental health. In psychology, this kind of forgetting is named ‘intentional forgetting’ or ‘directed forgetting’. In a typical experimental paradigm to study directed forgetting, the participants are asked to remember or forget certain items following corresponding cues in the learning stage, and then to recall or recognize these items in the subsequent testing stage. Results of previous studies have consistently shown that the score of memorization on the to-be-forgotten items is significantly lower than on the to-be-remembered items. Regarding whether directed forgetting requires cognitive effort, however, there have been controversial views including two opposing theories, namely passive decay theory and active inhibition theory. In the view of passive decay theory, directed forgetting is not necessarily a mechanism of active inhibition of memory; instead, it is a passive process that does not require cognitive effort-the to-be-forgotten items just decay passively with time for lacking an effective rehearsal as there is a selective rehearsal of the to-be-remembered items. On the contrary, active inhibition theory maintains that directed forgetting is a process of active inhibition of memory induced by the forgetting cues and hence it requires cognitive effort-this theory has not only been supported by behavioral studies but also been evidenced by the ERPs in the frontal lobe as shown in neurocognitive studies. Although the two theories attribute directed forgetting to opposing mechanisms, they are not entirely conflicting as they have consensus on the encoding mechanism of the to-be-remembered items. In addition to these two mainstream theories, there is also a viewpoint that the encoding stage of directed forgetting may involve both active inhibition and passive decay which are two processes independent in time and space, but how the two processes interact and integrate is yet to be explored. Notably, some other studies reported that the performance of forgetting on the to-be-forgotten items was even worse than on the items without any cues(these words don't need to be remembered or forgotten), suggesting that the to-be-forgotten items have partly entered the memory, which seems to challenge both active inhibition and passive decay theories. Despite a wealth of experimental evidence, the controversy in the theory remains. To further clarify the cognitive mechanism of the encoding stage of directed forgetting, future study needs to take non-cognitive factors such as motivation and emotion into investigation, and to inspect various populations.

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Three number processing systems: Different features and parallel activation
LIU Wei, ZHENG Peng, GU Qi, WANG Chunhui, ZHAO Yajun
2021, 29 (9):  1607-1616.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01607
Abstract ( 167 )   HTML ( 12 )  
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Clarifying the relationship among mechanisms underlying nonsymbolic numerical cognition is one of the most critical questions in the numerical cognition field. From a novel perspective, the hypothesis that three-number processing systems exists provides a plausible explanation for this relationship. According to this hypothesis, distinct mechanisms are involved in the number processing of nonsymbolic stimuli within different number ranges. Small numbers (1~4) can be appraised rapidly and errorlessly based on the activation of subitizing system. Moderate numbers are proposed to be processed spontaneously with a constant error rate of about 20% due to the activity of numerosity system. Typically, Weber’s law of number perception is demonstrated in this number range. For large numbers, the stimulus number relationship is suggested to be inferred indirectly via density analysis, and number processing, which is fast and has an error rate proportional to the square root of the stimulus number, is mediated by the activity of density system.

A series of studies have revealed different behavioral features, as well as distinct Event-related potentials (ERP) features, among number tasks based on these three systems. For subitizing and density systems, better processing efficiency is demonstrated by a shorter reaction time and a lower error rate, whereas a higher dependence on attention resources is also a characteristic of these two mechanisms. Neither subitizing nor density mechanisms are correlated with math ability for children in school. For the numerosity mechanism, on the contrary, lower efficiency and independence of attention are shown, and the accuracy of numerosity comparisons is suggested to be significantly correlated with math scores for school children. ERP features are also suggested to be distinguishable for these three mechanisms. An early component related to attention is typically found under a subitizing mechanism rather than under numerosity or density mechanisms. P2p showed a distance effect, namely, higher P2p amplitude correlates with more errors in comparison tasks, as the ratio of the numbers to be compared approaches “1”, under both numerosity and density mechanisms. In general, the amplitude of P2p (about 200 ms after the onset of stimuli) is larger for the density mechanism compared with that for the numerosity mechanism, whereas the P2p component is more sensitive to the change in number within the numerosity range than within the density range.

There are two major challenges for the three-number processing hypotheses. First, as proposed by some researchers, even when the numerosity and density mechanisms are distinguished by different modes of Weber fractions, more direct evidence is still needed to demonstrate that the processing bases of these two mechanisms are numerosity and density, respectively. Second, the narrow range described in the original hypothesis may induce discontinuity between the three-number processing hypotheses and the classical hypothesis, for example, the approximate number system hypothesis or ANS hypothesis. To solve these problems, it is proposed that the cause for switching from numerosity to density should be reanalyzed and that the hypothesis that the numerosity mechanism is activated in a wider number range should be considered.

Some experimental evidence indicates parallel activation between subitizing and numerosity systems as well as between density and numerosity systems. The parallel activation hypothesis is also noteworthy. Multiple number processing systems could be activated simultaneously, and cognition relies on the system whose processing result is more precise to achieve the best processing results.

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Children’s gestures and the relationship with learning
WANG Hui, LI Guangzheng
2021, 29 (9):  1617-1627.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01617
Abstract ( 705 )   HTML ( 65 )  
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Gestures are hand movements which are generated during communication or cognitive process and don’t act on the object directly. It has the mixed characteristics of concreteness and abstractness. On a continuum from action to abstraction, gestures are more abstract than action but still less abstract than verbal language. Gestures have the power not only to reflect the individual’s cognitive level, but also to change the individual’s cognitive level, and as a result, thus facilitating the learning of new knowledge. The classification of gestures is mainly divided from the perspectives of the source of gestures, the content of gestures, the intention of gestures, the matching between gestures and speech. According to the source of gestures, gestures can be divided into producing gestures and observing gestures. In terms of the content of gestures, the classic classification is McNeill’s (1992) elaboration on gesture’s classification, which divides gestures into four types: iconic gestures, deictic gestures, beat gestures and metaphoric gestures. The previous researches on children’s gestures mainly employ two experimental paradigms: laboratory experimental method and scenario experimental method. Between them, most of the studies use the laboratory experimental method, while a small number of studies use scenario experimental method, which is mostly used for the study of infant’s gestures development. In the aspect of the development of gestures, deictic gestures, iconic gestures, beat gestures and metaphoric gestures spontaneously occur at different time points in the process of children’s growth. Deictic gestures appear earliest and usually appear at around 12 months old, while metaphoric gestures appear the latest and usually appear after the children enter primary school. The developmental trends of different types of gestures are also distinguish. It is important to note that the advantage effect of gestures may occur earlier than the children’s spontaneous occurrence of gestures. Therefore, encouraging young children to use gestures may promote the development of gestures’ spontaneous occurrence. What’s more, encouraging particular types of gestures can even introduce new ideas into children’s repertoire. Both producing gestures and observing gestures can facilitate children’s vocabulary learning, speech expression, mathematical problem-solving, spatial learning and memory. That is to say, the self-producing gestures group perform better on the task than the non-producing gestures group, and the observing other people’s gestures group perform better on the task than the non-observing gestures group. However, the influence of gestures on speech comprehension has not reached a consistent conclusion, mainly because speech comprehension is affected by many factors, it needs to be considered in consideration of factors such as the type of gestures, difficulty level of tasks, and children’s age. In the process of children’s cognitive development, adults should pay attention to the phenomenon of “gesture-speech mismatches” which can give teachers and parents insight into the children’s cutting-edge thoughts, and actively guide the “implicit thoughts” expressed by gestures, so as to facilitate positive results of children’s learning and acquisition of new knowledge. Future research should continue to explore the following aspects. Firstly, factors such as culture and socio-economic status can be considered to investigate whether the occurrence time and developmental trends of gestures could be affected by these factors. The second is to compare the advantage effect of producing gestures and observing gestures in various learning fields. The third is to pay attention to the use of gestures among special children. The last is to focus on the advantage effect of gestures in the classroom teaching and family education.

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A cognition-affective processing framework of psychopathy based on the TriPM model
CHENG Cheng, GUO Peiyang, YANG Li, WANG Mengya
2021, 29 (9):  1628-1646.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01628
Abstract ( 601 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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As an important predictor of violent crime, recidivism, and juvenile delinquency, psychopathy has received extensive attention in clinical psychology and justice research. Recent studies have conceptualized psychopathy as multidimensional constructs, proposed to further understand various phenotypic constructs of psychopathy through the interaction of distinct psychopathic dispositions. The Triarchic Model of Psychopathy (TriPM) conceptualizing psychopathy as three phenotypic structures (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition) with independent etiologic pathways, provides a framework for integrating the previous findings of the assessment, development trajectory, and neurobiological process of psychopathy.

At first, the TriPM boldness includes the characteristics of stress immunity, low fear, and insensitivity to punishment. It is an adaptive expression of fearlessness genotype, which corresponds to the neurobiological dimension of low threat sensitivity. Previous studies have shown that psychopathic individuals with high affective-interpersonal (Factor 1) or boldness features are expected to exhibit reduced aversive startle potentiation, difficulty in establishing threat-related conditioning, abnormal amygdala volume, and lower levels of amygdala activation in threat context. These findings reflect the core defensive system of psychopathy—based in the amygdala and affiliated structures—is insensitive to threat or punishment cues.

Second, individuals with high levels of trait disinhibition are characterized by lack of planning and foresight, poor regulation of emotion and impulse, insistence on immediate gratification, and lack of behavioral restraint. They showed reduced P3 and ERN amplitudes in go/no-go tasks and flanker tasks, fail to process and attend to contextual or environmental cues when engaged in a dominant response set (e.g., goal-directed behavior). Give the evidence that individuals with high disinhibition tend to exhibit poor performance in various cognitive tasks, it can be speculated that the impairment of executive function, in particular the impaired ability of attentional modulation, is closely associated with psychopathic disinhibition. Moreover, the motivational system (i.e., reward-seeking) may exacerbate the deficits of executive function in individuals with high disinhibition disposition.

Finally, as the maladaptive expression of the fearless genotype, meanness describes a constellation of various phenotypic attributes including arrogance, rebelliousness, lack of intimacy, excitement seeking, and empowerment through cruelty. On the one hand, impaired emotional processes will lead to an empathic deficit, which may contribute to the development of psychopathic meanness. Extensive research has shown that abnormalities in physiological structures such as the insula and anterior cingulate cortex in psychopathy are associated with reduced subjective emotional experience and poor ability to recognize other’s distress cues. On the other hand, insecure attachment associated with empathic deficit may be an important environmental factor that exacerbates individual meanness disposition.

By integrating the low threat sensitivity, impaired executive function, and empathic deficit of psychopathy with the boldness, disinhibition, and meanness of the TriPM model, the current study establishes a relatively complete cognition-affective processing framework of psychopathy, provides some useful information for theoretical research and clinical treatment about this personality disorder. However, this framework can not account for all the clinical conditions of psychopathy, as the factors that influence the phenotype of psychopathy are diverse. For example, previous research has demonstrated that gender, race, age, sample type, and psychopathic measures are all important moderators in the study of psychopathy. There are also controversies about the conceptualization of psychopathic variants or subtypes. In addition, the exclusivity of psychopathic phenotypes and their underlying neurobiological processes is still unclear.

Therefore, future research should consider the influence of these moderators on the explanation of the results. And greater attention should be paid to the underlying etiological pathways among different psychopathic constructs, it is also a verification of the discriminative validity among three dimensions of the TriPM model. Moreover, further exploration of the precursors of adult psychopathic traits will provide important information about the development of psychopathic deviant behavior, which does great help for the early treatment and intervention of this disorder.

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The consequences of calling
YANG Fu, LIU Qing
2021, 29 (9):  1647-1656.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01647
Abstract ( 402 )   HTML ( 39 )  
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As a frontier topic, calling has received extensive attention from scholars and practitioners in recent years. According to the flow of information through the different phases of a systematic review recommended by preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement, we used four steps including identification, screening, eligibility, and included, so as to search and filter the literature sample relevant to calling. First, using the keyword “calling”, we identified literature through Chinese databases of CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Database, and through English databases of Web of Science, ProQuest and EBSCO/host. Second, with respect to the literature identified from the initial search through database searching, we removed the duplicate literature between Chinese and English databases. Third, regarding the literature after duplicates removed, we assessed the obtained literature and excluded articles irrelevant to the fields of psychology and management for eligibility. Last, after reading the full text articles, we eliminated the literature unrelated to calling and deleted the literature irrelevant to its consequences, and fifty seven full text articles are included in quantitative synthesis as a sample of literature review on the theme of calling. We used VOSviewer to visual analyze the retained literature sample about the consequences of calling, and yielded two resultant views including network visualization and density visualization. Results of the network visualization reveal a four-cluster network. Cluster one is the “intra-occupational career processes and outcomes” and “career psychology and states” approach, and the crucial constructs are job performance, job satisfaction, and career commitment. Cluster two is the “career skills and capabilities” and “intra-occupational career processes and outcomes” approach, which contains the core constructs such as self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and career satisfaction. Cluster three is the “extra-occupational career processes and outcomes” approach, and the representative concepts are life meaning and life satisfaction. Cluster four is the “career psychology and states” and “intra-occupational career processes and outcomes” approach to calling, and the crucial constructs of this cluster are motivation and work engagement. In addition, the results of the density visualization demonstrate that the density of item "calling" is high compared with other items, indicating that it occupies a central position in the field of research related to its consequences. Integrating a calling model of career success and work as a calling model, with the results of literature visualization, we summarized three types of the calling consequences, including career psychology and states, career skills and capabilities, as well as career processes and outcomes. Our work also offers several limitations, which may help future researchers to extend this line of research. First, future research could concentrate on the potential negative impact of calling and focus on its double-edged sword effect, in order to provide a more comprehensive and dialectical explanation of the mechanism of calling, as well as reveal the potential costs of its negative effects. Second, it is interesting to analyze the cultural differences of calling and discuss its cross-cultural comparisons, so as to break the limitations of cultural backgrounds, and expand the study of calling in Chinese organizational contexts. Third, future studies should develop a team model of calling and extend the research level, and explore the team-level calling model according to the perspective of team pro-social motivation and social information processing theory. Fourth, the variations of calling and its dynamic model has not yet been sufficiently investigated, it is thus worth suggesting that future research should use the daily dairy study as an analytical tool to conduct in-depth analysis of perceived calling on a daily basis, in order to break the limitations of the static perspective of calling in previous studies and explore the daily changes brought about by daily perceived calling on its consequences.

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Do positive stereotypes have a negative impact?
WANG Zhen, GUAN Jian
2021, 29 (9):  1657-1668.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01657
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Positive stereotypes are defined as positive traits describing social groups. Previous research on stereotypes has mainly focused on negative stereotypes while overlooking positive stereotypes, especially their negative effects. Here, we will discuss positive and negative effects of positive stereotypes from racial, gender and aging stereotypes and conditions for their emergence and further future research.

The positive effects of positive stereotypes are mainly evinced through the stereotype boost. For example, activation of positive racial stereotypes, positive gender stereotypes and positive aging stereotypes has a positive effect on targets’ minds and behaviors. The negative effects of positive stereotypes on targets’ behaviors and cognition are caused by the choking under pressure effect and compensation effect of social cognition, respectively. For example, targets with positive racial stereotypes have negative attitudes and evaluations towards the stereotyper. Targets are prone to underperform in stereotyped domains in positive gender stereotypes situation. As for positive aging stereotypes, the mental and psychical health of targets can be adversely affected. Generally, positive stereotypes still induce negative effect similar to negative stereotypes in certain conditions, although having the positive side.

The effects (positive or negative) of positive stereotypes depend on the following four moderators: (1) Activation of positive stereotypes. Compared with the subtle activation of positive stereotypes, blatantly activating positive stereotypes easily cause the “choking under pressure” of targets and their sense of being depersonalized, finally resulting in a negative impact. (2) Accuracy of expressing positive stereotypes. Compared with accurately expressing positive stereotypes, the one who states positive stereotypes in an extreme way tends to generate the feeling of untruth, resulting in conflicted response of targets. (3) Individuals who state positive stereotypes. Compared with an ingroup member, positive stereotypes stated by an outgroup member easily cause the prejudice by targets, which then result in targets’ negative attitudes and evaluations towards the stereotyper. (4) Culture context of positive stereotypes. Compared with collectivistic culture, positive stereotypes in individualistic culture are prone to have a sense of being depersonalized and be thread.

Further research on positive stereotypes can be discussed from the following aspects: (1) Exploration of effects of positive stereotypes in collectivistic culture. For example, China is the representative country of collectivistic cultures which emphasize “fundamental connectedness of human beings to each other”, and positive stereotypes as positive beliefs about members of social groups based on the category membership. Therefore, the Chinese feel less depersonalized when the stereotyper describe them in ways related positive stereotypes. (2) Exploration of positive stereotypes from research fields and targets, such as fields of sexual orientation and academic discipline. Academic discipline stereotypes deem that science students are superior to arts students in science, and arts students are superior to science students in arts. As a result, male science students may underperform on the science test and female arts students may underperform on the arts test when priming their major and gender identities simultaneously, due to the feeling of untruth present when activating two positive stereotypes. In addition, researchers can explore positive stereotypes of children as there are no stereotype awareness of children under 7 ages. That is one of the prerequisites for positive stereotypes having influence on targets. (3) Exploration of interventions of negative effects reduced by positive stereotypes. By far there is no research on the interventions of negative effects of positive stereotypes. However, it is not hard to assume that would be difficult to reduce the negative effects of positive stereotypes because of the complimentary nature of positive stereotypes. (4) Exploration of positive effects of negative stereotypes. Based on our knowledge, only two studies have found that negative stereotypes have positive consequences. Once more empirical evidence to support the findings can be confirmed, this would play a significant role in the domain of stereotype research, especially for the interventions of negative effects of stereotypes.

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Food labeling effects in marketing
YANG Qiaoying, LIU Wumei, ZHANG Dong
2021, 29 (9):  1669-1683.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01669
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As a tool to convey food-related information to consumers, food labels can effectively solve the problem of information asymmetry in food consumption. With the popularization of food labels in practice, more and more scholars have begun to pay attention to the impact of different food labels on consumer behavior. However, most of the existing studies focus on a single food label type and its effects, lacking of comparison and discussion on the effects of different food labels and their inherent mechanisms and boundary conditions. Based on this, this paper reviews the research on food labels in the field of marketing, which focuses on how different types of food labels affect individuals' cognition, emotion and behavior. Meanwhile, this paper introduces the regulatory orientation theory to explain the different effects of different food labels, and on this basis, a more integrated food label effect framework is constructed in this paper.

Through combing the existing literature, the existing research on food labeling has roughly underwent three stages. The first stage began in the early 1980s. The demand for the nutritional value of food led to the attention and research on the nutrition label. The second stage started around 2000. Scholars mainly focus on labels that can convey information about food safety and quality. In the third stage, in the last decade, eco-environmental labels attracted more attention from consumers and scholars. Based on the different levels of information coverage, food labels can be divided into two types: product-level labels and ingredient-level labels. The product-level label refers to the label which is used to explain the overall characteristics and quality information of the food (including date label, health warning label, organic label, natural label, brand information, genetically modified organism label, eco label, and fair trade label). However, the ingredient-level label refers to the label that is used to display the specific nutritional information of the food (including nutrition facts panel, GDA label, low-fat label, health claim, traffic light label, health star rating, calorie menu label, shelf label).

Further analysis and comparison showed that different types of food labels differ in influencing results, mechanism of action, and boundaries. Specifically, the product-level labels can arouse consumers' perceptions of safety, risk, and morality, and can effectively increase consumers' trust in products. At the same time, after purchasing products with such labels, consumers will show more food waste and repeated purchases. Ingredient-level labels, on the other hand, mainly affects consumers' perceptions of product health, as well as subsequent food choices and food intake. The theory of regulatory orientation helps to explain the different effects of the two types of food labels. The product-level labels more often initiate consumer preventive orientation, while the ingredient-level labels activate consumer promotion orientation. In addition, the two types of food labeling effects are driven by the halo effect, information processing, conceptual metaphor, social identity, attribute inference and other mechanisms. Besides, these effects are moderated by social demographic factors, individual differences, and product characteristics.

On the one hand, combing and commenting on the effects of different food labels can provide reference for food manufacturers to carry out food marketing practices. On the other hand, through the construction of food label research framework in the field of marketing, it can point out the context and direction for marketing scholars to carry out empirical research on food label. Based on the overall framework of food labeling effects constructed in this paper, we propose that further research on the topic of food label can be carried out from following aspects in the future: (1) Expanding the behavioral results of ingredient-level labels; (2) Expanding the behavioral results of product-level labels; (3) Exploring the impact of different food label presentation forms on consumers; (4) Expanding the outer packaging labels and related research; and (5) Exploring the reversal mechanism of the negative effects of food labels.

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The effect of time and money concepts on consumers’ purchase decision and its psychological mechanism
HE Ruwan, LI Bin, ZHANG Shuying, CUI Xinyue, LEI Li
2021, 29 (9):  1684-1695.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01684
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Time and money are two important resources that affect consumer decision-making differently. Based on the dual-process theory, this paper discusses the effect of time and money concepts on consumers' purchase decisions and its psychological mechanism through reviewing previous literature.

Specifically, the effect of time and money would be differential in consumers’ the purchase decision process such as pre-purchase stage, purchasing stage, and post purchase stage. For pre-purchase decisions stage, the concept of time and money will affect consumers' product search and product evaluation strategy. When consumers search for products, currency of search (time or money) will moderate the effect of magnitude of search costs on people’s willingness to search. When the currency is money, lower (vs. higher) search costs will result in higher willingness to search. When the currency is time, this effect of search costs on willingness to search will be relatively weaker. As for consumer’s product evaluation, they will adopt an alternative-based evaluation strategy to evaluate product information after they are activated time concept and adopt an attribute-based evaluation strategy to evaluate product information after they are activated money concept. For purchasing decision stage, the impacts of priming time and money on product selection are different. Consumers will make different choices between virtue and vice products, hedonic and utilitarian products, experiential purchases and material purchases, and anthropomorphized products when they are activated time or money concepts. That is, if the time concept is activated, consumers tend to choose a virtue product, hedonic product, experiential purchases and prefer anthropomorphic products with no prominent functional purpose. If money is activated, consumers tend to choose vice products, utilitarian products, material purchases and prefer the anthropomorphic products with prominent functional purpose. For post-purchase decision stage, the concepts of time and money also have different effects on consumers' product attitude and the consistency of product preferences. Time priming leads to a more positive attitude toward products and a higher degree of consistency in preferences than money priming. However, for luxury goods, free goods and high materialists, money priming has a better effect than time priming.

From the perspective of the dual-process theory, the psychological mechanism due to different cognitive processing modes and mindsets that are primed by time and money. Concretely, because of the value of time are more ambiguous, difficult to calculate, difficult to explain, irreplaceable and intangible than money, consumers are more dependent on the experience system to process time and product information heuristically, holistically and affectively and fall into emotional maximization mindset. Because the value of money is more specific, easy to analyze, replaceable and tangible than time, consumers are more dependent on the rational system to process money and product information analytically and fall into value maximization mindset. As a result, due to the difference of time and money concepts, different processing methods and thinking patterns further lead to consumers make different purchase decisions in three aspects: pre-purchase decision (product search and product evaluation strategy), purchasing decision (product selection) and post-purchase decision (product attitude and the consistency of product preferences).

Future research should further explore the following issues: (1) Elaborating the different effects of priming time and money on purchase decisions. (2) Considering the impact from the tradeoff between time and money on purchase decisions. (3) Further exploring the different influences of priming time and money on the pre-purchase decision. (4) Exploring the neural mechanisms underlying the different effects of time and money on purchase decisions.

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Research Method
Mixture Model Method: A new method to handle aberrant responses in psychological and educational testing
LIU Yue, LIU Hongyun
2021, 29 (9):  1696-1710.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01696
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Aberrant responses have been repeatedly reported in psychological and educational measurement. If traditional measurement models or methods (e.g., item response theory, IRT) are applied to data sets contaminated by aberrant responses, parameter estimates may be biased. Therefore, it is necessary to identify aberrant responses and to reduce their detrimental effects.

In the literature, there are two traditional response time (RT)-based methods to detect aberrant responses: RT threshold method and RT residual method. The focus of these methods is to find a threshold of RT or RT residual. If a RT or RT residual is remarkably less than the threshold, this response should be regarded as an aberrant response with extremely short RT (e.g., speededness, rapid-guessing), and consequently does not provide information about the test taker’s latent trait. Afterwards, down-weighting strategy, which tries to limit the influence of aberrant responses on parameter estimation by reducing their weight in the sample, can be applied.

The mixture model method (MMM), is a new method proposed to handle data contaminated by aberrant responses. This method applies the accommodating strategy, which is to extend a model in order to account for the contaminations directly. MMM shows more advantages in terms of: (1) detecting aberrant responses and obtaining parameter estimates simultaneously, instead of two steps (detecting and down-weighting); (2) precisely recovering the severity of aberrant responding. There are two categories of MMM. The first category of methods assumes that the classification (i.e., whether the item is answered normally or aberrantly) can be predicted by RT. While the second category is a natural extension of van der Linden’s (2007) hierarchical model, which models responses and RTs jointly. In this method, the observed RT, as well as the correct response probability of each item-by-person encounter can be decomposed to RT (or probability) caused by normal response and that caused by aberrant response according to the most important difference between the two distinct behaviors. This method leads to more precisely estimated item and person parameters, as well as excellent classification of aberrant/normal behavior.

First, this article compares the basic logic of the two traditional RT-based methods and MMM. Aberrant responses are regarded as outliers in both RT threshold method and RT residual method. Therefore, they rely heavily on the severity of aberrance. If data set is contaminated by aberrant responses seriously, the observed RT (or RT residual) distribution will be different from the expected distribution, which in turn leads to low power and sometimes high false detection rate. On the other hand, MMM, which assumes that both observed RT and correct response probability follow a mixture distribution, treats aberrant and normal responses equally. In that way, it has little reliance on the severity of aberrance. In addition to that, MMM can apply to the situation when all the respondents actually respond regularly in theoretic. In that situation, all the responses are assumed to be classified into one category. Second, this article summarizes the disadvantages of the three methods. MMM has three primary limitations: (1) it usually relies heavily on strong assumptions, which means that it may not perform well if these assumptions are violated; (2) low proportion of aberrant response may lead to convergence problem and model identification problem; (3) it is quite complex and time-consuming. In all, practitioners should choose a proper method according to the characteristics of tests and categories of aberrant responses (e.g., rapid-guessing, item with preknowledge, cheating). In the end, this article suggests future researches may investigate the performance of MMM when its assumptions are violated or data consists of more types of aberrant response patterns. Fixing item parameter estimates, proposing some index to help choosing suitable methods, are encouraged to improve the efficiency of MMM.

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