ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
2021, Volume 29 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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·Research Method·
Identifying psychological indexes based on social media data: A machine learning method
SU Yue, LIU Mingming, ZHAO Nan, LIU Xiaoqian, ZHU Tingshao
2021, 29 (4):  571-585.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00571
Abstract ( 672 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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Modeling psychological indexes (i.e., psych-modeling) is an emerging method that uses machine learning algorithms to identify psychological indexes based on big data. This paper reviews the feasibility of psych-modeling methods based on social media data in the field of psychometrics. Frequently used data types and machine learning algorithms are introduced. Then, we summarize psych-modeling's application to various scenarios together with its strengths and weaknesses. Compared with traditional self-reporting methods, psych-modeling has some advantages, including better performance in retrospective studies, greater ecological validity, and greater time-efficiency. However, psych-modeling has several limitations. For example, researchers need to spend extra time and effort to learn this new method and bear the inevitable cost of hardware. In future studies, researchers could investigate further how user's behavior on social media relates to psychological indexes. We also expect psych-modeling will be used in future psychological studies. By combining psychometrics and machine learning, we believe psych-modeling could make great contributions to psychology research and practice in the future.

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Conceptual Framework
Developmental cognitive mechanism and neural basis of procrastination
FENG Tingyong, WANG Xueke, SU Ti
2021, 29 (4):  586-596.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00586
Abstract ( 884 )   HTML ( 30 )  
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Abstract:Procrastination, as Steel (2007) reviewed, is the phenomenon that individuals voluntarily delay to start or complete an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. The previous studies have indicated that chronic procrastination exists in different cultural backgrounds, with about 15%~20% of adults troubled. Academically, more than 40% of students admit to academic procrastination, and some may even suffer from chronic tendencies. Obviously, putting off the task irrationally not only does harm to individuals' study, work, emotion, but also endangers mental health. However, little is known about procrastination concerning the core mechanism of origin, the critical period of its formation, and its corresponding underlying neural substrates. To fill this gap, the current study investigates the core mechanism of procrastinated decision-making, especially the cognitive and neural mechanisms of long-term value evaluation, delay discounting and self-control, which rely on the Temporal Decision Model (TDM) we outlined. In addition, on the basis of child development, we further aim to clarify the formation of the critical period and ascertain the relevant factors and corresponding neural mechanisms from a behavior-environment-brain perspective. What's more, considering intervention for procrastination and malleability of the brain, we would also shed light on how to prevent or intervene the procrastination in these critical periods. Thus, the current project can reap enormous scientific contributions to clarify the neurocognitive mechanism and the rules of development of procrastination, and further obtain the practical significance for the prevention and intervention against procrastination.

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The effect of interpersonal authenticity on coworker interactions within work team
TANG Yipeng, REN Zhiyu, PU Xiaoping, HAN Wei
2021, 29 (4):  597-609.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00597
Abstract ( 338 )   HTML ( 28 )  
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Employees are often socialized to regulate and conceal their true selves in the workplace. Such inauthentic displays not only make the employees stressful, but also bring substantial loss to the companies. Recently, management scholars have paid an increasing attention to authenticity at work. Prior research has mainly taken a self-based perspective to examine personal authenticity. Nevertheless, authenticity has a relational orientation. To extend the current literature, therefore, this research adopted a socio-relational perspective to propose the concept of interpersonal authenticity. Moreover, grounding on the review of the current literature, a comprehensive model was developed to understand how interpersonal authenticity may influence coworker interactions and employee performance within work team. The research model helps us clarify how and when employees may benefit from their interpersonal authenticity, providing practical implications in building a work environment that encourages employees to be authentic.

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The dynamic effect and mechanism of commuting recovery activities on work passion
WU Weijiong, FENG Jingming, LIN Yixun, ZHAO Xia
2021, 29 (4):  610-624.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00610
Abstract ( 215 )   HTML ( 3 )  
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During the commuting time, the activities employees used to reduce their physical and mental stress and restore their physical and psychological resources to their normal state are called “commuting recovery activities”. Commuting recovery activities may have a dynamic, cross-domain impact on individuals' work passion. Through the diary research method and potential profile analysis, from short-term to long-term research on the dynamic impact, internal mechanism and boundary conditions of commuting recovery activities on work passion, three key issues were planned to be solved. First, how do commuting recovery activities affect employees' harmonious work passion and obsessive work passion and what are their internal mechanisms? Second, how do employees with different self-regulation patterns play a moderating effect based on the mechanism of commuting recovery activities on work passion? Third, how does the different profile of possible combination of commuting recovery activities affect work passion? The in-depth discussion of these issues not only makes up for the neglected but important research flaws in commuting research and recovery research, but also has strong practical significance for people to increase their work passion by carrying out and improving commuting recovery activities.

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·Regular Articles·
Interpreter advantages in switching ability
ZHAO Hong-ming, DONG Yan-ping
2021, 29 (4):  625-634.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00625
Abstract ( 192 )   HTML ( 10 )  
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Interpreting can be regarded as an intensive language switching activity. Compared with non-interpreting bilinguals, interpreters have shown advantages in both abilities of rule-based switch and task-based switch. However, it is still disputed whether interpreter advantages in task-based switch originate from local switch or global monitoring. Preliminary evidence shows that interpreting training first brings interpreters an advantage in local switch (indexed by switch cost in a univalent switching task), and then later it may bring interpreters an advantage in global monitoring (indexed by mixing cost in a bivalent switching task). The intensity of language switch and other particular language control features of interpreting are probably the factors affecting the presence and development of interpreters' advantages in switching. These results have implications for research on bilingual advantages and other related topics.

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The filtering efficiency in visual working memory
2021, 29 (4):  635-651.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00635
Abstract ( 205 )   HTML ( 3 )  
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The filtering efficiency is the mechanism to inhibit irrelevant items from entering visual working memory, studies have shown that it can be measured through working memory capacity or representation precision. The neural processes underlie filtering efficiency are the presence of distractors, initiation of filtering, and filtering success/unnecessary storage, which are orchestrated by the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia, the posterior parietal cortex. The filtering efficiency's changing directions are affected by age, mental/neurological disorders, emotions, cognitive characteristicset al.Future studies should further clarify the relationship between filtering efficiency and working memory capacity, identify the mental process of filtering efficiency, explore the brain mechanism of filtering efficiency among various groups, and improve the ecological validity of experimental paradigms.

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Positivity effects in working memory: The effects of emotional valence and task relevance
DING Linjie, LI Xu, YIN Shufei
2021, 29 (4):  652-664.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00652
Abstract ( 352 )   HTML ( 3 )  
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Age-related positivity effect refers to the phenomenon that older adults display a preference for positive rather than negative information in cognitive processing. Recent researches in working memory (WM) have found the effect of the interaction between emotional valance and task-relevance on positivity effect. Positivity effect has been observed in WM studies with emotional valence acting as a kind of task-relevant information. For instance, older people have enhanced performance in WM tasks with positive emotional stimuli, and decreased performance on negative emotional stimuli. In contrast, less attention has focused on the area of emotional valence as task-irrelevant information in WM and conflicting findings also have been reported. These remind that both emotional valence and task relevance are critical components in the processing of positivity effect in WM. Preliminary neuroimaging studies have revealed that the associations between age-related functional changes in the dorsal executive system and ventral affective system and the age effect in emotional process of WM. The socioemotional selectivity theory and the dual-competition model have been found to mainly account for age-related positivity effect in WM. But there is a lack of empirical evidence to support the dynamic integration theory. Overall, future studies are warranted in exploring the characteristics of emotional processing in different stages of WM in older adults, clarifying the potential influences of internal encoding processes of emotional materials on the mechanism of positivity effect, uncovering the important neural circuits related to the impact of task-relevance of emotion on positivity effect, as well as revealing the underlying mechanisms and potential benefits of emotional WM training on the improvement of cognitive functions and emotional experience in the elderly.

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Neural mechanisms of suppression-induced forgetting
GUAN Xuxu, WANG Hongbo
2021, 29 (4):  665-676.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00665
Abstract ( 266 )   HTML ( 8 )  
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When confronted with reminders of an unpleasant memory, people often try to prevent the unwanted memory from coming to mind. Suppression-induced forgetting (SIF) means that the attempt to prevent unwanted memories from entering awareness results in a decrease in the long-term accessibility of these memories. Previous studies indicated that the suppression of retrieval is accomplished by control mechanisms that inhibit unwanted memories. Suppressing retrieval increased engagement of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle frontal gyrus and concomitantly decreased engagement of the hippocampus. The degree of SIF is affected by the emotionality of information and an individual's emotional state and training. Future studies should investigate ways to improve the therapeutic effects of SIF on clinical pathological memory based on an in-depth understanding of the neural mechanisms of SIF.

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The computational and neural substrates underlying social learning
LI Suiqing, CHEN Xinling, ZHAI Yuzhu, ZHANG Yijie, ZHANG Zhixing, FENG Chunliang
2021, 29 (4):  677-696.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00677
Abstract ( 304 )   HTML ( 5 )  
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Social learning refers to the belief updates of others' personal attributes and intentions as well as social norms under certain circumstances during social interactions. Due to its critical role in human decisions and social interactions, the past years have witnessed a growing body of studies that examine computational and neural basis of social learning combining computational models and human brain imaging techniques. The current literature indicates that human social learning can be well captured by reinforcement learning model and Bayesian model, based on which four computational subcomponents have been consistently identified for social learning, including subjective expectation, prediction error, uncertainty, and information integration. These computational processes have frequently engaged the involvement of brain systems associated with reward and punishment processing (e.g. ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex), social cognition (e.g. dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction), and cognitive control (e.g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). However, it should be noted that there is no one-to-one mapping between computational processes and brain regions, suggesting that multivoxel pattern analysis and brain network analysis should be utilized in future studies to reveal how different computational processes are implemented in large-scale networks according to systems neuroscience. Moreover, future studies should try to increase the ecological validity by creating real social interactions between people and by leveraging novel neuroimaging approaches (e.g. hyperscanning techniques). Finally, more efforts are needed to unravel the neural and computational signatures of implicit social learning.

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Neural oscillation mechanism of creativity
YE Chaoqun, LIN Yuhong, LIU Chunlei
2021, 29 (4):  697-706.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00697
Abstract ( 196 )   HTML ( 3 )  
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Consensus on the origin of creativity has not been reached. Taking the advantage of high temporal resolution, electroencephalography can accurately reveal the neural oscillation mechanism in the process of creative production, which facilitates a deep understanding on the nature of creativity. In recent years, studies have revealed that alpha rhythm of neural oscillation increases along with increased creativity, which reflects an increased demand for internal processing and the top-down cognitive control during creativity generation. Meanwhile, cross-frequency coupling of neural oscillation reflects the dynamic exchange of information among multiple brain regions, such as frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, during creative production. Future research, based on integrated theoretical framework as well as multi-level and multi-approach research tools, needs to be conducted to introduce more ecological mathematical calculation methods, and to effectively predict the trend of individual creativity development through computational neuroscience modeling, which facilitates a more comprehensively and profoundly understanding of creativity.

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Wisdom minds with creative wings: Igniting creative dynamics focusing on its interest cultivation
ZHANG Yakun, CHEN Ning, CHEN Lung An, SHI Jiannong
2021, 29 (4):  707-722.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00707
Abstract ( 605 )   HTML ( 4 )  
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Creativity is an interwoven system, encompassing individuals, groups, society, culture, etc. The cultivation of creativity should also be systematic. In this paper, we integrated some creativity-relevant theories to generate practical advice on the challenges of supporting creativity within the classroom. Based on previous research on creativity, we put forth the “Butterfly Theory of Nurturing Creativity” to give a bird's eye view of nurturing creativity. In this theory, the core and premise of being creative are both to have creative impulses or creative dynamics (i.e., dynamic systems). We generalized the conditions supporting the dynamic systems into “two forewings” named capability and vitality (i.e., the supportive system). At the level of capability, creativity calls for general cognitive ability, multimethod enlightenment, attention to metacognition, and efficient knowledge information management. At the level of vitality, creative dynamics also relies on the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, the healthy development of personal traits, and reasonably supportive social interaction in an inclusively social and cultural environment. Besides, if an individual wants to fly freely in a creative life, he also needs “two hindwings” (conducting daily creative thinking and problem solving; forming creative habits and a creative personality) that should be constantly improved in daily life to adjust the balance (i.e., the regulating system). We argue that people who are creative show motivation to make novel and appropriate products in their domains of interest. Creativity cannot be taught unless teachers find ways to intrigue their students' creative impulses. Intrinsic motivation, like interest, is the greatest autonomous motivator. The key points of this paper are to find what the essence of interest or fun is and how to raise it. Combining theory with practice, this paper also shows a general way to activate fun or interest in the classroom.

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The mechanism and function of curiosity
HUANG Qi, CHEN Chunping, LUO Yuejia, WU Haiyan
2021, 29 (4):  723-736.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00723
Abstract ( 581 )   HTML ( 13 )  
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Curiosity has a long history of research and rich definitions and classifications as a common mental state and personality trait. The division and coordination of multiple brain regions enable individuals to form a cognitive process of generating and evaluating prediction error, triggering and mediating curiosity, and producing surprise and new prediction error, so as to reduce the prediction error and information gap between internal states and external environment, and eliminate uncertainty. Curiosity has a significant role in improving cognitive function and maintaining mental and physical health during development. Future research can be further considered from a cross-species, interdisciplinary, and multi-domain perspective to promote the deepening of research topics, the development of research methods, and the application of research results in curiosity.

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The attentional bias towards threat in posttraumatic stress disorder: Evidence from eye movement studies
BAI Yu, YANG Haibo
2021, 29 (4):  737-746.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00737
Abstract ( 273 )   HTML ( 6 )  
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Attentional bias towards threat is a common phenomenon in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) individuals. A number of studies have investigated the processing characteristics and internal mechanisms of attentional bias by using eye-movement technology. Results are inconsistent about components of attentional bias, but still provide evidences for different models, such as vigilance-avoidance model and attentional maintenance model. Based on eye-movement patterns from different dimensions, the future studies should pay attention to the model building and integration while recording the eye movements of PTSD individuals. Furthermore, researchers could combine multiple technologies to investigate the threat attention bias mechanism of PTSD individuals from a multimodal perspective.

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Time related research and future direction in organizational behavior field
DONG Xiaowei, QIN Xin, CHEN Chen, HUANG Mingpeng, DENG Huiru, ZHOU Hansen, SONG Bodi
2021, 29 (4):  747-760.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00747
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Most of the existing literature on organizational behavior has taken a static perspective and has focused on overall variable levels over a period of time, while the role of time, such as the dynamic characteristics of variables over a period of time, has been largely neglected. Taking the role of time into consideration, that is, focusing on the dynamic characteristics of variables and exploring their antecedents and outcomes from a dynamic perspective, is an important approach that provides a new perspective on existing research, which in turn expands traditional management theories. In line with this approach, in recent years, some scholars have begun to focus on the role of time and to explore the dynamic characteristics of variables. However, in general, this type of research is still quite rare and disorganized in different fields. Therefore, this review first divides the relevant research into four categories according to two dimensions: the first of the dimensions being the type of dynamic characteristics of variables (i.e., trend vs. variability) and the second being the role of dynamic characteristics of variables in the theoretical model (i.e., independent variable vs. dependent variable). Based on this categorization, this review systematically reviews the related studies and the theories applied in them. Finally, suggestions for future research are provided by taking the role of time into consideration (e.g., paying more attention to the variability of variables).

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