ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

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    Conceptual Framework
    Neural mechanism underlying the perception of crowd facial emotions
    HE Weiqi, LI Shuaixia, ZHAO Dongfang
    2021, 29 (5):  761-772.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00761
    Abstract ( 474 )   HTML ( 32 )  
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    How to reveal the cognitive neural correlates underlying emotional face processing has always been the popular topic for psychology and social neuroscience. Previous studies mainly used single facial expressions as the stimuli to induce and present emotions, but there is still a lack of attention and the investigation for the crowd emotion. Thus, the present project plans to reveal the neural correlates underlying the processing of crowd emotional faces through the combination of behavioral, ERP, fMRI, and TMS experiments, in which the emotional information (valence and intensity), face direction (frontal, lateral and inverse view), integrity (partial presentation, complete presentation) and spatial frequency (complete, high frequency, low frequency) will be investigated to reveal the temporal dynamics and brain activation patterns of the processing of crowd facial expressions. Finally, our work will be expected to beneficially serve the comprehensive understanding of the nature of the perception and recognition of crowd emotion, which is also of practical significance towards updating social interactions.

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    Crafting for the changing workplace: A dual pathway model of job crafting and leisure crafting based on self-identity theory
    LIN Lin
    2021, 29 (5):  773-786.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00773
    Abstract ( 294 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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    Job crafting is defined as the self-initiated behaviors that employees take to shape, mold, and change their jobs. The motivation for job crafting arises from three individual needs which are needs for control, positive image, and connection at work. Surprisingly, although there are nearly 150 studies focusing on job crafting, few of them have investigated the critical role of self-identity. Drawing from the self-identity theory, the current proposal aims to explore what challenges individuals will confront when the ways work gets done have changed fundamentally. A research agenda is articulated to reveal the mediating roles of self- enhancement and self-protection through which individuals adopt to effectively manage those challenges so as to survive or thrive in this changing workplace. Based on the job crafting model, a research framework is developed to demonstrate how job crafting and leisure crafting serve as the dual process in turning those challenges into surviving and thriving. Furthermore, it’s supposed that individual dispositions (e.g., regulatory focus, goal orientation, and work motivation) and the situational characteristic (e.g., situational strength and job autonomy) function as the boundary conditions for such effects. Furthermore, an intervention design is proposed to cross-validate whether self-identity-based training is effective in fostering self crafting and bringing in positive outcomes.

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    Regular Articles
    The influence of linguistic experience on statistical word segmentation
    YU Wenbo, WANG Lu, CHENG Xingyue, WANG Tianlin, ZHANG Jingjing, LIANG Dandan
    2021, 29 (5):  787-795.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00787
    Abstract ( 189 )   HTML ( 14 )  
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    Ample statistical learning (SL) studies have shown that individuals can perform word segmentation by tracking the likelihood of syllable co-occurrences in continuous speech. The classic “exposure-test” paradigm was widely used in this field, in which participants were first exposed to an artificial language and then tested in a forced choice task to assess learning effects. Recently, research has shown that participants' linguistic background, including their phonological and lexical experience, may result in experience-dependent SL. After a systematic review, we also discuss the direction for future SL studies. Specifically, we suggest that for studies involving Mandarin native speakers, researchers should carefully examine the separate and combined effects of various linguistic experience in order to better understand statistical word segmentation.

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    A new perspective on spatial interaction research: The effects of multiple social factors
    XIAO Chengli, SUI Yuqing, XIAO Suheng, ZHOU Renlai
    2021, 29 (5):  796-805.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00796
    Abstract ( 184 )   HTML ( 8 )  
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    Spatial interaction is critical for the survival and social interaction of human beings, including domains of language communication and perspective-taking. Traditionally, studies on strategy selection and efficacy of spatial interaction focus on the effects of spatial factors. However, recent studies investigated multiple social factors, including an individual's social cognitive traits, the partners' social attributes, and social cues in the spatial environments. Theoretical explanations have been proposed from different approaches. Future studies should endeavor research in the intersection of social and spatial cognition, employ interaction partners varying in social attributes, and aim at constructing a theoretical framework integrating spatial and social factors.

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    The effect of cell phone distraction on pedestrians’ information processing and behavior during road crossing
    WANG Yuhan, MA Guojie, ZHUANG Xiangling
    2021, 29 (5):  806-814.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00806
    Abstract ( 595 )   HTML ( 58 )  
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    The proportion of pedestrian casualties caused by using mobile phones during road crossing keeps increasing. The distraction from mobile phone affects both pedestrian’s information processing and behavior. Compared with non-distracted pedestrians, pedestrians using cellphones have narrower scope of attention (esp. in the peripheral visual field), making them more difficult to perceive visual and auditory cues in traffic scenes. They are also more likely to miss street crossing opportunities or make risky decisions. As for the motor control ability, using cellphones can also lead to altered gait patterns and declined action stability. Although these impairments are modulated by specific task types (e.g. conversing vs. browsing), converging evidence suggests that distractions from mobile phones generally increase risks for pedestrians during road crossing. Here, a conceptual model is proposed to incorporate the effects of mobile phone distraction on pedestrians’ information processing and behavior. This conceptual model also indicates that future research might be required to further evaluate how mobile phone distraction affects pedestrian’s auditory information perception and subprocesses within the gap acceptance decision-making to develop targeted interventions.

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    The impact of threats on creativity based on cognitive and emotional processes
    YIN Junting, WANG Guan, LUO Junlong
    2021, 29 (5):  815-826.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00815
    Abstract ( 315 )   HTML ( 22 )  
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    The impact of threats on creativity is one of the concerned and controversial topic in the field of psychology. Currently, there are three viewpoints: threats can hinder creativity generally; threats can promote creativity, under some certain conditions; there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between threats and creativity. However, the reasons for the divergence of these three viewpoints and the underlying mechanism are still unclear. This article review them from the perspectives of cognition and emotion and conclude that the divergence comes from differences in threat levels, creativity mechanisms and additional mediator/modulator variables. Therefore, future research can focus on systematically verifying the reasons for the divergence from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional intervention and exploring the cognitive neuroscience and genes mechanisms of the relationship between threat and creativity.

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    The relationship between the approximate number system and mathematical abilities: Evidence from developmental research
    LIANG Xiao, KANG Jingmei, WANG Lijuan
    2021, 29 (5):  827-837.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00827
    Abstract ( 103 )   HTML ( 2 )  
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    The approximate number system plays an important role in the development of individual mathematical abilities, and the relationship between the two factors is affected by age. Mainly, as age increases, the degree of correlation gradually weakens, and the mechanisms change from cardinal knowledge mediation to the joint effect of multiple intermediary variables. Future research should use a more rigorous experimental design and multiple research methods to investigate the development trend, causal direction, key turning points and the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between the approximate number system and different mathematical abilities of children of all ages to better understand the role of the approximate number system in the development of individual mathematical abilities.

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    The linguistic patterns of depressed patients
    HUANG Guanlan, ZHOU Xiaolu
    2021, 29 (5):  838-848.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00838
    Abstract ( 334 )   HTML ( 20 )  
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    Language use reveals information about psychological state and psychopathological traits. Individuals with depression are distinguishable from healthy people in their patterns of language use. Identifying these linguistic patterns would help predict and better diagnosis depression. Research using traditional psychology methods and studies using social media data have demonstrated that individuals with depression used more first person singular pronouns and negative emotion words, and less first person plural pronouns and positive emotion words. Social media based research also identified some other language indicators of depressed patients in their daily lives. Future studies should identify other linguistic markers specific to depression, and explore the theoretical links between language indicators and depressive symptomatology.

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    Empathy interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: Giving full play to strengths or making up for weaknesses?
    HUO Chao, LI Zuoshan, MENG Jing
    2021, 29 (5):  849-863.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00849
    Abstract ( 193 )   HTML ( 5 )  
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    The empathy deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may cause their social interaction barriers. Therefore, it’s very important to intervene the empathy ability of individuals with ASD. Some researchers proposed the empathy method of “making up for weaknesses”, indicating a direct intervention for the empathy deficits of individuals with ASD, including the theory of mind (TOM) intervention, the perspective-taking intervention, the intervention of facial expression cognition, and so on. However, others thought although individuals with ASD had empathy deficits, their systematic capability was excellent. Therefore, the empathy ability of individuals with ASD should be improved through their innate advantage of systematic capability, called the empathy method of “giving full play to strengths”, mainly including the Lego therapy, the serious games intervention and the island-based intervention based on systemizing theory. All of the methods mentioned above had their own advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the reflection and prospect on the problems existing in the field of empathy interventions for individuals with ASD were put forward.

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    School transition during adolescence: Turning crisis into opportunity
    CHAI Xiaoyun, LIN Danhua
    2021, 29 (5):  864-874.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00864
    Abstract ( 656 )   HTML ( 16 )  
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    From the perspective of life course, school transition is considered a key turning point in adolescent development and may alter individual developmental trajectories. Based on the deficit view, previous studies have suggested that most adolescents are at risk, beset by many challenges, and may experience a variety of negative developmental outcomes during that transition. Drawing on the positive youth development perspective, however, the transition period may be an important opportunity for adolescents to achieve adaptive and healthy development, and it is also the period in which developmental plasticity is most fully manifested. Along this line, if adolescents' internal and external assets are well integrated, they may have a positive school transition.

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    Effect of parental marital conflict on child development and its mechanism
    WANG Xuesi, LI Jingya, WANG Meifang
    2021, 29 (5):  875-884.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00875
    Abstract ( 373 )   HTML ( 16 )  
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    The negative effect of parental marital conflict on child development had been well documented in both theoretical and empirical studies. Specifically, parental marital conflict had a short- and long-term effect on children’s cognitive development and socioemotional development. Cognitive and emotional process and family process were described to clarify how parental marital conflict affected child development. In addition, child and environmental factors may moderate the association between parental marital conflict and child development. Future studies should examine the effects of parental marital conflict on child development in multiple aspects simultaneously and integrate the multi-mechanism of parental marital conflict on child development.

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    Wisdom in old age
    CHEN Haobin, WANG Fengyan
    2021, 29 (5):  885-893.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00885
    Abstract ( 778 )   HTML ( 12 )  
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    Wisdom is a general psychological quality that integrates morality and intelligence. It is learned from life experiences, serves as an important symbol of successful aging, and is the ideal endpoint of human development. Research has shown that self-reported measurements, such as the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS), self-assessed wisdom scale (SAWS), and the adult self-transcendence inventory (ASTI), and performance measures such as the Berlin wisdom paradigm (BWP) and wise reasoning (WR), perform well in the assessment of older adults’ wisdom. The development of wisdom in old age is influenced by internal factors such as openness, self-reflection, emotion regulation, and personality growth, as well as external factors such as education level, critical life experiences, and the social environment. In older adults, wisdom obtained from life experience improves well-being and life satisfaction, and reduces social alienation, loneliness, and depression. Future research should develop multi-faceted and integrated tools for the evaluation of older adults’ wisdom, to further investigate the predictive factors, effects, and internal mechanisms of wisdom in old age, and to explore the intervention and cultivating strategies of older adults’ wisdom in the community care services.

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    True self in east and west from Guanxi perspective
    LIANG Yanfang, XIE Tian
    2021, 29 (5):  894-905.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00894
    Abstract ( 602 )   HTML ( 73 )  
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    The true self or authenticity refers to the consistency between individual behaviors and internal states (e.g., values, beliefs, and needs), including trait authenticity and state authenticity. Cultural differences in the true self was proposed by comparing with relevant concepts (e.g., self-knowledge, self-concept clarity, self-congruence, integrity, and sincerity) and reviewing existent theories. Specifically, the true self is driven by autonomous motivation in the Western culture, while it is driven by Guanxi requirements in the Eastern culture. Future studies are recommended to further explore the true self from the “guanxilization”, integrating the traditional Confucian thoughts into theoretical construction and understanding toward new social phenomena (e.g., emerging Social Networking Sites, social changes), as well as advancing research methodologies (e.g., cross-cultural comparison, methods highlighting situation variations).

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    Job embeddedness: Consequences and theoretical explanation
    WU Lunwen, YANG Fu, TIAN Yixin, PEI Yurong
    2021, 29 (5):  906-920.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00906
    Abstract ( 156 )   HTML ( 3 )  
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    In recent years, as a novel perspective to explain employee voluntary turnover and retention, job embeddedness has received largely considerable attention from scholars and practitioners. According to content analysis, 176 papers from databases of domestic and foreign were reviewed, and then a comprehensive review about the consequences of job embeddedness was conducted based on theoretical perspectives, content analysis, and future directions. Accordingly, six theoretical explanations were summarized, including conservation of resources theory, social capital theory, planned behavior theory, work-role attachment theory, future time perspective, and contagion process model. Using content analysis, the research tendency of job embeddedness and its consequences with multi-perspective were displayed. Future research should make further efforts to propose a theoretic model on team job embeddedness, focus on the spillover effect under cross-culture comparison, highlight the double-edged sword effect, and emphasize the differentiation effects of its sub-dimensions.

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    How do individuals cope self-threats with consuming behaviors? Analysis based on the orientation-path integration model
    SUN Hongjie, LIU Feifei, FENG Wenting, CUI Bingqun
    2021, 29 (5):  921-935.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00921
    Abstract ( 226 )   HTML ( 2 )  
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    Consumption is an important avenue for consumers to cope with self-threats, which are ubiquitous in daily life. Providing that consumers’ self-concept is multi-dimensional and the process of coping with self-threats involves cognitive, affective, and emotional factors, current research sometimes confounds the sources of self-threats and coping behaviors, resulting in dispersed, incoherent, and even conflicting conclusions. Hence, in this study, an integrated orientation-path model is proposed based on the review on the existing consumer studies related to self-threats. In the model, we summarized various types of consumers’ coping strategies to self-threats, analyzed how different strategies compensate one another on multiple levels, and revealed the multiple associations between self-threats and consumption behaviors. The model can be applied to understand how individuals construct coping strategies based on the comprehensive value system of products and their perception system. This study contributes to current consumer research by providing extensive understandings on coping strategies to self-threats and the underlying mechanism, and at the same time, offering insights on how individuals react to threats (e.g., Coronavirus) they encountered in everyday life.

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    The formation mechanism, inducing factors and mitigation strategies of consumer satiation
    ZHANG Yi, GONG Zheng, DING Run, FAN Xiucheng
    2021, 29 (5):  936-950.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00936
    Abstract ( 253 )   HTML ( 9 )  
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    Satiation has been defined as the consumer’s subjective emotional experience in which their sense of utility, enjoyment or satisfaction drops over time from repeated or excessive consumption of the same product or service. The result is that a negative perception gradually takes over the initial positive outlook. Consumers then resort to brand switching, variety seeking and consumption cycle controlling to alleviate or prevent satiation. To some extent, satiation has become the prime an obstacle for enterprises or shops to secure customer loyalty. Our research has suggested that foreign studies have classified satiation based on the formation process, functional response, cognitive state and attribute perception of the consumer. They have dissected theoretical principles and mechanisms of hedonic adaptation, diminishing marginal utility, cognitive dissonance and optimal stimulation levels. The studies have explored the inducing factors to generate the physiological and psychological satiation and their impacts, as well as, the verification of moderating effects from external factors and individual factors on consumers’ satiation. Then they have discussed the mitigation strategies or behavioral responses which consumers coped with satiation. Ultimately, we have reviewed the research ideas, characteristics and limitations of the extant readings, and have put forward suggestions for future research.

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