There is a growing body of literature investigating the significant impacts of meteorological factors on human behavior, ranging from individual emotion swings to the prosperity and decline of social economics. Based on contextual marketing theory, this study proposes the concept of meteo-marketing, which is particularly applicable for the era of big data. By identifying the meteorological factors that affect consumer’s psychology and behavior in the dynamic weather environment, this study proposes the influential mechanisms of the “meteorological factors-consumer psychology-consumption behavior” logical chain for further verification. The research mainly focuses on the three issues, i.e., the meteorological factors in contextual marketing, the impact of meteorological factors on consumer’s psychology and behavior and the interaction effect of meteorological factors and marketing strategies. Relevant research findings are expected to further extend and enrich the existing contextual marketing theory, and serve as a useful supplement to the discipline of environmental consumer psychology.
The nature of cognitive and neurophysiological deficits of dyslexia have been under debate for a long time. Recently, a new hypothesis for developmental dyslexia -- noise exclusion deficit hypothesis, was proposed and was supported by a number of empirical research evidence from alphabetic languages. It has been found that dyslexia exhibited noise exclusion deficits not only in visual domain but also in auditory domain, indicating a multisensory or domain-general noise exclusion deficit. Alternatively, noise exclusion deficit of dyslexia was also argued to be mainly derived from attention deficit. Yet, some critical issues are still required to be addressed in the future, such as whether noise exclusion deficit presents in Chinese developmental dyslexia.
Brain plasticity refers to any functional change or structural reconfiguration of the brain triggered by environmental stimulation, cognitive demands and behavior experience. About a decade of research with bilingualism and language training shows that, whether we are the young or the old, long-term or short-term L2 learning can influence our brain’s functional pattern as well as its corresponding anatomical changes. Included are the increased volume of gray matter (GM) and density of white matter (WM) as well as the reorganization of neural networks. Long-time and continuous L2 learning will promote functional executive control and its neural underpinnings, which may protect neural reserve against aging. Based on brain plasticity, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies involved are compared and the mechanism of how both functional and structural changes occur in the brain as a function of L2 learning is discussed. Additionally, some suggestions are presented for future exploration.
As time passes, the dynamic characteristic of retrospective duration estimation is reflected in two aspects: short-term delay and long-term development. The former focuses on delay in seconds and minutes, attributing to context changes or a series of cognitive differences caused by target duration. The latter emphasizes individual development across ages (such as infancy, childhood, and adulthood) and considers differences in the speed of information processing as the main cause. Finally, from a comprehensive perspective, it is believed that the dynamics may be due to distinct mental representation of duration from seconds to minutes, which reflects the range-synthetic characteristic of time cognition. Future research should focus on extending temporal representation in the process of time lapse, further explore the role of timing strategies closely related to the target intervals in the retrospective duration estimation, and expand the dynamic characteristic of individual differences such as age and personality type.
Self-regulation is important for young children considering its profound relations with later mental health and social and cognitive competence. Although psychologists pay much attention to self-regulation for more than 100 years with the aim to investigate individual’s optimal development, the structure of self-regulation and its developmental mechanisms in early ages are still unclear. Following the chronological sequence of the literature, this review shows that the different research perspectives on self-regulation in young children have integrated twice: (1) From 2000 to 2010, researchers attempted to integrate several mainstream perspectives of self-regulation in last century. For example, Kochanska’s model (2006) focused on combining the viewpoints of temperamental and behavioral self-regulation; Calkins’s model (2002) focused on combining the viewpoints of physiological, attentional and emotional self-regulation; and Feldman (2009) constructed a multilevel interdisciplinary model of self-regulation from infancy to preschool ages. (2) In the latest decade, psychologists started to call for the fusion of two research directions and investigate young children’s self-regulation comprehensively. Those two directions are temperamental mechanism of self-regulation—effortful control and “higher-ordered” cognitive mechanism of self-regulation—executive function. After summarizing the previous representative models, the current study further presents a developmental hierarchical-integrative perspective of self-regulation in young children: a physiology-emotion-attention-based and temperament-behavior-cognition-modulated model.
The relationship between age and route knowledge acquisition is a significant issue in space and cognitive aging area. Old people demonstrate various performances of cognitive aging when confronting different path learning environments. The previous researches focused on the difference of age-related route knowledge acquisition ability, which mainly supported the theory of cognitive aging decline. However, recent studies have revealed that the aged might remain spatial cognitive compensation ability. Therefore, based on the review and reflection of the former literature, this review integrates the manifestation and mechanism of cognitive aging of route knowledge acquisition, in order to explore the underlying internal factors and external effective measures to alleviate spatial cognitive aging.
Retirement planning refers to one’s long-term effort in preparation for his/her post-retirement life. It has garnered increasing attention in countries that have entered into aging societies. Retirement planning will not only benefit retirees’ well-being, but will also help reduce the pressure confronted by the Social Security system. Based on the literature of retirement planning, this review provides a summary of studies in six major planning domains (i.e., financial, health and well-being-related, social activities/leisure-related, work-related, psychological, and housing), four main theoretical framework (i.e., role theory, planning- process theory, resource theory, and ecological systems theory), and representative measurement. Furthermore, this review discussed demographic factors, environment factors, and psychological factors as the antecedents of retirement planning and its consequences on bridge employment and retirement adjustment. According to the theoretical development and the current realities in China, it is recommended that future research should develop localized measurement tools, choose the appropriate theoretical framework, and systematically study retirement planning in various domains. Future research should also innovatively examine other antecedents of retirement planning. In addition, researchers could conduct intervention studies on retirement planning that correspond to China’s national realities.
The memory reconsolidation theory holds that consolidated memories can be reactivated into an unstable state again, which is called the reconsolidation process. During this period, the activated memories are susceptive to new information and therefore, the interruption of it can update or eliminate original memories. Behavioral or pharmacological interventions after memory reactivation are proved to be an effective way to extinguish fear memories and prevent relapse. The behavioral intervention, which is the so-called retrieval-extinction paradigm can eliminate conditioned fear through applying extinction training during the reconsolidation time window. The neural mechanisms of this effect, however, are still largely unknown. Based on reviewing present studies in animals and humans, we concluded the critical brain areas which were proved to be playing an important part in retrieval extinction process and their effect mechanisms, including hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Furthermore, we summarized the controversial points in theories and manipulations in order to provide insights for future explorations.
The development of cerebral cortical depends on the input of external sensory stimuli. Due to early auditory deprivation, congenital hearing-impaired people often have disorders in cortical function. The function of their primary auditory cortex is degraded, the functional connectivity between the primary and the secondary auditory cortex is weakened, and the secondary auditory cortex experience cross-modal reorganization. After hearing restoration, the cross-modal function reorganization remains in the secondary auditory cortex, and speech processing requires complementary higher cognitive resource. Future studies are needed on the long-term plasticity of cortex, the mechanism of speech processing under complex auditory environment, and the uniqueness of Chinese language processing after hearing reconstruction.
Insomnia has high incidence in modern society. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance (rs-fMRI) becomes one of the main imaging methods for the neuroimaging studies of insomnia, with its convenience and non-intrusive during data recording. Recent rs-fMRI studies showed that patients with insomnia had abnormalities in the prefrontal lobe, the temporal lobe, anterior cingulate gyrus and insula. Large-scale brain network is a brain structure that contains multiple brain regions and has relatively unique cognitive function. Based on the perspective of large-scale brain networks, patients with insomnia had abnormal activities and connectivities within the default network, the salience network, the cognitive control network and the negative affect network. More important, growing evidence presented an altered connectivities pattern among these four large-scale brain networks. Based on the symptoms, therapy, and the patterns of the large-scale brain networks, we proposed a "precision treatment" approach for insomnia. Future researches could integrate the big data with multimodal neuroimaging technology to verify the findings of rs-fMRI. Moreover, longitudinal and sequential design of insomnia can further benefit for the understanding of the neural mechanisms of insomnia.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders, which is mainly characterized by social dysfunction. ASD includes autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. ASD prediction researches mainly focus on the fields of neurophysiology, genetics and psychology. In the studies of psychology, the use of eye movement technology makes not only the measurement more accurate and subtle, the process more rigorous, but also the predictive relationship more reliable. Nowadays, the eye movement prediction studies focus on fixation duration, first fixation point and saccadic reaction time. These studies have shown that ASD can be predicted by certain aspects: the short time fixation duration of the face and eyes, the decrease of fixation duration of eyes with age growing, the short gaze following time, the long time fixation duration of the repetitive physical stimulation, the visual search advantage, and the difficulty of the attentional disengagement. The future studies should reinforce the longitudinal study of the predictive function of the eye movement, increasing the predictive distinction between ASD and other development disorders, controlling the effects of visual reception on the eye movement and establishing the comprehensive predictive system.
The resilience refers to the effective adaptation of individuals to stress circumstances. Of note, two different Chinese terms were used in this review to distinguish “resilience” in between humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and other brain areas involved in reward circuits mediate resilience. In addition, the adaptive brain mechanisms may differ in susceptible individuals compared to resilient ones. In combination with the ethical and experimental findings in humans, the results from animal research toward understanding the mechanism of resilience will provide important reference and neural basis to improve human resilience.
As a common strategy used to lose weight in female group, restrained eating becomes increasingly popular nowadays. However, previous studies have proved that it was not an effective method to lose or maintain weight. Although restricting their consumption consciously, in many circumstances, restrained eaters are even easier to overeat compared with unrestrained ones. Many studies have explored the causes of restrained eaters’ overeating and factors influencing it. This article reviewed researches about overeating among restrained eaters at home and abroad and summarized the two psychological mechanisms: attentional bias and inhibitory control deficit. What’s more, this article also generalized five influencing factors of overeating among restrained eaters, including preload, emotional arousal, ego depletion, cognitive resource distraction, personality and social factors. At last, we discussed inadequacies of previous studies and looked forward to the future researching directions.
Drug addicts have decision-making defects, and show the characteristics of impulsivity, risk-taking, dysfunctional reward processing, and lack of signals in bodies. Neuroimaging studies have shown that abuse of addictive drugs may cause damage to some brain areas such as DLPFC, ACC, OFC, VMPFC, Amygdala, Insula, etc, that may be incur addicts' decision-making defects. Cognitive training is beneficial to improve individuals' decision-making ability, for instance, goal management training and mindfulness meditation can improve working memory, promote self-awareness and goal oriented behavior; while, noninvasive brain stimulation can directly change the active state of addicts' brain regions that related to decision-making, hence, the cognitive function related to decision-making is improved. All in all, in the future cognitive training and noninvasive brain stimulation still have a broad space to expand in the aspect of addiction intervention.
According to terror management theory (TMT), individuals assuage the death anxiety that is rooted in their awareness of mortality mainly through three defense mechanisms: worldview, self-esteem and close relationship. Previous studies supported the view that the three defense mechanisms functioned equally when individuals managed death anxiety, which was described as fluid compensation. In this paper, we will discuss the basis and limitations of fluid compensation. Based on related opinions and research, a new viewpoint, priority hypothesis, is proposed to describe the relationship of death anxiety defense mechanisms. We believe that the three defense mechanisms do not function equally when individuals manage death anxiety. Instead, close relationship defense takes priority, then worldview defense, and lastly self-esteem. This priority may be rooted in the developmental sequence and derivative relation of the three defense mechanisms. Further directions will also be discussed.
Resilience, a cross-disciplinary construct, develops along the psychological and systematic trajectories. Along with those two independent trajectories, this paper summarizes the types, definitions and measurements of resilience, draws the outline of developing paths based on the Conservation of Resource Theory, and then interventions are presented. Future research could try to explore the inducing mechanism of positive events on resilience and the relationships among cross-level resilience, and carry out local empirical research based on two trajectories above.
Leader-follower fit, which plays a crucial role in facilitating a harmonious interaction in leader-follower dyads, has attracted considerable attention in the academic circle recently. Leader-follower fit refers to the compatibility between a leader and a follower that occurs when their characteristics are well matched. Generally, we could measure leader-follower fit using direct measurement approach and indirect measurement approach. To data, the existing research on leader-follower fit mainly focused on five perspectives, such as personality fit, cognition fit, psychological experience fit, work behavior fit, and relational factor fit. Psychological and interactive processes usually capture the mechanism through which leader-follower fit affects work outcomes. Moreover, personal and situational characteristics usually moderate the consequence of leader-follower fit. Future research could examine the consequence of leader-follower congruence in some indigenous psychological characteristics (e.g., traditionality and face consciousness) and explore some novel underlying or contingency mechanisms in the Chinese context.