Scientific research on the phenomena of the physical and mental injury caused by participation in cults focuses on three aspects: definition, measurement and mechanism. The purpose of this paper is to review the issues, analyses, and findings on these three topics, and to clarify the field’s controversies and achievements. Our literature survey indicates that a) the terminology regarding the harm caused by cults has changed from “brainwashing” to “psychological abuse”; b) the focus of observation has changed from individual behavior to group experiences; c) the measurement of harm has shifted from traditional psychometric tools to group psychological abuse scales; and d) for psychological mechanisms, an interactive pathology model based on cult milieu factors and personal vulnerability has been established, and epigenetics and interpersonal neurobiology are also primarily used in the study of physiological mechanisms. However, a new research paradigm on cult harm has not yet been formed.
Overqualification of newcomers’, so-called “unrecognized talents” or “a great talent gone to waste”, has became more and more common. Newcomers’ overqualification is prone to produce low satisfaction, counterproductive work and withdrawal behaviors. However, overqualification is a “double-edged sword”, with a question on perspective on how to use newcomers’ redundant qualification to serve the organization, has became the key issue to the management. Therefore, this study will explore the dynamic evolution and influence mechanism of newcomers’ overqualification under organizational socialization perspective. First of all, we will define the local overqualification through qualitative method, and develop the scale and test reliability according to the normative methods. Secondly, this study will construct the dynamic evolutionary model of overqualification, and we will use polynomial regression with response surface analysis to analyze how newcomers’ overqualification can change dynamically with the perception of leader’s and colleagues’ overqualification during organizational socialization. Thirdly, this study will establish the mechanism model, analyze the effects of newcomers’ overqualification on organizational citizenship behavior and active behavior in the interaction process of newcomers with their leaders and colleagues.
School bullying has become a public health issue in the past several decades which caused physical and psychological harm on bullies, victims as well as bystanders. Therefore, a series of anti-bullying programs were designed to reduce the bullying or the harmfulness of bullying, but the effectiveness of these programs was inconsistent. Forty-three pre-post randomized controlled trail studies were selected to examine the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs. The evidence quality was screened under the GRADE protocol. Results suggested a significant effect for anti-bullying programs which targets bullies (g = 0.57, p< 0.05), while those who target victims, victimization decreased (g = 0.40, p< 0.05), and overall metal health improved (g = 0.40, p< 0.01). The pooled effect size indicated that school-based anti-bullying programs have a small effect on bullying and victimization (g = 0.17, p< 0.001) and influenced by publication bias. Attitude changed moderately (g = 0.19, p< 0.001). The evidence of attitude change was moderate, other outcome variables have a very low or low evidence quality according to GRADE protocol. For the programs targeting universal students, programs which was less than one semester performed better, and the global intervention showed more effective than education. The effect size of anti-bullying programs targeting bullies or victims was moderate, but more research is needed. Though school-based anti-bullying programs which target universal students have a relatively small effect size, however, they are practical for real-world applications. The dose of intervention and the feature of programs have influence on the effect of anti-bullying programs.
The interaction between exogenous attention and multisensory integration is a complex and controversial topic, which has been debated for a long time. In order to explain the interaction mechanism between them, here we summarized two parts based on previous researches. First, exogenous attention can modulate multisensory integration in a bottom-up manner, including three hypotheses as spatial uncertainty, sensory sensitivity and the differences in unimodal signal strength. Second, multisensory integration can also modulate exogenous attention. On one hand, stimuli from multiple sense modalities can be automatically integrated in a bottom-up manner. The integrated multisensory events can capture attention more efficiently compared to unimodal events, even under quite complex circumstances. On the other hand, integrated multisensory events exert top-down control on attentional capture via multisensory signal templates that are stored in the brain.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is one of the most complex developmental disorders with a strong genetic impact. In recent years, researchers have increasingly linked effects of central cholinergic system dysfunction to autism-related cognitive and behavioral abnormalities at the molecular pathological level. Results from autopsy studies, clinical cases and animal experiments revealed that aberrant muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have a strong relationship with autism. In behavioral studies using mouse models, the variations of CHRM3 gene, which encodes the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype III receptor, can cause autistic phenotypes such as cognitive impairment and stereotypic behavior. Accordingly, in-depth functional understanding of CHRM3 gene may have important implications to further explain the characteristics and mechanisms of autistic behavior and may potentially provide new ideas and methods for the development of educational programs for autistic children.
To own an object means that the owner has many informative rights to the object, such as touching, using, changing, tracking and transferring. Research revealed that 3-year-old children understand that an owner have exclusive rights to touch and use his/her own objects but others do not, but their understandings of owners’ rights to change, track and transfer property are relatively poorer. This indicates that the development of children’s representation of ownership rights may not be synchronous. Three-year- olds understand that an owner has right to entitle others to use his/her property, and actively maintain this. When someone prevents the enforcement of this right, they will protest. This demonstrates that young children are aware of second-order ownership rights. In future studies, the mechanisms underlying the dissociation among representations of different ownership rights should be explored. Besides, it is worthwhile investigating how children represent ownership rights of public property (such as buses). Different cultures may put different weight on specific ownership right, which calls for more cross-cultural studies.
Future self-continuity refers to the degree of perceived connectedness between one’s present self and future self. A large body of research has demonstrated the significant role of future self-continuity in influencing temporal decision making, saving and consuming behaviors, academic achievements, social behaviors and exercise behavior. Future research may examine the neural basis of future self-continuity, explore its factors, and expand its potential applications.
Self-expansion theory mentions that people expand themselves by including the others’ resources, perspectives and identities into themselves to improve self-efficacy. As a new important focus of motivation researches, numerous studies have been conducted in the context of close relationships. Furthermore, most of researches about self-expansion are mainly based on self-expansion motivation and inclusion of others in the self, such as mate selection, relationship satisfaction, infidelity, relational dissolution and maintenance, according to the questionnaire and experiment. In the future, we should explore different types of close relationships and the mechanism of self-expansion in and out of close relationships, as well as the mutual effect between couples’ self-expansion.
Character strengths are central concepts in positive psychology, referring to a set of positive individual traits reflected by thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Additionally, they are good resources for promoting physical health, mental health and well-being, as well as relieving depression and stress. The researches using experimental intervention have suggested that character strengths have a positive influence on both individual level (i.e., positive experiences, physical and mental health, employee creativity and calling) and organizational level (i.e., job performance, leadership, organizational effectiveness, etc.). However, there are many literatures on the relationship between character strengths and positive constructs, but few on the relationship between character strengths, and their relationship with talents. Similarly, the research methods are relatively lack of richness. So future efforts should be paid to such issues.
The search for meaning in life refers to the motivation and effort in understanding one’s own life, finding or establishing life purpose, or accomplishing life significance. Unfortunately, consensus is still lacking on its cause. Deficit correcting hypothesis holds that, meaning search primarily originates from its absence or deficit, and once meaning restored, the search would decay. As opposed, Life affirming hypothesis maintains that, meaning search stems from the motivation to consolidate and strengthen life experience, and therefore the effort is always incessant. This article discusses the evidence, deficiencies and applicable situations of above two perspectives, and on this base proposes an "antecedent factor model" to account for the determinants of search for meaning in life. This model hypothesizes meaning need as the premise of meaning search, and believe the motive to search for meaning would arise as long as the current "meaning level" is perceived to be lower or higher than the original state. Future research should develop multidimensional meaning search scales, strengthen experimental research, and explore factors that influence meaning search judgment.
Previous research on workplace incivility has primarily focused on those occurring face-to-face, and demonstrated that it has spillover and crossover effects between the work domain and family domain. However, recent studies suggested that workplace cyber incivility, the virtual form of workplace incivility, has its own unique features and has worse consequences. Based on the review of existing literature on workplace cyber incivility, we introduce the concept of social presence, and summarize potential spillover and anti-spillover mechanisms between the reality and the virtual world for workplace incivility. In addition, we propose several research propositions, and encourage future research to uses these propositions to examine different forms of workplace cyber incivility.
The third-party perspective of organizational justice refers to the perceived organizational justice that was formed by the responsibility attribution process after a third party witnessing or hearing the organizational mistreatments, which provides a new perspective to understand organizational justice. After analyzing and making comments on existing research outcomes, this article summarizes the cause and effects, mechanism of action, as well as the progress of theological researches. And it provides a general framework and directions for the future research. Based on the social interaction theory and approach- avoidance theory, the study can be furthered in the future, so as to discuss the mechanism for the formation of the third-party perspective of organizational justice and to develop intercultural comparative study.
Individuals’ decision-making and preferences often change as the way how information is expressed, which is obviously contrary to the invariance principle of expected utility theory, and it is called "framing effect". Framing effect is a kind of universal decision-making phenomenon that reflects human irrationality, but it also provides an important opportunity for practitioners to consider how to make good use of the characteristics of human decision-making to intervene their decision-making behavior. This paper focused on the application researches of framing effect in health behavior, marketing, and environmental protection. It also discussed the presentation skills of quantitative information, such as the selection of quantitative units, the presentation of risk information and the design of graphical attributes, and aimed at exploring how to manipulate the information presentation to influence human decision-making behavior.
System justification theory proposes that people have the natural tendency to see the current sociopolitical systems as fair and legitimate, which is called system justification. But what are the roots of system justification? Researchers have provided explanations from three distinct perspectives. The cognitive dissonance perspective posits that the tendency to justify the current system exists because people want to alleviate those bad feelings which often arise when they feel the system cannot meet their need. The second perspective is compensatory control, which argues that system justification is derived from a sense of lacking control. By a system-legitimating process one can find a sense of order to cope with the threat of personal control. The third perspective is social cognitive process, which proposes that people express a salient and inherent attributional tendency when explaining socioeconomic disparities. It is the attributional style that serves as a main source of system justification. The future study should include explanatory variables from different theoretical perspectives in one study, draw on the findings of similar fields to explore other possible mechanisms, seek sources of system justification peculiar to Chinese culture, and explore the application issues based on distinguishing positive and negative system justification.
With the criticism by behavioral economics on the rational man assumption and the accumulation of empirical evidences in the field of judgement and decision making, public policy researchers increasingly paying closer attention to the exploration of psychological and behavioral mechanism of human being in real life. These studies tend to use psychological measures, such as satisfaction and trust indicators that embody public interests and subjective feelings, to assess the performance of public policy. Besides, relevant psychological effects and technologies are employed to improve quality and efficiency of public administration and foster social fairness and justice. It is recommended that studies of public policy in China should learn the experience of two matured organizations, which are Behavioral Insights Team in UK and Social and Behavioral Sciences Team in US, clarify the connotations of this discipline, establish think tanks, and conduct researches based on China’s actual conditions.
Recently, previously established embodiment effects (e.g. power pose effects) have partly failed to replicate, calling into question whether embodiment is in fact a true effect. Based on an analysis of the concepts of “conceptualization”, “alternative” and “construction” of embodiment cognition, this present article proposed a way out of the dilemma by specifying four characteristics of this effect: embodied generating level, strength degree, constructing direction and experimental task. Clarifying these four aspects could be helpful to accurately understand the embodiment effect and address the replication crisis. Future studies could conduct by differentiating and synthesizing the embodied generating levels, distinguishing different conditions for embodied strength, discovering the mediating or moderating role of embodied variables, and creating new specific experimental paradigms.
The person-centered methods, including latent class analysis (LCA) and latent profile analysis (LPA), are increasingly popular in recent years. Researchers often add covariate variables (i.e., predictor and distal variables) into LCA and LPA models. This kind of models are also called regression mixture models. In this paper, we introduce several new methods. Those methods include (1) the LTB method proposed by Lanza, Tan and Bray (2013) to model categorical outcome variables; and (2) the BCH method proposed by Bolck, Croon and Hagenaars (2004) to deal with continuous distal variables. Using an empirical example, we demonstrate the process of analyses in Mplus. The future directions of those new methods were also discussed.