Visual search is a ubiquitous task and a critical skill for men and animals. Existing studies on visual search mainly focus on attentional guidance and the top-down cognitive influences on search effectiveness. The bottom-up influence on visual search is, rather crudely, simplified as objects’ image saliency. However, when searching in real world, where the observer and/or objects move, both static image information (the saliency of which has been considered in existing search models) and dynamic optic flow information are available. Optic flow is generated by the relative motions between an observer and world objects. So by detecting flow patterns, observers get to know the kinematic properties of events (which is defined as objects in motion) and hence perceive the physical properties of constituent objects, such as the mass, size and frictional coefficient etc.. These physical properties distinguish objects and allow the observer to search for a particular one. We integrate dynamical perceptual information (i.e. optic flow) into existing search models and in two studies, we test how combined dynamical and static perceptional information affect visual search for three-dimensional objects and for moving people, when the observer is stationary or moving. Furthermore, we attempt to develop a training protocol that improves search effectiveness in real world. Findings from this project will bring forth new theories for understanding visual search in real world, and have direct applications on personnel training and intelligent search designs.
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is considered as a measurement of sensory gating, reflecting the function of early auditory sensory information selection. Although the main neural correlates of PPI lie in the brainstem, previous researches have revealed that PPI could be top-down modulated by attention. However, different forms of attention, such as feature-based attention and spatial attention, have not been investigated together in the specific modulation of PPI. Moreover, the neural mechanism of attentional modulation of PPI in humans has been focused on the cortical level, whereas the subcortical mechanism has remained unclear. Based on the dual-pathway model for auditory processing, the present project aims to use behavioral testing, electroencephalogram recording and functional magnetic resonnance imaging, to investigate the various levels of neural representations of attentional modulation of PPI in the auditory system. The paper will 1) establish the behavioral paradigm of feature-based attentional and spatially attentional modulation of PPI, and examine the temporal dynamic processing differences between feature-based attentional modulation and spatially attentional modulation of PPI; 2) use brainstem frequency following responses (FFRs) to examine the subcortical neural mechanism of two types of attentional modulation of PPI, focusing on the envelope and fine structure processing differences of prepulse stimuli in the two types of attentional PPI modulation; 3) investigate the key brain areas and neural networks involved in feature-based attentional modulation and spatially attentional modulation of PPI.
In recent times, various tragedies caused by unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB) — that is, unethical behavior with the intention to potentially benefit the organization, but harm the interests of external stakeholders instead—are proliferating. The existing studies on UPB predominately focus on identifying its antecedents and pro-organizational aspects, ignoring its potential negative outcomes. Given this theoretical gap, the negative effects of UPB from a multilevel perspective are explored. First, the effect of UPB on exhaustion is explored; the moderating effect of moral identity and mediating effect of guilt are examined as well. Second, a firm-level UPB definition is created, and its negative effect on the firm’s long-term performance as well as the mediating role of corporation reputation are examined. Finally, the influence of the firm’s and employees’ UPB on customers' voluntary performance is analyzed, as well as the mediating effect of customer identification on the company and the moderating role of the perceived corporation agent role of employees. The results of this project will not only enrich the theoretical study related to UPB, but also help to discourage the practice or escalation of this kind of unethical behavior.
For many consumers, product face is an important factor that determines their evaluation and purchase decision. Up till now, many researchers believe that negative product facial expressions (e.g anger) are negatively related to customer attitude and behavior. But in reality, negative faces are also related to coolness and competence. Up till now, researches regarding the paradoxical effect of anthropomorphized product expression remain scarce, and the existing work on social communication cannot be used to explain personified products without adaptation and testing. Based on this research gap, 3 questions remain unsolved: how does product facial expression influence consumer behavior; what is the psychological mechanism behind such effect; will product type and consumer characteristics influence consumer perception of product facial expression? The answers to these questions can be used to expand the theory of personification in marketing, and to guide product managers in choosing the most appropriate design for their products.
Speech processing is the core function of language cognition, and the brain mechanism of speech processing are an important topic in linguistics and cognitive psychology. However, it is unclear that how the newborn's brain perceives speech. The purpose of this review is to investigate the brain mechanism of speech perception in newborns. We found that human beings have a relatively well-developed speech processing mechanism during the neonatal period. While the left frontal lobe (especially the inferior frontal gyrus) plays an important role in detecting speech structure, the bilateral temporal lobes are responsible for detecting speech deviation. In addition, the left hemisphere has an advantage in mother tongue perception.
More and more researchers are concerned about the threat and impact of temperature and temperature variability on mental health. Temperature and temperature variability has direct or indirect effects on mental health indicators such as emotional well-being, emotional disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, organic mental disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, substance abuse and dependence, suicidal ideation and behavior. Most researchers explain the mechanism of temperature's influence on mental health from physiological aspects such as meteorological emotional effect, brown adipose tissue theory, and serotonin theory. Children and adolescents, the elderly, workers are vulnerable to temperature and high temperature pressure. There are also gender, age, and socioeconomic status differences in the effects of temperature change on mental health. In future studies, it is necessary to further distinguish different temperature indexes, pay more attention to the relationship between low temperature and mental health, control the interference of other factors on the relationship between temperature and mental health, and reveal the differences between individuals and groups.
Depending on how closely it connects with environmental health, behavioral response as a result of air pollution can be classified into two types: direct behavior and social behavior (or spillover behavior). In this regard, this paper reviewed previous literature on how air pollution influences these two types of behaviors. Further, we summarized several mechanisms underlying these two behaviors. Specifically, the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Action Process Approach were proposed to model direct behavior; anxiety and ego depletion were proposed to predict social behavior. More comprehensive investigations into the behavioral mechanisms will benefit future designing of more effective measures against air pollution. Future researchers may consider adopting a longitudinal paradigm and conduct in-depth analyses of behavioral mechanisms, in order to improve individuals’ behaviors in response to risks.
The process of individual’s risk perception on medical information can be understood from the perspective of information processing. The influencing factors of risk perception on medical information are categorized into three aspects, namely, the source of medical information, the content and form of medical information, and the subject of information processing. The cognitive mechanism of individual’s risk perception on medical information was discussed based on experience-analysis processing theory and verbatim-gist processing theory. This study recommends increased attention to balance the general and specific studies of risk perception on medical information. Moreover, the standard and specific measurements should be combined, and research in the context of China’s medical system should be expanded. Furthermore, a series of theoretical and empirical research should be developed, and preventive measures and evidence-based supporting policies must be established.
Shame is a self-conscious emotion that plays an important role in individual behaviour and personal psychological development. Shame is also a significant moral emotion in traditional Chinese culture and is a major way that Chinese people examine themselves and their own behaviours. There are two opposing views on the value of shame. In other words, is shame a constructive or a destructive emotion? Theoretical models include: (1) Shame as a destructive emotion includes models of social self-threat and shame adjustment and so on. (2) Shame as a constructive emotion includes those models of evolutionary psychology as well as the functionalist perspective. Both views on shame are supported by a large number of empirical studies. In order to examine the concept of shame systematically and comprehensively, this paper proposes a dual-pathway structural model with the goal of improving our understanding of the mechanisms underlying shame-induced behaviours. In our study, we highlight the critical role of social self-threat and the need to repair social self-image. Future studies are needed to develop more objective and comprehensive measures of shame and take account of the cultural factors that influence social self-healing. More objective analyses are needed to help people understand the interpretation of shame as experienced by those from different cultural backgrounds. Thus, more targeted interventions can be proposed and facilitate the constructive transformation of the potentially destructive consequences of individual shame.
Exercise behavior theory based on rational decision making is regarded as the dominant framework for understanding physical activity, which provides valuable information on cognitive constructs linked to physical activity. Behavioral interventions based on social ecological model have attracted much attention due to its better performance. However, recent studies show that exercise benefits cognition and current sport environment do not promote the formation of individual exercise habit, so it is necessary to explore a new theoretical framework to clarify the formation mechanism of individual exercise habit. The latest framework for explaining physical activity is dual system model, which promises to provide a broader perspective on motivation by considering the non-conscious and hedonic determinants of physical activity. Multiple representative dual system models associated with physical activity, on the one hand, from simple spontaneous path to context cues and exercise habit, and then to complex concept model highlighting the role of automatic affective evaluations, the construct of system 1 is elaborated. Combined with system 2, which is concerned by exercise behavior theory, they offer a basis on how to build dual system model for physical activity. On the other hand, through analysis of the principle for competitive, cooperative and hierarchical control of dual systems, proposals are provided for the control of dual system model. Canonical reinforcement learning framework explains the principle for construct and control of dual system model: in terms of construct of the model, model-free and model-based reinforcement learning represent system 1 and system 2, respectively. In terms of control of the model, Dyna cooperative architecture and hierarchical reinforcement learning provide a reasonable explanation for physical activity is more likely to be a complex combination of actions which is hierarchically operated with a cooperative form than competitive control. Finally, the exerciser-sport environment interaction in reinforcement learning is put forward to explore exercise behavior from a brand-new perspective.
Illegitimate tasks, as a new type of workplace stressor, has gradually become a frontier topic in organization and management research. Illegitimate tasks refer to the tasks that are inconsistent with employees' expected work scope and that are unnecessarily performed or not belong to someone, and they include unreasonable tasks and unnecessary tasks. This article introduces the concept and measurement of illegitimate tasks, and systemically reviews their influences on employees' emotion, cognition, motivation, work attitude, work behavior, physical and mental health, and work-family relationship. The review also indicates that the nature and magnitude of such influences depend on the characteristics of employees and situations where employees work. Stress-as-offense-to-self theory, justice theory, job demands-resources model, job characteristics model, affective event theory, and self-determination theory are primary explaining accounts for the influences. Future research is encouraged to expand the concept and level of illegitimate tasks, unpack and integrate the mechanisms underlining their influences, investigate their contingent effects, and identify antecedents of illegitimate tasks. Developing the research of illegitimate tasks in cultural context and cultural orientation is also needed.
In the past, the scholars focused more on the outcomes and mechanism of job crafting. But the research about its intrinsic motivation and new constructs is still scarce. In recent years, the researches on the job crafting based on the regulatory focus theory have sprung up. Based on the existing researches, the relationship among trait-level regulatory focus, situational regulatory focus and the specific dimensions of job crafting will be discussed firstly. Then how the leader’s regulatory focus affects the employee’s job crafting behavior will be revealed in detail. Finally, new constructs about job crafting and the basis of its theoretical integration came into existence (Such as promotion/prevention-focused job crafting, approach/ avoidance job crafting). Future research should focus on the interaction between regulatory focus and job crafting, the antecedent and mechanism of promotion/prevention-focused job crafting, the relationship between regulatory focus and role-based job crafting and so on.
Self-control refers to the ability of individuals to consciously control their impulsive behaviors in order to achieve long-term interests. The dual-systems model proposes that the self-control system includes an impulsive system and a reflective system, which can be used to analyze the internal structure of criminals’ low self-control. The impulsive system in criminals is thought to predominantly use behavioral schemata related to crime, while their reflective system is too weak to suppress impulsive behaviors. With the impulsive system activated and the reflective system insufficiently activated, the criminals will likely fail to self-control and subsequently commit crime. To investigate the mechanism of the self-control system in criminals, more integration of the existing studies on the basis of the dual-systems model is needed. It is also necessary to explore the application of the dual-systems model in intervention and psychological correction for prisoners. In addition, juveniles who are susceptible to crime require special attention.
The measurement of shared unit property constructs is ubiquitous in multilevel organizational research, of which the most frequently used approach is to aggregate the ratings of several unit members to the unit level. The data aggregation adequacy testing (DAAT) is a statistical hurdle to ensure the validity and representativeness of aggregated scores. Well-established indicators of DAAT include within-group agreement index, rWG, and within-group reliability indices, ICC(1) and ICC(2); nonetheless, some key issues are still open to debate, for instance, the superiority of the two families of indicators, the null distribution and data screening decision of rWG, and appropriate cut-off values. To address the above questions, the current research firstly conducted a content analysis of 166 studies adopting DAAT procedure published on 9 Chinese journals in the field of management and psychology since 2014, coupled with 85 studies from Journal of Applied Psychology as a comparison. Common problems in routine practice of DAAT were identified and related suggestions were proposed as follows: (1) Disentangling and differentiating the role of DAAT indicators; specifically, rWG should be used as the exclusive indicator of aggregation adequacy, whereas ICC(1) and ICC(2) should be deemed as indices of validity and reliability, respectively. (2) Making prudent and justifiable decisions in choosing null distributions when calculating rWG index, and excluding groups with low within-group agreement. (3) Applying more reasonable and moderately flexible cut-off values instead of arbitrary and rough practical standards. Last but not the least, researchers should always prioritize theoretical considerations in the process of framework building and DAAT, and unload disproportionate dependence on statistical results.