ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

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    Conceptual Framework
    The cognitive mechanism of Chinese character position processing and word boundary effect
    GU Junjuan, SHI Jinfu
    2021, 29 (2):  191-201.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00191
    Abstract ( 105 )   PDF (403KB) ( 385 )  
    In visual word recognition of Chinese words, it is necessary to process the relative order of Chinese characters in words, i.e., processing of the position of Chinese characters. The processing of the position of Chinese characters is important for word recognition and reading comprehension. If the position of Chinese characters is not processed, it would be difficult to distinguish and recognize transposable words. Transposable words are composed of the same Chinese characters, but the order of Chinese characters is different between words. Previous studies have found that the processing of the position of Chinese characters is more flexible within a word. In addition, the word boundary information affects the processing of the position of Chinese characters, that is, the processing of the position of Chinese characters has a word boundary effect. Which factors affect the word boundary effect of Chinese character position processing? In this project, the following three issues will be investigated systematically by using the eye tracking technique: (1) How do the initial/final characters of a word modulate the processing of Chinese character position? (2) How do the word boundaries of embedded words and ambiguous words affect Chinese character position processing? (3) How do word plausibility and predictability affect the word boundary effect of Chinese character position processing? The present project will provide new insights into the construction of character position processing model in Chinese, and promote modification of the model of Chinese word segmentation and word recognition. Furthermore, the findings will provide us scientific guidance for efficient vocabulary teaching and learning.
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    Relationship between resilience and well-being in elders: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    YE Jing, ZHANG Xufan
    2021, 29 (2):  202-217.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00202
    Abstract ( 192 )   PDF (618KB) ( 546 )  
    A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the effect of elders’ resilience and well-being. There were 42 documents and 75 independent samples (N = 12856) in total meet the criteria of meta-analysis. Results revealed significant positive relationships between elders’ resilience and their well-being, satisfaction with life, positive emotions, revealed a significant negative relationship between elders’ resilience and negative emotion. In addition, the relationships between resilience, well-being, satisfaction with life, positive emotions and negative emotion was moderated by resilience measurements, cultural background, literature quality, year of the literature, sample size and age of sample. The results provided not only more accurate estimates for predicting elders’ well-being by resilience, but also insights for future research of successful aging.
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    Research Reports
    The influence of tonal structure on tension experience in sonata pieces by Mozart and Beethoven
    CHE Xinchun, SUN Lijun, MA Xiaolong, YANG Yufang
    2021, 29 (2):  218-224.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00218
    Abstract ( 81 )   PDF (798KB) ( 207 )  
    Musical tension is the basis of musical listening. In this study, we calculated tension values based on Tonal Tension Model and conducted behavioral experiment to explore the influence of tonal structure on tension experience in sonata compositions by Mozart and Beethoven. The sonata form is composed of three parts: exposition, development and recapitulation. Our results revealed that both of the tension values and tension experience in development were higher than that in exposition and recapitulation, and higher in recapitulation than in exposition. This might be due to the differences of the distance and frequency on tonal modulations in the three parts. Our study investigated the influence of tonal structure on musical tension in large-scale music works, providing evidence and new perspectives for the study of musicology.
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    Research Method
    Preventing and detecting insufficient effort survey responding
    ZHONG Xiaoyu, LI Mingyao, LI Lingyan
    2021, 29 (2):  225-237.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00225
    Abstract ( 272 )   PDF (695KB) ( 1014 )  
    Surveys are commonly used in psychological and educational research. Insufficient effort response (IER), as one source of invalid response data, is somewhat prevalent due to the low-stakes nature of the majority of surveys, which often leads to statistically significantly biased estimates and invalid inferences. The current literature shows: (a) IER is commonly believed to be caused by some inner causes, (e.g., low motivation), showing as specific patterns, (e.g., random responding); (b) The most common methods to prevent IER include reducing task difficulty and increasing respondents’ motivation; (c) Current detection methods fall into three main categories, which are proactive approaches/ direct screening methods, response patterns analysis, and response time analysis. Recommendations for future research directions and practitioners are (a) deepening the investigation on IER mechanism and improving the preventing methods, (b) examining the effectiveness of IER identification methods’ applicability of cross-situation and developing new approaches, and (c) delving into the identification and treatment of partial IER.
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    Regular Articles
    The influence of gazer and observer factors on gaze perception
    HUO Penghui, FENG Chengzhi, CHEN Tingji
    2021, 29 (2):  238-251.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00238
    Abstract ( 436 )   PDF (1994KB) ( 793 )  
    Gaze perception includes both recognizing the location where another person gazes at in the surrounding environment and the judgment of whether another person is looking at ourselves or not. Previous studies have shown that gaze perception is influenced by many factors from the perspectives of the gazer and observer. In this paper, we reviewed and discussed these factors. Specifically, from the perspective of the gazer, we discussed the influence of the gazers’ facial emotions and attractiveness and the physical characteristics of the eyes and the head on gaze perception. From the perspective of the observer, we discussed the influence of individuals’ psychological disorders, current states, and the observer’s gender, race and culture differences on gaze perception. Future research could develop innovative experimental designs and tasks to explore more about the role of stimulus type, the clinical application, and cross-cultural differences in the field of gaze perception.
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    Processing of emotional information in working memory in major depressive disorder
    HUANG Zhijing, LI Xu
    2021, 29 (2):  252-267.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00252
    Abstract ( 122 )   PDF (463KB) ( 332 )  
    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with mood-congruent processing biases towards negative information in working memory (WM), which is considered as the core manifest of cognitive vulnerability of MDD. This review provides an overview of the biased processing of emotional information of depression in three executive components of WM. Patients with MDD have difficulties in disengaging from negative information and present insufficient processing of positive materials during WM updating. MDD patients also exhibit impairments in suppressing irrelevant negative information and cannot effectively prevent the irrelevant negative information entering WM during inhibition. The findings of emotion-specific dysfunctions of shifting function in depression are inconsistent. Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies suggest that the biased processing in WM is associated with altered brain activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Future research is needed to investigate the different contribution of each type of biased processing to depressive symptoms, the unity of the biased processing in three WM components, the impact of biased processing in different stages of MDD, and the induction effects of different emotional materials on biased processing. Moreover, unraveling the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the process of emotional materials in WM could help resolve the inconsistency of previous findings and benefit future development of cognitive bias modification interventions for biased processing in WM of depression.
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    Moral emotion: A new perspective on the relationship between morality and creativity
    WANG Botao, WEI Ping
    2021, 29 (2):  268-275.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00268
    Abstract ( 422 )   PDF (451KB) ( 682 )  
    Studies on the relationship between morality and creativity have often distinguished individuals’ moral level by using the standards of moral cognition or moral behavior, and explored the influence of moral on creativity. However, the results are inconsistent and even contradictory. The possible reason may come from the moral measurement errors, because people often tend to modify their own moral cognition or behavior performance according to social expectations. So, the present study intends to use moral emotion as a new perspective to explore the relationship between moral and creativity. Results indicated that creativity can be affected by moral emotions in many potential pathways (cognition, motivation, self-perception and psychological capital, etc.). Future researches should deeply understand the characters and mechanism of moral emotion; explore the relationships among moral, moral emotion and creativity; and look for new models of moral and creative cultivation.
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    Children’s gender stereotype threat and its interventions
    WANG Zhen
    2021, 29 (2):  276-285.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00276
    Abstract ( 126 )   PDF (432KB) ( 346 )  
    Stereotype threat is a situational predicament where stigmatized group members perform poorly when they are judged or treated negatively based on the stereotype, exploring gender stereotype threat in children provides the potential to intervene in stereotype threat from its source. The emergence (conditions and time), manipulation, effects (effects on boys or girls), and interventions (multiple identities, Chauvinism, positive role models and counter-stereotypes) of children’s gender stereotype threat are discussed. Finally, further research would focus on exploring in the local culture, targeted objectives, interventions and research fields.
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    Sibling conflict and its resolution: The effects of family subsystem
    QU Guoliang, CAO Xiaojun
    2021, 29 (2):  286-295.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00286
    Abstract ( 77 )   PDF (492KB) ( 184 )  
    Sibling conflict is defined as the incompatibility expressed by two or more people with the same biological parents in their behaviors, goals or activities in a intact family, which is usually characterized by quarrels and hostility, as well as aggression against each other. The styles of parents’ intervention in sibling conflict usually can be divided into child-centered strategies, control strategies, and nonintervention strategies. Family system theory points out that the family is viewed as a hierarchically organized system, comprised of reciprocally influential subsystems (e.g. marital relationships, parent-child relationships, sibling relationships). Based on this theory, the effects of family subsystem on sibling conflict is discussed, and meanwhile, in order to analyze the mechanism of sibling conflict from the multi-path perspective, the theoretical hypothesis model of sibling conflict is constructed. Future studies need to distinguish or integrate between sibling conflict and its related concepts, focus on what factors will affect the styles parents intervene in sibling conflict, and treat sibling conflict from the perspective of development.
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    A New perspective of substance addiction based on network theory
    LIU Yu, HU Chuan-Peng, FAN Fumin, SUN Pei, XU Jie, CAI Yuqing, LIU Xueli
    2021, 29 (2):  296-310.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00296
    Abstract ( 81 )   PDF (831KB) ( 324 )  
    Substance addiction involves multiple factors, ranging from biological, social, to cultural. But the dominant biological reductionism-based explanations focus primarily on the brain, potentially hindering a more comprehensive and inclusive research of substance addiction and its recovery. We propose that network theory, focusing on feedback loops formed by interactions between myriad psychological disorder variables, will provide a better holistic framework to understand the complexity of substance addiction. Applying network theory to substance addiction may provide new insights in (1) understanding the interrelationships and interactions between symptoms, (2) understanding the systematic integrity and dynamic changes in symptom networks, and (3) integrating multiple levels of factors into a unified theoretical framework. Also, network theory may generate new approaches for future interventions and treatments. In sum, networktheory, as a theoretical model, provide a new perspective for understanding substance addiction and its intervention. We believe this reframing will encourage more empirical research toward various other hypotheses within this framework, thus, promoting the treatment and recovery of substance addiction.
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    Effects of oxytocin on psychological resilience: The neurochemical mechanisms in the hippocampus
    XUE Bing, WANG Xuejiao, MA Ning, GAO Jun
    2021, 29 (2):  311-322.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00311
    Abstract ( 56 )   PDF (464KB) ( 130 )  
    Psychological resilience refers to the process of effective and flexible adaptation in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats and other significant sources of stress. It helps the organism restore to a normal physiological and psychological status. Previous studies have shown that the hippocampus plays an important role in psychological resilience, and oxytocin may promote psychological resilience by modulating the hippocampus. Studies suggest that entorhinal cortex-dentate gyrus-CA3 circus in the hippocampus may improve resilience by reducing the generalization or promoting the extinction of stress-related memory; dentate gyrus- amygdala-nucleus accumbens and hippocampus-nucleus accumbens circuits may enhance or reduce resilience by promoting reward and disgust respectively. Oxytocin regulates the hippocampus in four ways to improve psychological resilience. In ventral hippocampus, oxytocin reduces the sensitivity of mature neurons in ventral hippocampus to stress by stimulating dentate gyrus neurogenesis; Oxytocin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis to enhance the function of “pattern separation” in the dentate gyrus-CA3 circuit and reduce the generalization of stress-associated memory; Oxytocin promotes the ability of adaptation to stress by rescuing stress-induced impairments in NMDAR-dependent LTP of hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses; Oxytocin decreases the expression of glucocorticoid receptor in hippocampus to re-establish homeostasis.
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    HIV stigma based on dual perspectives of the uninfected and the infected
    DUAN Wenjie, LI Yumei, HE Along, WU Tong
    2021, 29 (2):  323-337.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00323
    Abstract ( 66 )   PDF (526KB) ( 144 )  
    HIV stigma consists of public stigma and self-stigma. The former refers to the public's prejudice, stereotype and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA); the latter refers to the perception of prejudice, stereotype and discrimination from the public, and thus negative self-recognition is formed. The measurement is mainly carried out from the uninfected group and the infected individuals. HIV stigma is widespread in many areas of life such as individuals, families, health care providers, and the media. Public stigma and self-stigma survive together, hindering the effective prevention and treatment towards HIV/AIDS, and undermining social equality seriously. Interventions to reduce HIV stigma not only focus on eliminating prejudice, stereotype and discrimination of uninfected group, and improving the social stigma environment, but also focus on paying attention to improving the mental health and treatment willingness of infected individuals, and improving their quality of life. In addition, HIV stigma intervention studies should focus on strengthening the balance between the infected and uninfected group. In the future, we should conduct an in-depth study on the interaction mechanism, measurement tools, intervention measures, and courtesy stigma from the dual perspectives of the uninfected and the infected groups.
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    Explanatory mechanism and theoretical model of unethical pro-organizational behavior
    YAN Qiusi, SUI Yang, HAO Xuejing
    2021, 29 (2):  338-352.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00338
    Abstract ( 109 )   PDF (614KB) ( 332 )  
    Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior (UPB) defines the unethical behaviors of the organization's employees to protect the organization's interests. UPB is difficult to be identified in the organization, but it may bring negative effects to the organization. Due to the pro-organizational and immoral nature, the research of UPB has attracted wide attention from all walks of life. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the origin and definition of UPB. It is also necessary to learn from the interpretation path of "unethical behavior" to theoretically summarize the progress. This progress is made in the research on the cause of UPB from the explanatory mechanisms of rational decision and intuitive judgment to form a theoretical model. On such a basis, future research directions are proposed: the study of Unethical Pro-leader Behavior (UPLB) and Unethical Pro-group Behavior (UPGB); the moderating effect of corporate ownership on UPB in China; and the impact of role stress on UPB.
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    The effects of employee empowerment expectation: The underlying theoretical explanations
    YIN Kui, ZHANG Kaili, ZHAO Jing, GONG Zhenxing
    2021, 29 (2):  353-364.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00353
    Abstract ( 55 )   PDF (566KB) ( 215 )  
    Most of previous research on empowering leader behavior has adopted a leader-centric approach to examine its effectiveness. With the arising of followership theory, more research has emphasized the importance of examining leadership effectiveness from the follower-centric approach. Expectation plays an import role in management. Employee empowerment expectation refers to a set of norms that employees perceived about the responsibilities and obligations the leader should shoulder in terms of empowering. Based on reviewing the concept and measurement of employee empowerment expectation, the main findings from several theories such as role set theory, leadership categorization theory and met expectation theory are summarized. Finally, the future directions are discussed from several aspects: the validation of measurement based on implicit leadership theory, the logical framework from followership theory, the mechanism through integrating related theories, and the antecedents of subordinate empowerment expectation from the perspective of expectation management.
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    Typeface effect in marketing
    XIE Zhipeng, XIAO Tingting, QIN Huanyu
    2021, 29 (2):  365-380.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00365
    Abstract ( 144 )   PDF (1260KB) ( 507 )  
    The visual design of texts and wordmarks plays an important part in marketing communication. It directly affects consumers' first impression of the brand. The importance of text is not only reflected in the readability of the content, but also in consumers’ perception and response. Despite the importance of typefaces, surprisingly little research is done on this topic. Existing literature is largely scattered in different fields such as linguistics, design and psychology. There exists conflicting conclusions which lack the support of integrated framework. The current review thus attempts to fill in this gap by providing a systematic framework of the typeface effect. In the first part of this paper, the literature regarding the categorization and definition of typefaces were collected. In the second part, the influence of typefaces on consumer perception and behavior, as well as the three major psychological mechanisms of the typeface effect, namely, appropriateness, perceptual memory and perception of human presence was emphasized in the paper. In addition, the problem of how typefaces are regulated by consumer characteristics, product types, and external environment were discussed by us. Last but not least, the insight into the theoretical and managerial value of typefaces in marketing, and also the potential topics for future studies were provided at the end of the paper.
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