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    The relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction: A meta-analysis
    ZHANG Yali, LI Sen, YU Guoliang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (11): 1836-1852.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01836
    Abstract2700)   HTML288)    PDF (712KB)(4729)      

    Loneliness and mobile phone addiction are common phenomena in our daily life, seriously affecting our physical and mental health. Recently, numerous empirical studies have discussed the relationship between these two constructs based on different theoretical perspectives. However, the reported effect sizes of this relationship based on cross-sectional designs are far from consistent. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the strength and moderators of the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction. One hundred and thirty-one studies consisting of 134 independent samples involving 73, 543 participants were identified and a random-effects model was selected to conduct this meta-analysis. The results of the funnel plot and Egger’s intercept illustrated no publication bias. Furthermore, the results of the main-effect test indicated that there was a moderate and positive correlation between loneliness and mobile phone addiction (r = 0.25, 95% CI = [0.23, 0.27]). Additionally, the moderation analyses revealed that the strength of the relationship was moderated by the type of participants, but not by gender and measurement tools of loneliness and mobile phone addiction. The results supported the compensatory Internet use theory and the deficient self-regulation model. Longitudinal or experimental studies are needed in the future to further explore the direction of the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction.

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    Game-based psychological assessment
    XU Junyi, LI Zhongquan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (3): 394-403.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00394
    Abstract2568)   HTML226)    PDF (686KB)(3994)      

        The advent of the big data era has made it possible to use data to predict behavior. Game is an important part of human social behavior. The issue of how to use the rich data obtained from games to predict players' knowledge, skills, and traits has attracted increasing attention, resulting in game-based psychological assessment. Game-based psychological assessment (GBPA) refers to evaluating a person's ability, personality, and other psychological characteristics through games or gamified activities. In the early days, it was mainly used to evaluate the effectiveness of education and training, and later it was extended to assessing psychological characteristics. As a new technology, game-based assessment creates a more realistic situation to get more accurate data, which has advantages in form, process, and outcome.

        A paradigm based on evidence-centered design has been developed in game-based assessment to design instruments and conduct empirical studies. It consists of three core components: competence model, task model, and evidence model. Establishing a competency model refers to defining the structure of the target characteristics under a theoretical framework. Establishing an evidence model refers to determining the indicators and scoring rules. Specifically, selecting the indicators associated with the competence model, setting the scoring rules, and further establishing the predictive model. Establishing a task model refers to designing tasks to obtain indicators from them. The game is the assessment task itself in a game-based assessment. Researchers can refine predictive indicators based on existing games for evaluation or design new games according to the purpose of the study. Utilizing evidence-centered design to establish assessment tools provides necessary conditions for further data collection, processing, and reliability and validity testing.

    This paradigm has been applied to assessing individual differences in cognitive and non-cognitive abilities. For example, predicting reasoning ability and mathematics performance through Sokoban games, evaluating elderly people with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using “Kitchen and cooking” game, and assessing children's social emotional skills using a novel computer game called Zoo U. Non-cognitive ability reflecting social characteristics and personality traits is more difficult to measure than cognitive ability. Researchers have not reached a consensus about whether the game-based assessment is effective in predicting personality traits.

        However, this technique is still in its infancy. Future research can be further expanded in task design, data mining, and practical application. Non-linear game patterns and multi-player large-scale game designs expand the applicable scope. The attempts in corporate recruitment and clinical assessment and treatment also bring new value to this technique. Game-based assessment has great potential in the field of psychometrics.

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    The influence of mindfulness on intimate relationships
    CHEN Guodian, YANG Tongping
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1551-1563.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01551
    Abstract2527)   HTML153)    PDF (683KB)(3550)      

    Mindfulness in an intimate relationship indicates the conscious attention to feelings or thoughts paid by individuals that may affect the relationship. It has gradually attracted academic attention in theory and applications research because of its contributions to improve relationship satisfaction and buffer conflicts. The theoretical framework of interaction patterns between partners helps to understand the process and outcomes of intimate relationships at the level of the dyad. Researchers usually use self-report questionnaires, laboratory-based inductions and mindfulness interventions to explore the effects of mindfulness on intimate relationships. Since mindfulness intervention has a protective and remedial function for intimate relationships, it is applied to different relationship states such as relative happiness, facing challenges, and falling into crisis. Future research consists of four aspects. Firstly, constructing the theory based on the staged characteristics and possible reverse effects; secondly, conceptualizing the theoretical definition from multi-dimensional as well as dynamic perspective by relying on the interaction pattern and staged characteristics of the intimate relationship following by the measurement through the mutual evaluation or observational coding; thirdly, using robust designs to clarify the effects of interventions and finally paying attention to potential adverse effects.

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    The psychological change of the Chinese people over the past half century: A literature review
    CAI Huajian, HUANG Zihang, LIN Li, ZHANG Mingyang, WANG Xiaoou, ZHU Huijun, XIE Yiping, YANG Ying, YANG Ziyang, JING Yiming
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (10): 1599-1688.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01599
    Abstract2435)   HTML213)    PDF (721KB)(4088)      

    China has undergone unprecedented societal transformations over the past decades. A large body of research has examined the impacts of the rapid societal change on Chinese culture and psychology, including values, personality, self, emotion, motivation, parenting, trust, Guanxi, happiness, mental health, and other social attitudes and behaviors. On the one hand, individualism in general was on the rise. On the other hand, while collectivism in general is declining, as manifested in diverse values, self-construals, personalities, parenting styles and social attitudes, some traditional values persist (e.g. filial piety). Some specific findings include that 1) general trust declined; 2) negative emotions, motivation to avoid failure, and the importance of Guanxi were on the rise; 3) mental health overall was on the rise but it was getting worse for some specific groups (e.g. students in elementary and middle schools); 4) subjective well-being was decreasing in 1990s and started to rise recently. Many changes, however, varied across time and people with different demographic and social backgrounds, suggesting co-existence of multi-cultures. These findings have important theoretical and practical implications. Future study needs to extend the current research scope and examine the causes, outcomes, and mechanisms of the changes.

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    The influence of air temperature and temperature variability on mental health
    YU Guoliang, CHEN Tingting, ZHAO Fengqing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (8): 1282-1292.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01282
    Abstract1864)   HTML98)    PDF (736KB)(2780)      

    More and more researchers are concerned about the threat and impact of temperature and temperature variability on mental health. Temperature and temperature variability has direct or indirect effects on mental health indicators such as emotional well-being, emotional disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, organic mental disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, substance abuse and dependence, suicidal ideation and behavior. Most researchers explain the mechanism of temperature's influence on mental health from physiological aspects such as meteorological emotional effect, brown adipose tissue theory, and serotonin theory. Children and adolescents, the elderly, workers are vulnerable to temperature and high temperature pressure. There are also gender, age, and socioeconomic status differences in the effects of temperature change on mental health. In future studies, it is necessary to further distinguish different temperature indexes, pay more attention to the relationship between low temperature and mental health, control the interference of other factors on the relationship between temperature and mental health, and reveal the differences between individuals and groups.

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    Neural mechanism underlying recognition of dynamic emotional faces in social anxiety
    RAN Guangming, LI Rui, ZHANG Qi
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (12): 1979-1988.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01979
    Abstract1775)   HTML267)    PDF (684KB)(3163)      

    Abundant studies have explored the processing of emotional faces for high social anxiety participants and intervention work of social anxiety in recent years. Although there are rich findings, some limitations need to be considered. There are fewer types of emotion, dimensions of videos, and durations of videos in the previous dynamic emotional faces in Chinese. Furthermore, recognition of dynamic emotional faces for neural mechanisms in high social anxiety participants has not been examined systematically. The final limitation is that there are controversies on attentional bias training. More specifically, some researchers reported the effects of attentional bias training on participants’ social anxiety while others did not detect such effects.
    To address these limitations, our dynamic emotional faces in Chinese will enrich types of emotion, dimensions of videos, and durations of videos. Then recognition of dynamic emotional faces for neural mechanisms in high social anxiety participants should be investigated systematically by techniques of neuroscience. Finally, we will employ a working memory training to improve attentional biases of the recognition of dynamic angry faces in high social anxiety participants. We propose a model of the neural mechanism for the recognition of dynamic emotional faces in participants with high social anxiety, which consists of a mechanism and intervention sub-model. Our studies provide a new perspective for the research of processing of dynamic emotional faces and social anxiety. In addition, these studies included three research method (behavioral, electrophysiological and brain imaging method). In sum, our findings contribute to the intervention work of social anxiety, decrease psychological health problems in high social anxiety participants, and ultimately decrease their happiness and quality of life.

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    Can we really empathize? The influence of vicarious ostracism on individuals and its theoretical explanation
    YANG Xiaoli, ZOU Yan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1575-1585.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01575
    Abstract1681)   HTML169)    PDF (640KB)(2728)      

    Vicarious ostracism refers to a form of ostracism that observes other's experience of ostracism and also feels the experience of ostracism. From the perspective of behavioral study and neuroimaging, it is found that experiencing vicarious ostracism can trigger individual's needs, emotion, behavior and brain network responses, etc. Ostracism detection system theory, multimotive model theory, moral attribution theory, social identity theory and empathy theory provide a theoretical basis for why individuals were experiencing vicarious ostracism make these responses. Future research can also continue to explore the complexity of ostracism situations, individual's empathy and theoretical explanation in order to expand the scope of vicarious ostracism.

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    Are pupils the window of our mind? Pupil-related application in psychology and pupillometry
    YANG Xiaomeng, WANG Fuxing, WANG Yanqing, ZHAO Tingting, GAO Chunying, HU Xiangen
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (7): 1029-1041.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01029
    Abstract1568)   HTML46)    PDF (780KB)(1747)      

    Over the past few years, pupillometry is proliferation in psychological studies and eye tracking measurement. Pupil size or diameter can reflect mental activities, and affect other’s feeling and decision making. In addition, the sizes of our pupils are also influenced by the top-down processing, such as perception and attention, emotion and motivation, mental effort, social cognition and so on. Studies in pupillometry also found that large pupils give others good impressions (e.g. more attractive, more positive), and· cause more positive behaviors during the interaction (e.g. trust behaviors; honest behaviors). In this paper, we reviewed the relations between pupils and our mind with the pupil’s neural mechanisms and the adaptive-gain theory based on previous publications. As an effective eye-tracking parameter, pupil could be measured by eye tracking to explore the inner cognitive processing of our human being. In this paper, controlling interference of unrelated variables (e.g., luminance, gaze position), pupillometry raw data mining (e.g., baseline correction, blink processing), and the selection of pupil indices (e.g., pupil diameter, peak value, oscillations frequency) are also discussed for the future research.

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    The effect mechanism of sleep deprivation on risky decision making
    PENG Jiaxi, ZHAO Lumimg, FANG Peng, CAO Yunfei, MIAO Danmin, XIAO Wei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (11): 1789-1799.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01789
    Abstract1543)   HTML203)    PDF (730KB)(2613)      

    In many industries, it is possible and sometimes inevitable for decision makers to make choices and decisions under the state of mental fatigue due to insufficient sleep. Sleep deprivation, as the laboratory model of insufficient sleep, has been proved to have significant influence on risky decision-making, while the internal mechanism remains unclear. A hypothetical model was suggested based previous studies that that the feedback processing, risk perception, inhibition control, and priority of heuristic system could mediate the influence of sleep deprivation on risky decision-making. Using laboratory study and field study, the current study planed to adopt Simple gambling task, Adult decision-making competence scale, Probability discounting task, two choice oddball paradigm, and other tasks and measurements, and compare participants’ performance in these tasks before and after sleep deprivation. Meanwhile, the connections between executive control network and reward network were compared, and the changes of task-induced FRN and other EEG components were compared as well before and after sleep deprivation. The results might present scientific explanations about how sleep deprivation influences risky decision-making, and provide theoretical basis for further exploration to avoid errors in decision-making due to insufficient sleep.

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    Engineering psychology in the era of artificial intelligence
    XU Wei, GE Liezhong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1409-1425.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01409
    Abstract1537)   HTML107)    PDF (1300KB)(2864)      

    Intelligent technology provides new opportunities for the research and applications of engineering psychology. To this end, a work framework of engineering psychology in the intelligent era is proposed. The framework includes the objectives of engineering psychology research and applications, core problem space, disciplinary philosophy, focus of research and applications, methods and so on. The human-machine relationship in the intelligent era has presented a new form: the human-machine cooperation in the form of human-machine teaming. “Human-centered artificial intelligence” should be the discipline philosophy of engineering psychology in the intelligent era. Aiming at intelligent technology, engineering psychology researchers have recently begun to carry out research work on the theoretical framework and basic issues surrounding the new human-machine relationship, mental construct, shared decision-making between human and machine, and the interaction design for intelligent systems. In order to effectively support the research and development of intelligent systems, new and enhanced methods of engineering psychology are summarized. Finally, specific suggestions are given for addressing the challenges faced by engineering psychology.

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    Interpreting nonsignificant results: A quantitative investigation based on 500 Chinese psychological research
    WANG Jun, SONG Qiongya, XU Yuepei, JIA Binbin, LU Chunlei, CHEN Xi, DAI Zixu, HUANG Zhiyue, LI Zhenjiang, LIN Jingxi, LUO Wanying, SHI Sainan, ZHANG Yingying, ZANG Yufeng, ZUO Xi-Nian, HU Chuanpeng
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (3): 381-393.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00381
    Abstract1521)   HTML105)    PDF (956KB)(2613)      

    Background: P-value is the most widely used statistical index for inference in science. A p-value greater than 0.05, i.e., nonsignificant results, however, cannot distinguish the two following cases: the absence of evidence or the evidence of absence. Unfortunately, researchers in psychological science may not be able to interpret p-values correctly, resulting in wrong inference. For example, Aczel et al (2018), after surveying 412 empirical studies published in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, and Psychological Science, found that about 72% of nonsignificant results were misinterpreted as evidence in favor of the null hypothesis. Misinterpretations of nonsignificant results may lead to severe consequences. One such consequence is missing potentially meaningful effects. Also, in matched-group clinical trials, misinterpretations of nonsignificant results may lead to false “matched” groups, thus threatening the validity of interventions. So far, how nonsignificant results are interpreted in Chinese psychological literature is unknown. Here we surveyed 500 empirical papers published in five mainstream Chinese psychological journals, to address the following questions: (1) how often are nonsignificant results reported; (2) how do researchers interpret nonsignificant results in these published studies; (3) if researchers interpreted nonsignificant as “evidence for absence,” do empirical data provide enough evidence for null effects? 
    Method: Based on our pre-registration (, we first randomly selected 500 empirical papers from all papers published in 2017 and 2018 in five mainstream Chinese psychological journals (Acta Psychologica Sinica, Psychological Science, Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, Psychological Development and Education, Psychological and Behavioral Studies). Second, we screened abstracts of these selected articles to check whether they contain negative statements. For those studies which contain negative statements in their abstracts, we searched nonsignificant statistics in their results and checked whether the corresponding interpretations were correct. More specifically, all those statements were classified into four categories (Correct-frequentist, Incorrect-frequentist: whole population, Incorrect-frequentist: current sample, Difficult to judge). Finally, we calculated Bayes factors based on available t values and sample sizes associated with those nonsignificant results. The Bayes factors can help us to estimate to what extent those results provided evidence for the absence of effects (i.e., the way researchers incorrectly interpreted nonsignificant results). 
    Results: Our survey revealed that: (1) out of 500 empirical papers, 36% of their abstracts (n = 180) contained negative statements; (2) there are 236 negative statements associated with nonsignificant statistics in those selected studies, and 41% of these 236 negative statements misinterpreted nonsignificant results, i.e., the authors inferred that the results provided evidence for the absence of effects; (3) Bayes factor analyses based on available t-values and sample sizes found that only 5.1% (n = 2) nonsignificant results could provide strong evidence for the absence of effects (BF01 > 10). Compared with the results from Aczel et al (2019), we found that empirical papers published in Chinese journals contain more negative statements (36% vs. 32%), and researchers made fewer misinterpretations of nonsignificant results (41% vs. 72%). It worth noting, however, that there exists a categorization of ambiguous interpretations of nonsignificant results in the Chinese context. More specifically, many statements corresponding to nonsignificant results were “there is no significant difference between condition A and condition B”. These statements can be understood either as “the difference is not statistically significant”, which is correct, or “there is no difference”, which is incorrect. The percentage of misinterpretations of nonsignificant results raised to 64% if we adopt the second way to understand these statements, in contrast to 41% if we used the first understanding.
    Conclusion: Our results suggest that Chinese researchers need to improve their understanding of nonsignificant results and use more appropriate statistical methods to extract information from nonsignificant results. Also, more precise wordings should be used in the Chinese context.

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    Developmental cognitive mechanism and neural basis of procrastination
    FENG Tingyong, WANG Xueke, SU Ti
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (4): 586-596.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00586
    Abstract1510)   HTML210)    PDF (809KB)(3255)      

    Procrastination, as Steel (2007) reviewed, is the phenomenon that individuals voluntarily delay to start or complete an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. The previous studies have indicated that chronic procrastination exists in different cultural backgrounds, with about 15% ~ 20% of adults troubled. Academically, more than 40% of students admit to academic procrastination, and some may even suffer from chronic tendencies. With the rapid development of modern society, the problem of procrastination is more serious and prominent. Obviously, putting off the task irrationally not only does harm to individuals’ study, work, emotion, but also endangers mental health. However, little is known about procrastination concerning the core mechanism of origin, the critical period of its formation, and its corresponding underlying neural substrates. To fill this gap, the current study investigates the core mechanism of procrastinated decision - making which rely on the Temporal Decision Model (TDM) we outlined, and explores the developmental cognitive neural mechanism of procrastination form a behavior - environment - brain perspective, and also sheds light on how to prevent or intervene the procrastination in these critical periods. First of all, the behavioral development measurement of the study aims to use a cross-sectional design to explore the occurrence and developmental characteristics of procrastination, the critical period (sensitive period) and the relevant influence factors (including various environmental and educational variables) of procrastination formation in children with three age groups (6 ~ 8 years, 10 ~ 12 years, and 12 ~ 15 years). And we also investigates the effects or underlying mechanisms of the cognitive abilities such as self-control, long-term value evaluation, time discounting, and emotion regulation on procrastination at each age stage. Meanwhile, the time decision model of procrastination is tested and refined in the study form a developmental perspective. Secondly, on the basis of neural level, procrastination is related to functional deficits in the frontal lobe, limbic system (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus) and other brain regions. Thus, the brain development measurement of the study aims to examine the development of brain structure and brain function in children aged 6 ~ 15 years using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) multimodal imaging techniques (including task, resting, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)), and functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) techniques. Based on the correlation analysis among brain structural data, functional data and behavior data, the study systematically investigates the developmental cognitive mechanisms of procrastination that are influenced by relevant influence factors, such as long-term value evaluation, delay discounting, self-control, emotion regulation and episodic future thinking. In addition, the study intends to build a behavioral - environmental - brain multilevel model for predicting the formation of procrastination in children. By integrating multimodal data on behavior, environment, and brain variables, the influence of environmental variables on procrastination through the malleability of brain structure and function is examined using the mediation analysis and structural equation model. What’s more, considering behavioral intervention for procrastination and malleability of the brain development, the study also sheds light on develop a clinical proposal for the prevention and intervention of procrastination at each critical periods according to the developmental characteristics of each age (including childhood, adolescence, and adult), mainly using intervention training methods, such as episodic future thinking, time management, and emotion regulation, and so on. To sum up, on the one hand, the current study can reap enormous scientific contributions to clarify the neurocognitive mechanism and the rules of development of procrastination; on the other hand, the study further obtain the practical significance for the prevention and intervention against procrastination behavior with exploring the effectiveness of intervention from the perspective of brain malleability.

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    The attentional bias for food cues and its neural mechanism
    LI Ling, HOU Xiaoxu, ZHANG Ya, SUI Xue
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (12): 2040-2051.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02040
    Abstract1490)   HTML73)    PDF (598KB)(2047)      

    Compared with other types of stimuli, individuals preferentially pay attention to food-related stimuli, that is, the attentional bias towards food stimuli. Analysis of the individual factors that influence this attentional bias for food cues showed the following results: First, among the state factors, hunger and negative emotions related to self-threat with high intensity of arousal had an enhanced effect on attentional bias for food cues, which was reflected in early and late attention processing. Second, among the trait factors, the behavior study found that, compared with normal weight individuals and non-restriction dieters, overweight/obese individuals and successful restricted dieters who evoke dieting goals did not have a stronger attentional bias for food cues. However, the event-related potential study found that at the early stage of attention processing, the influence of trait factors on attentional bias for food cues appeared. Lastly, fMRI studies have found that attentional bias for food cues is accompanied by activation of reward-related brain regions such as the insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and visual attention networks. It is suggested that future research should be devoted to the following four aspects: (1) studying attentional bias from a dynamic perspective to further improve the reliability of measurement, (2) using specialized paradigms to explore the neural mechanism of individual factors affecting attentional bias, (3) distinguishing the different state factors to explore the attentional bias for food cues, and (4) the conducting of rigorous screening and classification of subjects to conduct comparative studies among them.

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    Controversies in terror management theory research and its implications for research on the psychology of death
    MENG Xianghan, LI Qiang, ZHOU Yanbang, WANG Jin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (3): 492-504.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00492
    Abstract1469)   HTML165)    PDF (767KB)(2407)      

    Psychology of death remains a complex psychological state of cognition, emotion, and behavioral intention in the face of death and death-related events. Currently, the most comprehensive and scientific theory that investigates death psychology is the Terror Management Theory (TMT). However, TMT has the following controversies: (1) In terms of three basic cognitive aspects of death, the theory presents inconsistent research results on whether death is independent of uncertainty, whether death causes fear, and whether individual survival is a central issue for human beings; (2) On the socio-cultural level, the cultural background of the inventor of TMT generally denies death. However, cross-cultural studies demonstrate that other cultures treat death with attitudes such as acceptance and contempt; (3) Finally, there exist a lot of contradictions in the research results of TMT. This indicates that there are important regulatory factors that were not involved in the present study. 
    On this basis, the possible research directions of death psychology can be summarized from the aspects of cognition, behavior, and society. Studies at the cognitive level have found that people often have a sense of uncertainty when facing death. Enhancing the sense of belonging can effectively alleviate death anxiety; meanwhile, gaining a greater sense of the significance of life can make accepting death easier. Behavioral level studies have revealed that death anxiety has the property of embodiment cognition. Perhaps researchers need to reevaluate studies on the psychology of death from an embodied cognition perspective. In addition, death-related rituals perform both practical and symbolic functions, and the study of these functions and underlying mechanisms can be carried out from two aspects: the bottom-up and the top-down. Investigations of the social level have discovered that the psychological content and process of death in different cultures can be abstracted into a series of core dimensions which can be used as a prototype to predict and intervene the reality. In the present society, people are less psychologically prepared to face death. Therefore, it is urgent to carry out scientific research on content and process of Chinese people's psychology of death. 
        In the future, the death psychology research should regard science and culture with equal attention. On one hand, the basic research on the psychology of death can use more objective measures such as heart rate, electrodermal activity, cortisol, and brain imaging techniques. On the other hand, traditional but underappreciated methods should be used to supplement laboratory research, such as qualitative research, case study, longitudinal study, etc. Secondly, the study of death psychology should be combined with the cognitive construction of death ontology, as well as procedures and coping behaviors for death. Thirdly, death is an individual event, a social event, and, sometimes, a political event. Therefore, researchers need to pay attention to the psychological patterns of the group in the face of death in order to understand questions such as how to construct the psychological defense system of death in modern society and how the death narrative evolves. Lastly, death events tend to cause fear and anxiety among the exposed individuals or groups. In severe cases, mental disorders such as PTSD may occur along with chronic physical diseases, though the clinical mechanism of this process is unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out research on mental and physical health intervention under the influence of the psychology of death to assist individuals to develop a healthy lifestyle.

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    Can trust game measure trust?
    GONG Zhe, TANG Yujie, LIU Chang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (1): 19-30.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00019
    Abstract1462)   HTML72)    PDF (642KB)(2868)      

    Trust games were widely used as a classic paradigm of trust measurement. However, the accuracy of the results of the trust game had been questioned by scholars in the field all the time, making precise trust measurement an important topic for exploration. The controversy mainly includes the following two aspects. On the one hand, the appropriateness of the trust game paradigm has yet to be verified. The controversy over paradigm changes further reveals that social preferences and risk preferences might have an impact on the level of investment trust, thereby reducing the internal validity of the trust game. On the other hand, the correlation between the level of the investment trust in trust games and the trust measured by the survey is very low, which can be explained by differences in attitudes and behaviours, differences in measurement types, and the limitations of trust measured by the survey and trust game. Although trust game face with some controversy, in general, it is still a suitable method for trust measuring. Future research should focus on the following points: Verifying the scientificity of the changes in the paradigm of trust game; Clarifying the low correlation between trust game and trust measured by survey; Expanding the measurement dimensions of trust game; Improving the ecological validity of trust game.

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    Dropout in psychotherapy
    HE Jiao, BAI Baoyu, XIA Mian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (7): 1187-1198.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01187
    Abstract1443)   HTML47)    PDF (639KB)(1579)      

    Dropout in psychotherapy refers to the phenomenon of the client discontinuing psychotherapy prior to recovering from the problems or distress that led him or her to seek help. Although researchers have come to a consensus as to the connotation of dropout, there are a variety of operational definitions of dropout, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. Dropout is a widespread problem in clinic practice. However, the dropout percentages, which are strongly influenced by operational definitions of dropout and types of study designs, vary widely across studies. There are limitations for the traditional static predictors of dropout, so researchers gradually place greater importance to the process-oriented predictors of dropout (e.g., therapeutic alliance), which provide a good deal of insight into dropout. In order to reduce dropout from therapy, researchers suggest clinicians offer proper pre-therapy preparation for clients, assess important variables throughout the course of therapy, and tailor strategies according to situation. Future research should improve the operational definitions of dropout and further research also should be conducted in natural treatment settings. At the same time, predictors should be explored thoroughly and more. And more attention should be paid to the effects of critical events outside therapy as well as the cultural background of clients.

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    Concealed emotion analysis and recognition method
    WANG Su-Jing, ZOU Bochao, LIU Rui, LI Zhen, ZHAO Guozhen, LIU Ye, FU Xiaolan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1426-1436.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01426
    Abstract1441)   HTML128)    PDF (705KB)(2617)      

    It is of great value to recognize concealed emotions for early warning of public security issues. Micro-expression is a vital channel to reveal concealed emotions. However, there are relatively few studies on concealed emotions, and micro-expressions are challenging to recognize because of their subtle magnitude and short duration. Existing Laboratory studies of micro-expression have few practical applications. Therefore, the perception and expression of concealed emotion should be systematically investigated by collecting micro-expression samples in an ecological situation, while synchronically collecting EEG signals for better labeling of micro-expressions. We spot and recognize concealed emotions mainly through micro-expressions, accompanied by face color analysis, gaze estimation, and contactless physiological signals measurement. Then, we verify and modify our system and method in two realistic public security related application scenarios: a Recognition Assistant System for the aggressive and suicidal behaviors of psychiatric patients and a Concealed Emotion Detection System for prisoners interview.

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    Motives of altruistic punishment
    CHEN Sijing, YANG Shasha
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (11): 1901-1910.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01901
    Abstract1435)   HTML107)    PDF (707KB)(2172)      

    The altruistic punishment is proposed as an important mechanism for the existence of social norms. The motives for punishing altruistically, however, are not entirely altruistic from the individual perspective. In addition to maintaining the principle of fairness, the pursuit of a good reputation, the aversion of potential losses, or the elimination of negative emotions also drive, to varying degrees, altruistic punishment. In addition, the sensitivity to the amount and form of sanction costs also shows that strategic motivations based on the cost-benefit principle play a significant role in driving altruistic punishment. Further exploration of the interaction between different motivations in the implementation of altruistic punishment is an important issue that deserves more attention in the future research.

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    Homeostasis and transition of well-being: A new integrative perspective
    SUN Junfang, XIN Ziqiang, BAO Hugejiletu, LIU Min, YUE Heng
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (3): 481-491.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00481
    Abstract1424)   HTML171)    PDF (699KB)(2179)      

    Previous empirical and theoretical studies hold different views on the stability and variability of well-being (or subjective well-being). Set-point theory holds that people can psychologically adapt to the ups and downs of objective environment, and the influence of objective environment on well-being can be neglected. The individual well-being usually maintains at a certain set-point level determined by genes or personality. Dynamic equilibrium theory (and its variant— subjective well-being homeostasis theory) further emphasizes that well-being usually keeps in equilibrium level based on stable personality traits or genes, and external stimulus such as life events will cause well-being to deviate from the equilibrium level for a short time. After a period of time, well-being will return to the set-point (range) and be in dynamic equilibrium. On the basis of dynamic equilibrium theory, hedonic adaptation theory considers from the perspective of emotional adaptation that the individual well-being usually keeps at a certain equilibrium level, and external stimulus or events may cause strong positive or negative emotions, but individuals will gradually adapt to this stimulus and their emotional response will gradually weaken, so that well-being will return to the initial equilibrium level. All three theories emphasize that well-being should be maintained at a certain equilibrium level. In contrast, sustainable well-being theory holds that the factors affecting well-being include genetic factors, environmental factors and intentional activities. It emphasizes that intentional activities can cause continuous changes in well-being, which can significantly improve well-being and maintain long-term effects. The essence of the difference between these theoretical perspectives lies in how the stability and variability of well-being are viewed. On the basis of the concepts of homeostasis and allostasis in biology and the concept of transition in physics, we firstly analyze the influencing factors, processes and mechanisms of the stability and variability of well-being from the perspective of homeostasis and transition. All four theories hold that genetic factors or emotional adaptation which are inherent in individuals, can explain the stability of well-being, environmental factors can cause short-term changes in well-being, and intentional activities can cause long-term changes in well-being. Set-point theory, dynamic equilibrium theory and hedonic adaptation theory hold that well-being usually maintains at a certain equilibrium level, the process of its stability and variability is similar to homeostasis, and the adjustment mechanism is negative feedback. Sustainable well-being theory emphasizes that intentional activities can make well-being form a new equilibrium state, and its process of stability and variability is similar to allostasis. Homeostasis occurs transition, causing well-being homeostasis to adjust. Its adjustment mechanism is positive feedback. Therefore, from the perspective of homeostasis, allostasis and transition, we believe that well-being is usually within a certain set-point range, and the external stimulus may make well-being temporary deviation from the equilibrium state, after a period of time, well-being will return to the original dynamic equilibrium state, but if it is affected by strong or continuous stimulation, well-being may deviate from the set-point range for a long time and form a new homeostasis. This integrated perspective provides a new explanation framework for well-being research and has enlightening implications for the continuous improvement of well-being.

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    Do consumers always prefer a smiley face? Effects of product “facial” expressions on consumer attitude
    XIE Zhipeng, ZHAO Jing, WANG Tao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (8): 1256-1272.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01256
    Abstract1412)   HTML92)    PDF (1271KB)(2432)      

    For many consumers, product face is an important factor that determines their evaluation and purchase decision. Up till now, many researchers believe that negative product facial expressions (e.g anger) are negatively related to customer attitude and behavior. But in reality, negative faces are also related to coolness and competence. Up till now, researches regarding the paradoxical effect of anthropomorphized product expression remain scarce, and the existing work on social communication cannot be used to explain personified products without adaptation and testing. Based on this research gap, 3 questions remain unsolved: how does product facial expression influence consumer behavior; what is the psychological mechanism behind such effect; will product type and consumer characteristics influence consumer perception of product facial expression? The answers to these questions can be used to expand the theory of personification in marketing, and to guide product managers in choosing the most appropriate design for their products.

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