ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    Emoji image symbol’s social function and application
    JIN Yuchang, DENG Chenglong, WU Ping, LIN Xi, ZHENG Peixuan, AN Junxiu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 1062-1077.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01062
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    Nowadays, with the rapid development of the Internet, online communication has become increasingly popular and popular. However, due to the lack of nonverbal cues in face-to-face communication, it is difficult for people to detect the emotional state of each other, which hinders normal communication. Emoji, which compensate for nonverbal cues in online communication, have been introduced into cyberspace to compensate for the absence of gestures and facial attributes in online communication, and have been developing constantly. The development of Emojis has gone through Emoticon composed of ASCII characters, Emoji of pictographic icons and now emerging more vivid and interesting stickers. This paper will mainly comb, analyze and summarize the functions, influencing factors and interaction mechanisms of Emoji in network communication, as well as the current application of Emoji in different fields, and put forward the future research direction of Emoji based on the current research status of Emoji.
    At the beginning, Emoji is borrowed from Japanese animation symbols, and gradually developed into a widely used image symbol system. Since the creation of Emoji by Shigetaka Kurita in 1999, it has been enriched and developed continuously At present, Emoji has become a tool commonly used around the world to replace non-verbal cues such as body gestures and facial expressions in digital communication. In the process of continuous use in Internet communication, Emoji has been equipped with many functions, including expressing emotions, enhancing expression, changing tone, maintaining or enhancing interpersonal relationship, etc. At the same time, the use of Emoji is also affected by many factors, including age, gender, culture, context and platform. In addition, we also explore the interactive mechanism of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of symbol interaction theory, so as to clearly reveal the specific interaction process of people in online communication through Emoji.
    At present, with the continuous development and widespread use of Emoji, its application scope has been extended to many other fields besides Internet communication. In the field of sentiment analysis, Emoji has become an important object of sentiment analysis due to its rich emotions. In psychometrics, Emoji has been developed into a nonverbal tool for evaluating personality and depression which has the same reliability and validity as text items. In the field of commercial marketing, Emoji has begun to play a role in advertising marketing and attracting consumers, and can measure consumers' food-related emotions in the form of questionnaires. In the field of legal judgment, Emoji has gradually become a powerful evidence in judicial trials due to its widespread use. Through the above analysis and summary, we put forward the future research direction of Emoji from the following aspects: (1) explore the application and future development trend of Emoji in online communication; (2) study on the application of Emoji in other fields; (3) further explore the neurophysiological mechanism of Emoji; (4) discuss the positive effect of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of cognitive processing.

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    Prevalence of mental health problems among senior high school students in mainland of China from 2010 to 2020: A meta-analysis
    YU Xiaoqi, ZHANG Yali, YU Guoliang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 978-990.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00978
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    High school is the key period of psychological development, and it is also the frequent period of a variety of psychological problems. The mental health problems of senior high school students not only come from adolescents themselves, but also should attract extensive attention from families, schools and society. In order to improve the mental health of senior high school students and ensure the effective development of follow-up mental health work, it is necessary to understand the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students in China, so as to master the basic situation of mental health of senior high school students. Although many previous studies have involved the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students, there is no consistent conclusion on the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students in China in recent ten years. In order to clarify the detection rates and influencing factors of mental health problems of senior high school students in China in recent ten years, this study makes a comprehensive and systematic meta-analysis of the relevant detection rate articles of senior high school students (including higher vocational students) in recent ten years, so as to form a clearer understanding of the general situation of their mental health. Because there are too many indicators involved in mental health problems, this study focuses on the detection rate of two common problems in senior high school students: internalizing problems (including anxiety, depression, sleep problems, somatization, suicidal ideation, and suicide plan) and externalizing problems (including self injury and suicide attempt. In addition, this study also investigated the regulatory effects of publishing age, relevant factors of measurement tools (measurement tools, detection standards, detection time), and demographic variables (grade, region, gender, only child or not, birthplace) on the detection rate of mental health problems.
    By searching the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database and Web of Science core collection database from 2010 to 2020, 252 effective literatures were finally obtained, including 48 articles on anxiety, 99 articles on depression, 21 articles on sleep problems, 14 articles on somatization, 29 articles on self injury, and 41 articles on suicide. The results of meta-analysis showed that (1) The prevalence from high to low were depression (28.0%), anxiety (26.3%), sleep problems (23.0%), self-injury (22.8%), suicidal ideation (17.1%), somatization (9.8%), suicide plan (6.9%), and suicide attempt (2.9%); (2) In the past ten years, the mental health problems of senior high school students in China have deteriorated with the passage of time, especially anxiety; (3) The detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students is affected by the relevant factors of measurement tools (measurement tools, detection standards and detection time); (4) The mental health problems of senior high school students increased with the increase of grade, especially sleep problems; (5) The mental health problems of senior high school students were affected by regions, especially in economically underdeveloped areas. It can be seen that the prevalence of mental health problems of senior high school students in China was affected by the year of publication, measurement tools, detection standards, detection time, grade and region. In the future, efforts should be made to prepare standardized evaluation tools, build a long-term mechanism of mental health education, and focus on the mental health problems of senior class and underdeveloped area senior high school students.

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    Concepts and evaluation of saturation in qualitative research
    YANG Liping, QI Lidong, ZHANG Bo
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (3): 511-521.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00511
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    With the methodological changes in psychology, more and more researchers tend to accept qualitative research as an effective way to solve psychological problems and serve the public. In a qualitative study, sufficient sample is the guarantee of research validity, and saturation is an indicator used to assess the adequacy of research data. Saturation means that on the basis of the currently collected and analyzed data, further data collection will not help researchers develop a deeper understanding of the story or theory, so there is no need to continue to collect data. The concept of theoretical saturation was first proposed in grounded theory. Then with the development of qualitative research methods, researchers have further created more saturation concepts, including data saturation, code or thematic saturation, meaning saturation, etc. Due to the diversity of saturation and its judgment standards, the relationship between different kinds of saturation are complicated and ambiguous. In addition, previous studies lack operational description and practical guidance for the evaluation of saturation, which leads to the vagueness of the concept of saturation and many difficulties in evaluation. In order to solve these problems, this study clarified the concepts and evaluation methods of four levels of saturation, and provided suggestions for researchers' operations based on comparison and analysis. The four types of saturation occur at different stages of the research process, and each has its own specific connotations. Data saturation, code or thematic saturation focuses on the breadth of collected data, while meaning saturation and theoretical saturation focus on the depth of research data. In terms of evaluation methods and criteria, researchers usually judge data saturation based on the repeatability of initial data; code or thematic saturation is determined based on empirical research results, the emergence of new codes or themes, or saturation coefficients; the results of retrospective empirical analysis or tables of meaning unit are normally used to evaluate meaning saturation; while the assessment of theoretical saturation relies on a process called "continuous comparison" in grounded theory, which focuses on the continuous improvement of the theory. Some problems are discussed in this study. 1) The sample size standard for reaching saturation should be embedded in the specific research process instead of being uniformly set in advance. Because each study has its own uniqueness in terms of questions, purposes, methods, etc., which saturation is extremely sensitive to, the evaluation of saturation should be based on the characteristics of the current research to select an appropriate level of saturation. 2) Due to the logical uncertainty of saturation, a little oversampling would be helpful. The logical uncertainty here means that researchers can only predict the necessity of continuing data collection based on the information that has been collected, which relies on the subjective judgment of researchers, and its accuracy can never be further proved. Oversampling may be an effective way to solve this problem, which means that even if saturation has been achieved, the researcher is recommended to add 2 to 3 personal interviews or 1 to 2 focus group interviews to further confirm. 3) As an important index to evaluate the quality of qualitative research, saturation is not suitable for all qualitative research, such as psychobiography, narrative analysis, etc., which focus on single or a few cases and pay more attention to the integrity of individual stories. In the future, researchers should further focus on the evaluation and testing of saturation in different kinds of qualitative research.

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    Prevalence of mental health problems among college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020: A meta-analysis
    CHEN Yumeng, ZHANG Yali, YU Guoliang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 991-1004.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00991
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    College students are a huge part and an important member of the young people. Their physical and mental health not only directly affects their own long-term development, but also has a significant influence on the future of the nation. Therefore, the mental health of college students has become the focus of families, schools and even the whole society. In recent years, some studies have conducted meta-analyses on the prevalence of a certain mental health problem (such as depression and sleep problem) among college students in China, but such studies cannot reflect the mental health status of college students comprehensively. And some of the previous studies cannot reflect the current status of contemporary college students’ mental health. Furthermore, the selection of moderator variables was not comprehensive enough to reveal the key factors affecting the prevalence. Therefore, we employed a meta-analysis in this study to estimate the prevalence of typical mental health problems among college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020, and the moderating effects of publication year, measurement tools and detection standards, detection time, region, birthplace, only child or not were further analyzed. For the selection of indicators, mental health problems were divided into two categories: internalizing problems and externalizing problems. The indicators of internalizing problems include anxiety, depression, sleep problem, somatization, and suicidal ideation, while the indicators of externalizing problems include nonsuicidal self-injury and suicide attempt.
    Through the process of literature search and selection, 128 studies (136 effect sizes) of anxiety, 237 studies (244 effect sizes) of depression, 56 studies (58 effect sizes) of sleep problem, 49 studies (49 effect sizes) of somatization, 31 studies (31 effect sizes) of nonsuicidal self-injury, 51 studies (51 effect sizes) of suicide ideation, and 8 studies (8 effect sizes) of suicide attempt were included in this study. Homogeneity test indicated that random effects model was appropriate for the meta-analysis. The p-curve analysis illustrated no publication bias. Ultimately, the results of the main effect test showed that the prevalence rates of sleep problem, depression, nonsuicidal self-injury, anxiety, suicidal ideation, somatization, and suicide attempt were 23.5%, 20.8%, 16.2%, 13.7%, 10.8%, 4.5%, and 2.7%, respectively. The results indicate that internalizing problems, especially sleep problem and emotional problem, are more serious among Chinese college students compared to externalizing problems.
    The results of the moderating effect indicated that (1) The prevalence of anxiety, depression, sleep problem and suicide attempt among college students has increased significantly in the last decade, while the prevalence of self-harm has declined significantly; (2) The prevalence of anxiety, depression, sleep problem, and somatization varied significantly between measurement tools and detection standards, and the prevalence of suicidal ideation differed to a significant extent depending on the detection time. Therefore, the fluctuation of prevalence was accounted by measurement tools, detection standards and detection time. (3) There existed obvious regional differences in the prevalence of sleep problem and suicidal ideation, with the feature of the worst mental health among college students in western China and better mental health among college students in northeastern and central China. (4) The prevalence of mental health problems among demographical variables including gender, only child or not, and birthplace showed no significant difference, which indicated that gender, only child or not, urban or rural areas were not the critical factors influencing college students’ mental health.
    In summary, by employing the method of meta-analysis, this study is the first study to systematically investigate the prevalence of the typical mental health problems of college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020. The results clarified the controversy over the inconsistent prevalence in previous studies and explored the main reasons for the inconsistent findings. Thus, this meta-analysis is conducive to promoting subsequent studies and educational practice.

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    The relationship between socioeconomic status and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    ZHANG Yali, ZHANG Jiangen, LI Hongxia, JIANG Yongzhi
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (12): 2650-2665.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02650
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    Socioeconomic status is an important topic concerned by social class psychology. With the transformation of social development, its influence on individual psychological development has been paid increasing attention. In recent years, scholars in different fields have carried out a series of discussions on the relation between socioeconomic status and mental health, especially depression, but results remain mixed. Some have reported negative correlations between socio-economic status and depression, and others have found weak to nonsignificant correlations. In general, the reported correlation coefficients ranged from -0.45 to 0. At present, no studies have systematically generalized the scattered results on this topic, nor have they dissected the reasons for the inconsistent results. Therefore, it is necessary to gain better insight into the relation between socioeconomic status and depression, and the factors that affect this relation. At the same time, China is in the deep-water area of reform and development. The rapid economic development has made the gap between the rich and the poor increasingly intensified, and it has also made class mobility more difficult. Therefore, exploring the relation between socio-economic status and depression can provide a more detailed basis for the formulation of the current social mental health service system in China.
    In Chinese database (China National Knowledge Infrastructure database), the keywords “社会地位” or “经济地位” were respectively matched with “抑郁”, and the literatures with such keywords in the abstract were searched. In foreign databases (Web of Science Core Collection, Elsevier SD, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses), the keywords “socioeconomic status”, “socio-economic status”, “social class”, and “social status” were matched with “depress*” respectively, and the literatures with such keywords in the abstract were searched. In addition, to avoid omissions, literature supplementation was performed through citations during literature reading and Google Scholar. Finally, a total of 11110 studies were obtained. After literature screening, a total of 58 studies (including 65 effect sizes and 76,715 participants) were finally included, with a time span from 1973 to 2022. The correlation coefficient r was used as the effect size, and the random effects model in software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.0 was used to conduct the meta-analysis.
    The main effect analysis indicated a small significant negative correlation between socio-economic status and depression (r = -0.15). Further sensitivity analysis showed that the estimated effect size fluctuated between-0.158 and -0.147, indicating that the estimated result was stable. The moderating effect analysis showed that: (a) The moderating effect of the sampling year was significant (b=-0.008, 95%CI [-0.015, -0.001]), and the relationship between socioeconomic status and depression became stronger with the development of the times; (b) The moderating effect of SES measurement tool is significant, and the correlation measured by SSS is the strongest, while the correlation measured by FISS or principal component analysis was the weakest; (c) The moderating effect of SES measurement type was significant, and the correlation between subjective socioeconomic status and depression was higher than that of objective socioeconomic status;. (d) The moderating effect of SES measurement form was significant, and the correlation between family socioeconomic status and depression was lower than that of one's own socioeconomic status; (e) The moderating effect of depression measurement tool was marginally significant, the correlation measured by SCL was not significant, and the correlation measured by CDI or CESD was higher than other tools; (f) Gender, age, individualism index and design form (cross-sectional design vs longitudinal design) had no significant moderating effects on the relationship between socioeconomic status and depression.
    This is the first study to analyze the overall strength of the association between socioeconomic status and depression. The results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between them, indicating that relevant public policies should be formulated and supporting schemes should be provided to care for the socio-economic disadvantaged groups, especially to improve their education and income levels, so as to prevent the occurrence of group depression. In addition, the present study also found that the effect size was affected by many operational characteristics (i.e., socio-economic status measurement type and depression measurement), suggesting that future researchers should pay more attention to the choice of scales when conducting research. Specifically, for socioeconomic status, objective and subjective indicators should be combined as far as possible, and it is best to directly measure the socioeconomic status of the individual rather than the family. For depression, scales that measure too few depressive symptoms should be avoided as far as possible. This study also found that the effect size is affected by the development of the times, suggesting that China should vigorously promote the policy of common prosperity in the new era, promote class mobility, prevent class solidification and the further expansion of the gap between the rich and the poor, so as to reduce the occurrence of depression from the social level. Finally, although age and research design failed to moderate the relation between socioeconomic status and depression, both essentially reflect the long-term effect of socioeconomic status on individual's depression. This suggests that public services and public policies should pay attention to long-term effectiveness in the implementation.

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    The influence of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation on memory in adolescents and the underlying neural mechanisms
    ZHANG Mingxia, LI Yuxin, LI Jin, LIU Xun
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00001
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    Motivation is the core of all behaviors. Motivation can be classified as the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The processing of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation involves the reward, value, and control systems that would interact with the hippocampal memory system to facilitate memory performance. During adolescence, the brain develops rapidly, making it a critical period for memory development. Meanwhile, the subsystems of motivation develop unbalanced during adolescence (i.e., the reward system is sensible and the control system is immature), making it a special period for the motivation development. However, so far, the investigation of how extrinsic and intrinsic motivation impact teenage memory is on the start stage. There is a lack of systematic exploration and comparison of the behavioral rules and neural mechanisms of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation’s impact on memory during adolescence. It remains unclear whether the rules and mechanisms of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation’s impact on memory are common or specific and how the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation interacts with each other to affect memory during adolescence.

    As the monetary reward is easy to operate and quantify, previous research always used monetary reward to manipulate extrinsic motivation. In addition, intrinsic motivation is a hotspot in recent neuroscience research. Autonomy is the core concept of intrinsic motivation, which is often induced by self-determined choice. The current research will focus on monetary reward (extrinsic motivation) and self-determined choice (intrinsic motivation). We will integrate psychological and neuroscience methods and conduct a series of experiments to systematically reveal the impact of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation on memory during adolescence on multiple levels (cognitive level, neural activity level and neural network level). Specifically, the current research will directly compare the mechanisms via which the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation affects memory and we will also examine how the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation interacts with each other to affect memory, so as to reveal the unique behavioral rules and neural mechanisms via which the two types of motivation (the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation) affect memory during adolescence. This research will greatly enrich the theory and improve the level of the field of motivation and memory. It has important theoretical significance for us to understand the nature of motivation, the underlying mechanisms of how motivation affects memory and the brain development during a very critical period in our life, the adolescence. It also has important practical significance for promoting adolescents’ motivation and learning.

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    Why musical emotion can be induced by harmony? The effect and cognitive mechanism of musical consonance
    ZHANG Hang, MENG Le, ZHANG Jijia
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 817-833.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00817
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    Music has a significant and far-reaching impact on human society. Archaeological evidence shows that music first emerged at least 3.5 billion years (Paleolithic Period) ago. Such evidence is an important indication that humans have the advanced capacity to process complex auditory information. Musicology has gradually formed a relatively complete theoretical system. However, it still has several fundamental problems in the theory and practice of modern music, such as the rationale for simultaneous consonance. The core of this problem is how our brain possesses musical chords composed of several tones and why some tone combinations sound relatively pleasant (consonance) while others sound unpleasant (dissonance). This question has fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Physicists have been trying to find answers to the differences between acoustic features of consonance and dissonance harmony. Biologists argue that consonance perception is the basic emotional experience evoked by sound events in the auditory system. Psychologists are more inclined to examine whether musical consonance perception is nature or nurture. Such different content of disciplines can be summarized from three perspectives: 1) Emphasize the physical acoustics of musical stimulation. It is considered that certain acoustic characteristics cause a particular chord to be perceived as consonant, for instance, the simplicity of the fundamental frequency ratios of combined tones. Therefore, many theoretical explanations of musical consonance in mathematical physics had been advocated. 2) Emphasize the physiological or psychological basis of music processing, holding the sense of consonance is the basic emotional experience. For example, Hermann von Helmholtz proposed that the roughness (dissonant experience) is often generated by the dissonant intervals which contain frequency components that are too closely spaced to be resolved by the auditory system. Therefore, many biologists advocate for using physiological acoustics and psychoacoustics methods to reveal this universal processing mechanism. Both of the two theories consider the perception of music consonance is an innate ability of human being. 3) Emphasize the roles of culture aspects, arguing the musical cultural exposure and music training significantly affect consonance perception. This article reviews these empirical researches from various disciplines to analyze the basis of musical consonance and to systematically sorts out the theoretical debates going on for centuries. We also proposed that nature and nurture interact to shape how we experience musical consonance.

    Although musical consonance has been researched mainly using western theoretical perspectives, studying musical consonance in Chinese traditional music culture is urgently needed. Music is an advanced activity of human cognition and one of the universal ways of emotional expression in life. As the core element connecting music and emotion, the rationale for simultaneous consonance is still unsolved. We hope our work will facilitate further empirical research on musical consonance, especially in Chinese traditional music culture.

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    Cognitive mechanism and neural basis of shyness
    LI Liang, LI Hong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 1038-1049.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01038
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    Shyness refers to individuals’ inhibition in a social situation; it can be an obstacle to participation in social interactions. In recent years, there has been an increase in cognitive neuroscience research on shyness. Within the frameworks of the metacognition model of shyness, the social fitness model of shyness, the lateralized brain-body emotion model of shyness, and the differential susceptibility to environmental influences model of shyness, researchers have explored the brain function differences, related brain networks, and cognitive processes underlying shyness. However, current cognitive neuroscience research on shyness is still in its infancy. For example: (1) researchers have mainly defined shyness from the perspective of personality; (2) the theoretical models of shyness are far from perfect; (3) the results of relevant empirical research have been unsystematic and inconsistent.
    Based on the above, this study proposes a psychological development model of shyness, which includes the following four perspectives. (1) Timeline of human evolution: the interaction of genetic factors (susceptibility genes), the internal environment (brain), and the external environment (such as school, family, and culture) affects the development of shyness. In the process of human evolution, human beings and their offspring showed different reactivity to the external environment, resulting in the survival of the fittest. The result of this process is that some individuals carry shyness susceptibility genes, which will not only determine their internal environment (brain) but also be affected by their internal environment (brain) and shape their metacognition and cognitive processes under the influences of school, family, culture, and other aspects of the external environment. The brain environment responsible for shyness is an expression of the interaction between the cognitive control system (centered in the prefrontal lobe) and the emotional system (centered in the amygdala-hypothalamus). Specifically, the cognitive bias/emotional arousal of shy individuals is the result of an imbalance in the regulation of the limbic system (centered in the amygdala-hypothalamus) by the prefrontal cortex. In other words, when facing an external stimulus, the amygdala of highly shy individuals is highly activated, which results in a highly emotional interpretation of low-level external stimuli, which is then projected to a wide range of brain regions including the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus then activates emotional expression by regulating the autonomic nervous system. In this process, the prefrontal cortex plays a top-down regulatory role, in which the strong activation of the right prefrontal lobe and the weak activation of the left prefrontal lobe of highly shy individuals leads to the disinhibition of the activated amygdala, hypothalamus, and other brain regions. Thus, the individual’s ability to regulate their emotions becomes weak and they cannot behave in an adaptive manner. The aspects of the internal environment that influence shyness include the differentiation of brain structure, the lateralization of brain function, and the uniqueness of the brain network. Moreover, in specific brain cognitive processing tasks, individuals with different levels of shyness have significant differences in the activity of different frequency bands and different cognitive components. (2) Timeline of individual development: the critical period of individual development affects the development of shyness. Specifically, the key development period of shyness is largely affected by the development of self-consciousness. With the maturity of self-consciousness, the externalized performance of individuals with different levels of shyness can be clearly distinguished. (3) Social situations: in specific social situations, the metacognition of shy individuals guides their cognitive processes, making them show differences in their physical, emotional, and behavioral performance. At the same time, different kinds of social situations will awaken individuals’ shyness to different degrees.
    Future research can be carried out from the following perspectives based on the psychological development model: (1) in terms of personality, clarify whether shyness describes a small number of extreme individuals or is instead a dimension that can sort the whole population; (2) explore the internal process of the emotional experience of shyness; (3) develop experimental research paradigms of shyness; (4) with the help of new brain technology, deeply explore the brain mechanism of shyness; (5) verify, expand, and improve the theoretical model related to shyness in the field of cognitive neuroscience.

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    Moderation analysis for longitudinal data
    FANG Jie, WEN Zhonglin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (11): 2461-2472.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02461
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    At present, the analysis of moderating effect is mainly based on cross sectional data. This article discusses how to analyze the moderating effect with longitudinal data. If the independent variable X and the dependent variable Y are longitudinal data, longitudinal moderation models can be divided into three categories according to the type of moderator: time-invariant moderator, time-variant moderator, and moderator generated from X or Y. For example, Xtj is divided into two parts, time-varying intra-individual differences $X_{t j}-\bar{X}_{\bullet} j$ and time-invariant inter-individual differences$\bar{X}_{\boldsymbol{\bullet} j}$, and then the moderating effect of $\bar{X}_{\boldsymbol{\bullet} j}$ on the relationship between $(X_{t j}-\bar{X}_{\bullet} j)$ and Ytj can be analyzed. In that case, there will be no new moderator Z, which is characteristic of moderation research on longitudinal data in contrast to research on cross-sectional data.

    Four types of longitudinal moderation analysis approaches are summarized: 1) Multilevel model (MLM); 2) Multilevel structural equation model (MSEM); 3) Cross-lagged model (CLM); 4) Latent growth model (LGM). It is found that the decomposition of the moderating effect and the use of the latent moderating structural equation (LMS) method are the two characteristics of the moderation analysis for longitudinal data. Specifically, MLM, MSEM, and CLM divide the moderating effect of longitudinal data into three parts: the time-varying intra-individual part, time-invariant inter-individual part, and the cross-level part. In addition, the moderating effect of longitudinal data can be decomposed into the moderating effect of initial level and rate of change by LGM.

    In the present study, we propose a procedure to analyze longitudinal mediation analysis. The first step is to decide whether it is necessary to make a causal inference. If the aim of research is to make a causal inference, CLM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation. Otherwise, proceed with the second step. The second step is to decide whether it is necessary to treat longitudinal data as multilevel data. If longitudinal data is treated as multilevel data, MSEM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation, because MSEM and MLM are more suitable for describing individual differences. Otherwise, LGM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation, because only an LGM can simultaneously examine the effect of some variables on change and how the change affects other variables. The third step is to decide whether MSEM converges. If MSEM converges, the result of MSEM should be reported. Otherwise, MLM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation. Compared with MLM, MSEM takes sampling error into account when the group mean is calculated, but the convergence of the MSEM is more difficult. Therefore, the MSEM with sampling error taken into account is preferred. If convergence fails, MLM will be considered.

    This paper exemplifies how to conduct the proposed procedure by using Mplus. Directions for future research on moderation analysis of longitudinal data are discussed, such as the moderation analysis for intensive longitudinal data based on the dynamic structural equation model.

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    Cognitive reappraisal inventiveness in emotion regulation
    YAO Haijuan, WANG Qi, LI Zhaoqing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (3): 601-612.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00601
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    Emotion regulation is an essential ability to maintain individual mental health and life happiness. Cognitive reappraisal is one of the most effective emotion regulation strategies. Cognitive reappraisal inventiveness is a central component of the generation process in the context of cognitive reappraisal. It is the ability to create multiple and different reappraisals for negative situations. The total number and diversity of cognitive reappraisal strategies produced by individuals in cognitive reappraisal (i.e., the fluency and flexibility of cognitive reappraisal strategies) are taken as indicators of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness. A high creative cognitive reappraisal is an effective premise for ensuring individual emotional regulation.

    Here, we review recent studies on cognitive reappraisal inventiveness. A large body of research demonstrates that inventiveness in cognitive reappraisal is positively correlated with divergent thinking and openness, but not with neuroticism and trait anger. Creative cognitive reappraisal strategies, or high-level cognitive reconstruction using metaphor and analogy, are more conducive to the regulation of negative emotions, and the superior regulatory effect of creative cognitive reappraisal can be mediated by amygdala-based salient emotional arousal, hippocampus-based new association formation, and striatum-based mental rewarding to produce to a novel and positive experience that can be kept in long-term memory. These results are consistent with the creative reconstruction theory of cognitive reappraisal. The theory holds that an individual’s response to negative situations comes not from the event itself, but from their view of the event. Emotional situations are viewed as problems that can be solved by a variety of reappraisal styles. To regulate negative emotions, it is necessary to produce a novel and effective psychological representation of the emotional situation or event, modifying the initial maladaptive representation. Creative individuals may be more likely to find effective reappraisals. However, other studies claim that there is no correlation between cognitive reappraisal inventiveness and reappraisal effectiveness. Thus, no consistent conclusion about the relationship between cognitive reappraisal inventiveness and reappraisal effectiveness has yet been reached.

    By comparing the neural mechanisms of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness (using the Reappraisal Inventiveness Test, RIT) and traditional creativity (using the Alternative Use Test, AUT), it was found that both, the RIT and AUT, exhibited a comparatively strong increase in alpha power at prefrontal sites, indicating that they have similar brain activation patterns; however, the activation degree of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness is higher in the middle region of the prefrontal cortex, whereas the activation degree of traditional creativity is higher in the ventral prefrontal apex region. The regions of brain activation of the two forms of creativity overlap primarily in the right cerebellum, central anterior gyrus, central posterior gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex, especially in the left prefrontal network. Cognitive reappraisal inventiveness activates the right superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and left and right angular gyrus. Traditional creativity tasks primarily activate the left superior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, and left inferior frontal gyrus. This shows that traditional creativity and cognitive reappraisal inventiveness have common cognitive processing needs, including inhibiting strong responses, switching between different perspectives, and controlling memory retrieval; however, the process of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness requires the specific executive function of emotional representation.

    Future research may expand the group of participants by selecting participants with emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety disorders), improve the measurement methods of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness, explore the situational and internal factors that affect cognitive reappraisal inventiveness (e.g., positive metaphor, trait anxiety, self-efficacy, and humorous personality), and further reveal how the neural mechanisms of the special process, or reaction mechanism of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness, differ from traditional creativity.

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    The effects of gender nonconformity on adolescent peer evaluation and related dynamics
    WEN Fangfang, KE Wenlin, FANG Zeming, WANG Yang, LEI Yatian, ZUO Bin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (8): 1331-1341.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01331
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    Inherent gender is an important dimension of self-identity and social categorization, and has a huge impact on individual psychology, interpersonal relationships, intergroup behaviors and social development. Gender stereotypes, gender socialization and gender attitudes have been stable themes in disciplines, such as social psychology, developmental and educational psychology and sociology. Gender is the core component of the self-concept and an important dimension of social categorization. Gender Nonconformity is a psychological phenomenon in which individuals display gender norms that do not correspond or are inconsistent with their birth sex. In recent years, the phenomenon of Gender Nonconformity has become increasingly prominent among adolescents, and previous studies have shown that Gender Nonconformity adolescents face challenges in social adjustment such as peer relationships. Although some research paradigms and theoretical findings have been accumulated in the area of Gender Nonconformity and related areas, there are still limitations. Although some research paradigms and theoretical findings have been accumulated in the area of Gender Nonconformity and related areas, there are still limitations. Firstly, previous studies have mainly adopted the traditional binary approach of gender conformity and non-conformity; secondly, there is a lack of cognitive-motivational pathways to examine the prototypical matching and avoidance intentions of Gender Nonconformity in influencing adolescents' peer evaluations; thirdly, previous studies have mainly adopted a static perspective on gender-biased peer evaluations, ignoring the dynamic processes of gender-biased generation and evolution. To address these limitations, this study will break through the gender binary category and explain the psychological mechanisms of static effects and dynamic changes of Gender Nonconformity on peer evaluation from the perspective of the relationship between basic attributes and gender attributes, and provide possible interventions to change the negative peer evaluation of Gender Nonconformity individuals. The specific aims of the study include: firstly, to develop and provide neurophysiological evidence for the basic attributes of Gender Nonconformity; secondly, to reveal the cognitive-motivational dual-path mechanism of prototype matching and avoidance intention in the process of Gender Nonconformity influencing peer evaluation; and thirdly, to explore the dynamic evolutionary mechanism of Gender Nonconformity influencing peer evaluation.

    Focusing on the above three research aims, this study systematically examines the influence of Gender Nonconformity on peer evaluation and its evolutionary psychological mechanisms according to a progressive research hierarchy of "realization layer - algorithmic layer - computational layer". The study includes three aspects. (1) A polymorphic refinement examines the effects of Gender Nonconformity on peer evaluation, constructs a view of the underlying attributes of Gender Nonconformity and provides behavioral and neurophysiological evidence of the layers of realization. (2) A dual cognitive-motivational pathway mechanism for Gender Nonconformity to influence peer evaluation is revealed at the algorithmic level. The social cognitive paradigm is used to explore the cognitive activation of "prototype matching" and the motivational activation of "intention to avoid" in the process of Gender Nonconformity influencing peer evaluation through questionnaires, behavioral experiments and situational experiments. (3) Exploring the dynamic evolutionary mechanisms of Gender Nonconformity in peer evaluation from the abstract computational level. Using reinforcement learning paradigms, computational modelling, implicit measurement, contextual experiments and live experiments, the prototype formation process of Gender Nonconformity peer evaluations is simulated using reinforcement learning models based on a dual pathway of cognition and motivation to explore the dynamic evolutionary mechanisms of gender-biased peer evaluations and possible intervention pathways for negative peer evaluations of gender-biased individuals. The findings of this study can provide some managerial and educational insights into the effective promotion of youth gender development, peer relationships and mental health based on a gender perspective.

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    How sharing on social media influences consumer choices
    JIN Fei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (8): 1785-1793.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01785
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    In today’s highly interconnected mobile and computer-mediated environment, where the act of posting is only a click away, consumers increasingly post their consumption experiences online, from social media to review websites and e-commerce marketplaces. Echoing this momentum, a growing number of brands and marketplaces explicitly encourage consumers to post their purchase experiences by deftly including social media buttons or using hashtag-rich digital communications that directly prompt consumers to post to trigger greater engagement and sales. Previous research has mainly focused on when and why consumers share on social media after purchases. The current research examines whether, how, and when exposure to sharing cues (e.g., social media buttons) during a purchase episode influences consumer choices. We argue that exposure to sharing cues promotes impression management motivation and decreases sense of autonomy. Based on these accounts, we examine two consequences: product interest and decision termination.

    In the first research, we examine how the mere presence of sharing cues on a webpage may influence consumer behavior in unexpected ways that can variably help or hurt companies promoting their products online. Drawing upon research on the use of both social media and product consumption for self-presentation purposes, we hypothesize that the presence of social media cues increases feelings of public self-consciousness and this increased self-consciousness influences consumers’ interest. We further show that the effect of public self-consciousness on product interest is moderated by product self-presentational value. Consumers’ interest will increase for products that they would like others to see them own or use (i.e. desirable self-presentational value). However, consumers’ interest will decrease for products that they would not like others to see them own or use (i.e., undesirable self-presentational value).

    Technological advances enable firms not only to record and track transactions but also to analyze consumers’ responses to their offerings even prior to making their decisions. The pervasiveness of situations in which we are observed or even merely feel observed goes beyond direct human interactions at different stages of the decision process in the social media era. In the second research, we propose that social media cues make consumers feel being observed by others and reducing feelings of independency. This threatens consumers’ sense of autonomy, which is defined as feeling that decisions are made free from external influence. We argue that sense of autonomy, the fundamental motivation of humans, is most pronounced during the process when consumers are comparing different options. Specifically, the pre-decisional or process stage captures the stage wherein consumers are still considering the choices in the consideration set, reviewing the available information, and examining the trade-offs. On the contrary, the post-decisional or outcome stage captures the stage in which consumers already know their preferences and remind them by either sharing on social media. Notably, this distinction pertains to whether consumers are still in the midst of constructing their preferences while being observed or had already finished constructing their preferences and are being observed while indicating their choice. We show that threats to sense of decision autonomy occur if consumers are observed prior to finalizing their choice (vs. during making decisions).

    The current findings contribute to social sharing and give insights to how digital environment affects consumer behavior. Managerially, the findings demonstrate when brand-led efforts to prompt customers to share their purchases backfires.

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    The relationship between disgust and suicidal behavior
    XIAO Tingwei, DONG Jie, LIANG Fei, WANG Fushun, LI Yang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (1): 87-98.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00087
    Abstract2576)   HTML145)    PDF(pc) (851KB)(3188)       Save

    Suicide is the primary cause of adolescent death, and suicide seriously endangers the life security and mental health of human being. Suicidal behavior includes suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt and suicide. Suicidal ideation refers to serious suicidal thoughts of preparing for a fatal, self-directed, and potentially injurious behavior, or refers to the intension to die without specific plans. Suicidal attempt refers to the intension to commit suicide, including the plans for suicide and even committed suicide; they might attempt to attract attention through bodily harm, but not necessarily causing actual harm. However, suicide is self-directed harm or death. According to suicidal theories which were based on the ideation-to-action framework, self-disgust is a key factor for the formation of suicidal ideation. This article reviews theoretical basis, correlation factor and neurophysiological mechanism of disgust induced suicidal behavior, and predicts future research direction.

    Many recent studies suggested that many psychological problems, including suicide, are caused by patients' disgust to the surroundings and the environment. Disgust is a basic emotion, which is a response to disgustful things, and it is a defensive mechanism to keep people away from spoiled foods or from pollutants to prevent potential diseases, viruses and pollution. However, under heavy burdens and pressures, people would feel depressed and self-disgust, and ultimately lead to despair (extreme self-disgust), resulting in suicidal ideation. Under the condition of having suicidal ability, suicidal ideation would turn to be suicidal attempts, and thus suicide.

    It is also suggested that early life trauma might be the root for disgust inducing suicidal ideation. And life stress and mental illness might aggravate the induction of disgust to suicide. High-intensity self-disgust has been proved to be the most relevant predictor of suicidal risks in mental illness. Psychoanalysis shows that when people are disgusted by themselves, the aggression behavior induced by disgust would also be directed to themselves, so self-disgust might induce suicide.

    The neural mechanism of self-disgust inducing suicide may be related to monoamine (including serotonin) and oxytocin. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are related to the stress response system that plays a very important role in disgust-induced suicidal ideation. Besides, self-disgust may be affected by traumatic stresses in early life, current psychological problems and mental diseases, which might lead to the mal-development of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system, that determines the pattern of stress response in adulthood, including suicide.

    However, there are still some limitations in current suicide studies. First of all, most studies are still limited to cross-sectional design and cannot compare time factors. Therefore, future studies should adopt vertical design and prospective research. Secondly, since most studies are limited to questionnaire studies, future studies could apply neuroscience technologies, such as neuroimaging and electrophysiology, in investigating the neural mechanisms of suicidal behavior, as well as the psychological and neural mechanisms of suicidal behavior affected by disgust.

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    Risk-taking research based on the Balloon Analog Risk Task
    DENG Yao, WANG Mengmeng, RAO Hengyi
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (6): 1377-1392.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01377
    Abstract2509)   HTML192)    PDF(pc) (802KB)(1584)       Save

    In daily life and work, people inevitably need to make choices and decisions under risky situations. The existence of risks may bring some negative consequences to the decision-makers or maybe the beginning of new opportunities. Therefore, how people make effective decisions in different risky situations and the cognitive neural mechanism behind it has been a research hotspot in many disciplines. For many years, a variety of measurements have been used to explore an individual’s risk-taking behaviors. Many studies leverage self-reported instruments to investigate risk (e.g., Sensation-Seeking Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), while others measure risk-taking using some paradigms. The Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) is extensively accepted and applied by many researchers due to its well simulation of real-life risk-taking situations in a laboratory environment. The current study synthesizes the BART’s reliability and validity compared to other paradigms and further probes the advantages of using the BART as the measuring instrument of risk-taking behaviors. Moreover, the present study also discusses the evolution of the paradigm and summarizes the research progress of BART based on the existing behavioral and neural studies. Finally, some deficiencies of BART and the prospects for its development are put forward in conclusion.
    Compared with other risk-taking paradigms, the BART has been proved to be of high ecology, stability, and reliability under different risk circumstances. It has become one of the most widely used paradigms for risky decision-making research. It also has unique advantages in the prediction of some risks, such as smoking, drinking and substance use. As the pioneering behavioral paradigm that was exploited to measure adolescent risk-taking behaviors, the BART contributes a lot to exploring youths' addiction and substance use. Recently, researchers have developed a series of variants of the BART paradigm to adapt to the needs of different research situations. Many studies have leveraged the BART to extensively explore neural correlates of risk-taking behaviors in developmental, healthy, pathological, and addiction research. Overall, BART can not only meet the needs of behavioral measurement in different risk scenarios; but also be well combined with a series of neural measurement techniques. Neuroimaging studies have confirmed that risk-taking in the BART is associated with activations in multiple brain regions, including the ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, midbrain, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that the risk-taking behaviors measured by the BART involve rewards, emotions, learning, and evaluation. BART is also regarded as a classical paradigm for sequential risk decision-making. Similar findings are mentioned in the computational modeling of the BART data in sequential risk-taking consequences, emphasizing the critical role of learning and evaluation processes in the task.
    Although the BART has been widely used in risk-taking research, future studies are still needed to further improve the reliability and stability of the BART for cognitive neuroscience research and expand its application scope. Currently, the BART research at the neural level still lacks large sample data, which may lead to incorrect research results like underestimating the possibility of an individual’s risk-taking in real life. It is necessary to further expand the sample size, build a database based on the BART behavior and neuroimaging experiments, and share data and research results in different fields and levels to enhance our understanding of risky decision-making.

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    Regulation of facial trustworthiness evaluation: The proposal and empirical verification of the experience transfer hypothesis
    QI Yue, QIN Shaotian, WANG Kexin, CHEN Wenfeng
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 715-722.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00715
    Abstract2502)   HTML155)    PDF(pc) (589KB)(3231)       Save

    The impression of trustworthiness based on facial appearance plays an important role in interpersonal trust and cooperative behavior. Previous research results have indicated that a variety of additional information (e.g., facial features, context) could affect facial judgments by both bottom-up and top-down processes. However, the mechanism of the two adjustment factors is still unclear. Focusing on this issue, our previous research has found that the top-down process is dominant when both approaches work together. Based on previous findings, the current research proposes the “experience transfer hypothesis”, that is, whether additional information could adjust the trustworthy evaluation of the current face is depended on the evaluator’s previous experience and its generalization results. Experience generalization determines the success of experience transfer. When new cues are lack of similarity to the cues from previous experiences or when previous cues are not strongly associated with the propensity to trust, the experience of trust will not be transferred to the new condition and thus the adjustment factors will fail. When people face two conflicting adjustment cues, the cue which is more similar to the previous cues that are closely related to trust tendencies will dominate the adjustment effect. Under the experience transfer hypothesis framework, this research will design and conduct behavioral experiments to verify the critical role of previous experience in adjusting facial trustworthiness. At the same time, we will use neuroimaging techniques to explore the cognitive neural mechanism of facial trustworthiness adjustment. For this purpose, three studies have been designed in the present research. Study 1 is designed to investigate the cognitive mechanism of the bottom-up and top-down adjustment factors and verify the moderating effect of experience transfer on the evaluation of facial trustworthiness. Regarding the adjustment effect, Study 2 will explore the boundary conditions of experience transfer from three different aspects: the similarity of visual cues, the correlation between visual cues and the tendency to trust, and the contrast effect of different visual cues. Referring to the adjustment process, by using neuroimaging techniques, Study 3 will explore the influence of adjustment direction, and clarify the neural mechanism of facial trustworthiness evaluation.

    This project proposes the “experience transfer hypothesis” theoretically and introduces the variable “experience” into the process of facial evaluation adjustment, providing new ideas and empirical evidence to deepen our understanding of how interpersonal trust builds. Moreover, this research will systematically answer the question that how people use previous experiences to adjust the evaluation of facial trustworthiness on a given first impression. We will explore the boundary conditions of experience transfer, the influence of adjustment directions on the evaluation of facial trustworthiness, and find out the reason for the failure of facial evaluation adjustments. The solution to the above problems will help to deepen the exploration of the mechanism of trust behavior and improve the theory of facial evaluation. It has important theoretical significance for our in-depth understanding and discussion of the regulation mechanism of interpersonal trust. Meanwhile, it can help people improve interpersonal trust while maintaining their original appearance through the establishment of external experience. This research will provide the empirical basis for further prediction and adjustment of interpersonal trust behavior, offer suggestions for creating a harmonious and credible interpersonal relationship and social atmosphere, and guide people to adjust their own trust levels more effectively.

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    Applications of cognitive appraisal theory of stress in managerial psychology research: Scenes, methods, and myths
    JIANG Fubin, WANG Zhen
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (12): 2825-2845.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02825
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    Stressors are everywhere in the workplace. How do individuals respond to stressors? The cognitive appraisal theory of stress provides an integrated framework for explaining this question from the perspective of cognitive appraisal and coping. This theory has become the mainstream framework for describing individuals’ reactions to stressors during the past 40 years. However, because the theory did not provide the precise relationship among theoretical elements, empirical research applied the theory quite differently, resulting in various and even inadequate applications.
    We conduct this study to present the application and development of the cognitive appraisal theory of stress. 125 empirical studies in the field of managerial psychology were systematically reviewed to identify the scenarios, methods, and myths in applying the theory. The results showed that, (1) The cognitive appraisal theory of stress explains “what is cognitive appraisal?” “what factors influence cognitive appraisal?” “how individuals cope with stressors?” and “what are the consequences of stressors?”. Questionnaires are often used to collect data of theoretical elements. (2) The cognitive appraisal theory of stress can explain the impacts of six categories of stressors (physical stressors, task-related stressors, role stressors, social stressors, career-related stressors, and traumatic events) on employees’ work attitude, behavior, health, and work-family relationship. (3) The application of this theory can be considered from aspects of primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, and coping. There are two perspectives to analyze the application of primary appraisal - outcome-perspective and process-perspective. Both individual and situational factors can affect individuals’ primary appraisals of stressors. Secondary appraisal involves individuals’ appraisal of their own coping potential, and its influencing factors can be divided into individual and situational aspects, too. Coping refers to individuals’ cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage internal or external demands exceed their own resources, which contains problem-focused and emotion-focused forms of coping. (4) There are myths in using this theory among existing empirical research. For example, some studies hold the views that stressors always lead to negative consequences, certain stressors lead to certain cognitive appraisals, certain cognitive appraisals lead to certain coping styles, and problem-focused forms of coping are more effective than emotion-focused forms of coping.
    This study has several significant implications. First, we present the core ideas of the cognitive appraisal theory of stress and the measurements of theoretical elements. More importantly, we clarify some controversies about this theory, which contributes to the correct application and future development of the theory. Second, we integrate the application scenes and methods of the theory in managerial psychology research. By doing so, we broaden current understandings of this theory and then, shed light on theoretical application. Third, the myths about theoretical application are clarified. Based on this, we provide some suggestions for future research in applying this theory, which are beneficial to theoretical development and further applications. Moreover, it is important for future research to optimize the measurement of the core theoretical construct, expand the application scenarios of the theory, and enrich the influencing factors of the cognitive evaluation process.

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    The big data analysis in cultural psychology
    WU Michael Shengtao, MAO Yunyun, WU Shuhan, FENG Jianren, ZHANG Qingpeng, XIE Tian, CHEN Hao, ZHU Tingshao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (3): 317-329.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00317
    Abstract2411)   HTML124)    PDF(pc) (876KB)(2675)       Save

    With the further development of computers and big data technology, human society and its cultural forms are undergoing profound changes. The production and interaction of cultural symbols have become increasingly complex, and cultural members and their social networks have left numerous texts and behavior footprints, which makes it necessary to describe, predict, and even change the culture, so that computable cultural symbols and their interaction process have gradually become the research object of cultural psychology. In this vein, Computational Cultural Psychology (CCP), which employs big data and computation tools to understand cultural symbols and their interaction processes, has emerges rapidly, making large-scale or even full sample cultural analysis possible. The key variables of CCP are mainly about individualism and collectivism, and the analysis technologies include feature dictionaries, machine learning, social networks analysis, and simulation.
    New research avenues of CCP involve the cultural change effect from the temporal perspective and cultural geography effect from the spatial perspective. For the former, Google Ngram Viewer, Google News, Google Search, name archives, pop songs, and micro-blogs were used to analyze the cultural changes after the long-term historical development and the short-term economic transformation. For the latter, both social media (e.g., Twitter, Facebook, and Weibo) and large-scale survey were used to analyze the cultural differences of various countries or regions in different geographic spaces, as well as the relationship between culture and environment, such as cultural diversity along the "Belt and Road", person - environment fit and cultural value mismatch across different regions in a country or all over the world.
    It should be noted that there are several limitations in CCP, including decoding distortion, sample bias, semasiological variation, and privacy risk, although new methods and paradigms are provided. In future directions, theoretical interpretation of variables, cultural dynamics, interdisciplinary integration, and ecological validity should be seriously concerned. In particular, accurate definition and theoretical interpretation of big data measurement are needed; a variety of big data corpus (e.g., historical archives) should be used for the evolutionary analysis of dynamic cultures; deep integration, but not conflict, should be encouraged between culture psychology and the sciences of computer, communication, and history; and the "scenarios" of big data should be considered in promoting the ecological validity of cultural psychology.
    Taken together, a review of the emergence of CCP, as well as the empirical research on the big data analysis of cultural change and cultural geography, is helpful in understanding the advantages, limitations, and future direction of this new field, which sheds light on theoretical and methodological innovation of cultural psychology.

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    Conceptualization of time poverty and its impact on well-being: From the perspective of scarcity theory
    SUN Xiaomin, YANG Shuting, KONG Xiaoshan, LIU Zhenzhen, MA Rongzi, YUAN Yue, ZHANG Nan, JIANG Xinying, CAO Peiling, BAO Ruiji, LIN Yiqin, LI Ning, LI Zhihang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2024, 32 (1): 27-38.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00027
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    In today’s fast-paced world, increasing numbers of individuals are facing time poverty, i.e., having too much to do and not enough time. It can impact people's cognitive processes and behaviors by affecting their attention. However, the extant literature provides only a limited understanding of the influence of time poverty and its effects on individual multi-faceted well-being. Therefore, a comprehensive investigation of the concept of time poverty and its impact on well-being is of great importance theoretically and practically. The current study intends to present a three-dimensional theoretical model for the construct of time poverty from an integrated perspective, aiming to explore its effects on multi-faceted subjective well-being and investigate the potential mechanisms by which time poverty reduces well-being based on scarcity theory.

    Specifically, the current study proposes a three-dimensional structure for the concept of time poverty, which includes length, intensity, and quality. Most researchers agree that spending an excessive amount of time on paid work or unpaid domestic work and having an insufficient amount of free time leads to time poverty. Moreover, the number of tasks to be completed per unit of time may be an independent source of pressure resulting in the perception of time poverty. The stressful pace caused by over-rapid task completion and too short intervals could increase the sense of time poverty. Lastly, the quality dimension of time poverty comprises time integrity, time autonomy, and time synchronization. Low time quality could worsen the perception of time poverty. Based on the three-dimensional model of time poverty, the current study aims to develop a time poverty scale and construct a large-scale Chinese time poverty database. This database is designed to collect demographic information as well as the level of time poverty of representative samples, aiming to explore the dominant type of time poverty for different demographic groups and trace the dynamic changes in time poverty over time.

    Furthermore, the current study proposes that time poverty can have a significant impact on people’s well-being. Time poverty can develop a scarcity mindset, leading people to focus on the scarcity of time. Consequently, they overemphasize productivity, resulting in a strong inclination of completing more tasks in a shorter amount of time. Such a mindset shifts people’s attention from the activity’s process to its results, reducing intrinsic motivation and, as a result, ruining people’s well-being. An excessive focus on productivity can also harm interpersonal and family well-being by underestimating the importance of investing time and energy in nurturing relationships, thereby lowering the quality of relationship-oriented interactions. Therefore, we argue that by promoting the over-productivity orientation, time poverty can adversely affect individual, interpersonal, and family well-being. Furthermore, time poverty in one spouse's workplace produces an over-productivity tendency which then spills over to the family environment and is conveyed to the other spouse in their daily interactions. Such processes are likely to negatively influence both parties’ well-being.

    Overall, the current project develops a three-dimensional time poverty theoretical model, based on which a time poverty scale will be developed. With the new scale, a large-scale database will be constructed. The project will explore the experiences of different groups of people with distinct characteristics in Chinese society, and how such experiences influence personal, interpersonal, and family well-being. The results of the current project are of great importance for not only the successful coping of time poverty for individuals but also for societies aiming to improve the well-being of their people.

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    Prevalence of mental health problems among primary school students in Chinese mainland from 2010 to 2010:A meta-analysis
    HUANG Xiaoxiao, ZHANG Yali, YU Guoliang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 953-964.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00953
    Abstract2339)   HTML168)    PDF(pc) (574KB)(3757)       Save

    In recent years, the age of mental health problems shows a descending trend. Primary school students, as a special group in the critical stage of personal growth, are experiencing increased mental health problems that has caught wide attention from society. If the mental health problems of primary school students are not screened, prevented, and intervened in time, they may develop into lifelong mental diseases, which are difficult to redress and treat. Hence, as the basic premise of improving mental health, it is particularly important to find out the prevalence of pupils' mental health problems, so as to understand their real mental health status, and make targeted detection and intervention in the future.
    However, the prevalence of primary school students' mental health problems described in literature shows inconsistent results, and the prevalence varied greatly, which has brought confusion to mental health educators and workers. Although some researchers tried to use meta-analysis to quantitatively integrate the existing research findings, avoid the influence of biased samples, demographic characteristics, and other factors, and attempt to explore the detection rate of primary school students’ mental health problems objectively and accurately, there were still some deficiencies. Firstly, it only revealed the prevalence of some mental health problems, and did not cover more comprehensive mental health problems. Secondly, it did not specifically analyze the mental health problems in recent 10 years. Finally, the inclusion and discussion of regulatory variables were not specific enough. Therefore, based on the research results in recent 10 years, it is necessary to integrate the prevalence of primary school students' mental health problems and explore its influencing factors by using meta-analysis method.
    In order to clarify the debate on the different prevalence of primary school students' mental health problems, we analyzed and estimated the detection rate of primary school students' mental health problems in mainland China from 2010 to 2020 and investigated its moderation effects. The meta-analysis technology was used to retrieve the research on anxiety, depression, somatization, withdrawal, sleep problems, aggressive and discipline behaviors in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database and Web of Science core collection database from 2010 to 2020. Finally, a total of 101 research and 289396 primary school students were obtained: 9 articles about anxiety, 34 articles about depression, 12 articles about somatization, 10 articles about withdrawal, 11 articles about sleep problems, 13 articles about aggressive behavior, and 12 articles about disciplinary behavior. The software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.3 and the random effect model was selected for analysis.The results showed that (1) The prevalence of mental health problems in primary school students from high to low were sleep problems (25.2%, 95%CI = [0.16, 0.37]), depression (14.6%, 95%CI = [0.12, 0.18]), anxiety (12.3%, 95%CI = [0.06, 0.23]), aggressive behavior (4.1%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.10]), withdrawal (3.8%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.06]), disciplinary behavior (3.7%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.07]) and somatization (3.6%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.07]); (2) Measurement tools, measurement standards and detection period were the key factors causing the fluctuation of prevalence of mental health problems among primary school students in China. Generally speaking, the overall mental health status of primary school students in China is acceptable except that the prevalence of sleep problems, depression and anxiety are high. In the future, we should develop mental health assessment tools and detection standards suitable for Chinese primary school students to provide support for the prevention and accurate intervention of mental health problems.

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    The performance and psychological mechanism of contamination effect in consumer behavior
    MENG Lu, XIE Yufeng, LI Tongmao, DUAN Shen, ZHANG Liangbo
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 941-952.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00941
    Abstract2310)   HTML119)    PDF(pc) (828KB)(2513)       Save

    The pneumonia outbreak caused by the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has been defined as a public health emergency by the World Public Health Organization and poses a serious threat to economic development worldwide. Since that COVID-19 is highly contagious, and the number of infected people and is unprecedented, many governments have taken strong measures to control the spread of COVID-19. In the face of sudden major disasters, people are prone to panic. As a result, individuals pay more attention to personal protection-related issues, and the consumption of protective and health products increases significantly (Yang et al., 2020). Because COVID-19 is spread mainly by droplets and contact, consumers are avoiding products that others may have touched or used for fear of catching the virus. Data from iiMedia Research also showed that the number of users of shared charging banks in China maintained rapid growth to 307 million in 2019. However, due to COVID-19, the number of users dropped to 229 million in 2020. It can be seen that consumers are increasingly concerned about health-related issues, thus amplifying the potential contamination effect on consumer behaviors.

    It has been more than 20 years since contamination effect was first introduced into psychology. Up to now, contamination effect has been widely adopted to explain behaviors in many fields, including product evaluation, celebrity effect, organ transplantation, preference for shrine, valuation of original artwork, cross-cultural differences in collecting behavior, gambling decisions, individual abilities and performance, and even romantic relationships. Although consumers are often faced with a variety of content cues to induce their perception of contamination in daily consumption, there is little known about what consumer behaviors will occur under the influence of contamination effect and what the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions are for these behaviors. There is still no an integrated research framework that can generalize and explain the application of contamination effects to consumer behavior to answer these questions. More importantly, the continuous updating of emerging research backgrounds such as Internet +, new retail and big data provide new insights for the study of contamination effects, however, there is little systematic review of these effects and paradigms.

    In this study, we mainly review the definition and characteristics of contamination effect in the studies of consumer behavior, and then explore the antecedents of contamination effect from the aspects of exposure factors, location factors, product factors and social factors, and further summarize its negative and positive effects on consumer behavior. Finally, the theoretical basis and boundary conditions of contamination effect are well discussed. Based on these discussions, the future research direction of contamination effect in the field of consumer behavior is prospected.

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