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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    Research Method
    The big data analysis in cultural psychology
    WU Michael Shengtao, MAO Yunyun, WU Shuhan, FENG Jianren, ZHANG Qingpeng, XIE Tian, CHEN Hao, ZHU Tingshao
    2023, 31 (3):  317-329.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00317
    Abstract ( 1128 )   PDF (690KB) ( 1397 )  
    With the further development of computers and big data technology, human society and its cultural forms are undergoing profound changes. The production and interaction of cultural symbols have become increasingly complex, and cultural members and their social networks have left numerous texts and behavior footprints, which makes it necessary to describe, predict, and even change the culture, so that computable cultural symbols and their interaction process have gradually become the research object of cultural psychology. In this vein, Computational Cultural Psychology (CCP), which employs big data and computation tools to understand cultural symbols and their interaction processes, has emerges rapidly, making large-scale or even full sample cultural analysis possible. The key variables of CCP are mainly about individualism and collectivism, and the analysis technologies include feature dictionaries, machine learning, social networks analysis, and simulation.
    New research avenues of CCP involve the cultural change effect from the temporal perspective and cultural geography effect from the spatial perspective. For the former, Google Ngram Viewer, Google News, Google Search, name archives, pop songs, and micro-blogs were used to analyze the cultural changes after the long-term historical development and the short-term economic transformation. For the latter, both social media (e.g., Twitter, Facebook, and Weibo) and large-scale survey were used to analyze the cultural differences of various countries or regions in different geographic spaces, as well as the relationship between culture and environment, such as cultural diversity along the "Belt and Road", person - environment fit and cultural value mismatch across different regions in a country or all over the world.
    It should be noted that there are several limitations in CCP, including decoding distortion, sample bias, semasiological variation, and privacy risk, although new methods and paradigms are provided. In future directions, theoretical interpretation of variables, cultural dynamics, interdisciplinary integration, and ecological validity should be seriously concerned. In particular, accurate definition and theoretical interpretation of big data measurement are needed; a variety of big data corpus (e.g., historical archives) should be used for the evolutionary analysis of dynamic cultures; deep integration, but not conflict, should be encouraged between culture psychology and the sciences of computer, communication, and history; and the "scenarios" of big data should be considered in promoting the ecological validity of cultural psychology.
    Taken together, a review of the emergence of CCP, as well as the empirical research on the big data analysis of cultural change and cultural geography, is helpful in understanding the advantages, limitations, and future direction of this new field, which sheds light on theoretical and methodological innovation of cultural psychology.
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    Conceptual Framework
    The functional brain network that supports human spatial navigation
    KONG Xiang-Zhen, ZHANG Fengxiang, PU Yi
    2023, 31 (3):  330-337.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00330
    Abstract ( 358 )   PDF (646KB) ( 368 )  
    The system for representing space/places is one of the core knowledge systems in the human brain. Spatial navigation is also emerging as a potential cost-effective cognitive biomarker to detect Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in the preclinical stages. Existing studies have revealed multiple regions across the brain that are specific for different cognitive components of spatial navigation, such as the scene selective areas located in the parahippocampal gyrus and the retrosplenial cortex. Recently, it has been suggested that a non-aggregate network process involving multiple interacting brain regions could better characterize the neural basis of spatial navigation. But little is known about how these regions work together as a network (referred to as navigation network) to support flexible navigation behaviors. This work presents a conceptual framework for research to explore the brain network basis of spatial navigation. Various cutting-edge techniques including multimodal brain imaging, brain network modeling, big data analysis and brain stimulation are integrated for this purpose. Accordingly, three different studies are described as following.
    Study 1 focuses on localization, modeling and analyses of the network for spatial navigation. Specifically, a large-scale neuroimaging meta-analysis which integrates thousands of functional activations in relevant tasks will be used to localize brain regions important for spatial navigation. Then, multimodal brain networks will be modeled based on data of different imaging modalities, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion MRI, and resting-state and task functional MRI. Next, graph-theorical techniques will be used to investigate the topological properties such as modularity and hub distribution of the networks. We are also interested in the interactions of these different networks.
    Study 2 aims to identify influencing factors of spatial navigation. Using a public database of large samples (e.g., UK Biobank), association analyses will be conducted between the network properties and a large number of genetic and environmental variables including early life experience factors (e.g., birthplace, family economic status, and home street layouts) and genetic variants. Integrative approaches including multivariate analysis (e.g., partial least squares, PLS), genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) and genetic functional analysis will be applied. Genetic-environmental interactions will also be investigated.
    Based on results of this project, in Study 3 we focus on the stimulation of the navigation network. We are particularly interested in the hub regions within this network. Specifically, direct electrical stimulation and stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) will be combined. This work plan to recruit a group of patients with medically refractory epilepsy who has undergone SEEG electrode implantation due to clinical needs. Stimulation targets will be determined according to the network modeling results of the present project and previous studies (e.g., hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex). With SEEG and direct electrical stimulation, we will explore the stimulation effects of different targeting regions on navigation network and behavioral performance. Effects of various stimulation parameters will also be explored.
    In sum, this project integrates interdisciplinary research techniques and computational methods, and aims to establish a brain network model for spatial navigation, reveal important factors that influence the development of this network, and explore the underlying mechanisms of such influences. Results of the present work would provide new insights into understanding the neural network basis of spatial navigation in humans. The established network model and the potential stimulation mechanisms would provide new data and perspectives for studying brain disorders of cognitive impairments such as AD, and help develop new methods for early diagnosis and precise treatment of relevant disorders. In addition, results of this project would spur new theoretical thinking for study of spatial navigation as well as other cognitive functions, which in turn would facilitate new research questions and hypotheses on human cognition and relevant disorders.
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    Is uncertainty bad? Mixed findings and explanatory model of error processing under uncertainty
    YANG Qing, LI Yaqin
    2023, 31 (3):  338-349.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00338
    Abstract ( 402 )   PDF (676KB) ( 570 )  
    Errors are inevitable in human decision-making and goal-directed behavior. However, errors can bring adverse consequences and are sometimes life-threatening (such as mistakes in high-risk operations). Effectively monitoring errors and optimizing behavior are thus critical to individual survival and development. The occurrence of errors is affected by people’s internal psychological state, when they make decisions and take actions in an uncertain state. Whether the uncertainty enhances error monitoring or not is an important scientific question. Currently, there are contradictory findings. Based on our previous work and theoretical analysis, this project proposes a new theoretical model (i.e., uncertainty-error processing integration mechanism model based on personality differences) to explain the contradictory results. Firstly, we propose that the effect of uncertainty on error processing depends on whether it enhances or weakens motivational level: When the uncertainty is highly relevant to the error processing task at hand (i.e., the error itself leads to uncertain consequence; a high relevant situation), the uncertain state may enhance error monitoring by heightening motivation. Conversely, when the uncertainty is not directly related to the consequence of the error (i.e., a low relevant situation), the uncertainty state cannot heighten or even weaken motivation and thus would not contribute to the enhancement of error monitoring. Secondly, uncertainty-related personality differences (e.g., intolerance of uncertainty) may be another important moderating mechanism, because difference in intolerance of uncertainty implies that individuals differ in their tolerance and error sensitivity to ambiguous situations, thus affecting their motivation levels and modulating error processing in uncertain states. In summary, the current project focuses on the binding situations of error consequence and uncertainty (i.e., high relevant situations) and mainly examines the moderating role of intolerance of uncertainty. Specifically, Study 1 is designed to investigate the cognitive characteristics of error monitoring and post-error adjustment (e.g., error awareness, post-error slowing) in a variety of uncertain situations (e.g., reward/punishment), examining the moderating effect of intolerance of uncertainty with a series of behavioral experiments. Study 2 would explore the underlying electrophysiological representations (e.g., error-related negativity, ERN; error positivity, Pe), time-course, and neural oscillation mechanisms (e.g., parieto-occipital alpha-band oscillations) in EEG experiments. Together, this project is conceived to provide empirical evidence of uncertainty-related personality as a modulation mechanism in error processing under uncertain situations, and offer practical implications in promoting human environmental adaptation and goal achievement. We also acknowledge that this project has not yet been able to fully reveal the specific mechanisms by which motivation affects error processing. In future designs, it is necessary to combine personality with various cognitive factors (e.g., attention, working memory) and comprehensively explore their effects on error processing under uncertainty, and then further validate and enhance the current theoretical model.
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    The cognitive neural model of procrastination and related interventions
    FENG Tingyong, ZHANG Biying
    2023, 31 (3):  350-360.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00350
    Abstract ( 669 )   PDF (1184KB) ( 1033 )  
    Procrastination is defined as a voluntary but irrational delay of an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. The previous studies have indicated that chronic procrastination exists in different cultural backgrounds, which 15% to 20% adults are chronically procrastinators, and more than 70% students admit to academic procrastination, with approximately 16% of them experiencing severe procrastination problem. Procrastination not only impacts people's study, work performance, but also impairs physical and mental health. However, procrastination has complex psychological process, including at least three stages, such as evaluation, decision-making and execution. To date, the cognitive neural mechanism of procrastination behavior was still unclear with a lack of causal evidence. Therefore, based on the time decision model of procrastination and the triple neural structure network model, this project intended to build a cognitive neural model of procrastination, then using cognitive interventions and neural regulation techniques to test it. According to the cognitive neural model of procrastination, this project tried to develop precise intervention plans for procrastination.
    This project was divided into three parts: (1) From the perspective of recording and association research, cognitive behavioral experiments, multimodal neuroimaging methods, such as task state, resting state, structural state, and cognitive neural computational modeling was used to construct a cognitive neural model of procrastination. In the process of building the model, we systematically investigated the corresponding cognitive components and characteristics of neural circuits in the evaluation, decision and execution stages of procrastination. (2) From the perspective of causal/quasi-causal studies, this project manipulated core competencies including episodic prospection, self-control and emotion regulation, in which to investigated the changes before and after the intervention, such as the functional connectivity of the brain network of episodic prospection, and network efficiency. This part intended to further examine and develop the cognitive neural model of procrastination behavior. (3) From the perspective of clinical application, this project developed a screening-diagnosis system for patients with clinical procrastination behavior disorder according to the psychiatric symptom diagnosis system and the criteria of psychosocial impairment. This system would be applied to distinguish patients with mild, moderate and severe procrastination. Based on this, effective intervention programs with distant migration effect for procrastination behavior disorder patients were developed, including cognitive intervention and neuroregulatory treatment strategies.
    To sum up, this project has built a cognitive neural model of procrastination from the perspective of the dynamic psychological process of procrastination, and improved it through the causal manipulation of cognitive intervention and neural regulation. This study not only reaped important theoretical contribution to the exploration of the core cognitive neural mechanisms of procrastination, but also obtained practical implications for the effective prevention and precise treatments of procrastination.
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    Double-edged sword effect of supervisor bottom-line mentality on team innovation
    YANG Mengxi, LIN Yuying, CHEN Wansi, CHEN Xuan, BAO Hongying, LI Xinyu
    2023, 31 (3):  361-370.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00361
    Abstract ( 301 )   PDF (615KB) ( 458 )  
    Bottom-line mentality is a one-dimensional mindset that focuses on obtaining bottom-line profit results to the exclusion of all other competing priorities (e.g., corporate social responsibility, employee welfare, stakeholder rights, etc.). While bottom-line mindset may lead managers to focus on performance at the expense of other important business benefits, or even to take unethical measures to achieve their goals, research has also shown that bottom-line mentality can improve employee focus and thus performance.
    In contrast to revealing the positive or negative effects of bottom-line mentality in a single way, this study innovatively focuses on the double-edged sword role of bottom-line mentality and explores its mechanisms on exploratory innovation, exploitative innovation, idea generation and idea implementation, respectively, which strongly advances the progress of existing research. On the one hand, in the cross-sectional dimension for different components of innovation, the study takes a cognitive-motivational perspective and shows that the leader’s bottom-line mentality tends to make the team risk-averse and adopt exploitative innovation, which is less risky than exploratory innovation, by inducing a high priority on performance within the team. By clarifying the double-edged role of the leader’s bottom-line mentality on exploratory and exploitative innovations with the help of the team’s willingness to take risks, the boundary role of goal-oriented organization performance is clarified, thus enriching the theoretical research and application practice of bottom-line mentality, exploratory innovation and exploitative innovation. On the other hand, in the longitudinal dimension for different processes of innovation, the study takes an affective motivation perspective and points out that the leader’s bottom-line mentality puts employees in a state of compulsive passion and focuses on achieving performance goals by various means, which is more conducive to the implementation of ideas than idea generation. This study explores the mediating paths and boundaries of action with the help of team obsessive passion and leader-subordinate exchange relationship. It aims to comprehensively reveal the positive and negative influence paths of leader bottom-line mentality on team idea generation and idea implementation, which is conducive to deepening the theoretical research and application of the two stages of bottom-line mentality and innovation, and further expanding the research on the effect of bottom-line mentality on team-level innovation.
    This study classifies innovation based on two dimensions of innovation content and process, constructs a theoretical model of the different mechanisms of the leader’s bottom-line mentality on four important sub-concepts of innovation (exploratory innovation, exploitative innovation, idea generation, and idea implementation). It will deeply analyze the consequences of the leader’s bottom-line mentality on the two types and two stages of team innovation, which deepens the theoretical research on the bottom-line mind and innovation. At the same time, it also helps teams to understand the two sides of bottom-line mentality from a practical perspective, and helps them to reasonably deploy resources to guide and control the formation and effect of bottom-line mentality, which is an important reference value for enterprises to formulate strategies and coordinate resources.
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    Meta-Analysis
    The effects of shame on prosocial behavior: A systematic review and three-level meta-analysis
    GUO Ying, TIAN Xin, HU Dong, BAI Shulin, ZHOU Shuxi
    2023, 31 (3):  371-385.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00371
    Abstract ( 388 )   PDF (627KB) ( 574 )  
    Shame is a typical moral emotion whose effects on prosocial behavior were not consistent in previous studies. Some studies have shown its constructive effects on prosocial behavior, while others have demonstrated its destructive effects on prosocial behavior. Thus, some factors may have a potential impact on the role of shame on prosocial behavior. In view of this, this study used the three-level meta-analysis to integrate relevant empirical studies to examine the effects of shame on prosocial behavior and the role of moderating variables in the relationship.
    The study was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). And literature search and screening were conducted using common Chinese and international databases, including CNKI, PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, EBSCO, ProQuest, etc. The keywords for shame were “shame”, and for prosocial behavior were “prosocial behavior”, “helping behavior”, “altruistic behavior”, etc. By February 2022, 26 papers (20 in English and 6 in Chinese) with 85 effect sizes were included, with a total sample size of 5823 participants. The research used the metafor package in R to conduct three-level meta-analysis, which solves the problem that the effect size of traditional meta-analysis is not independent, preserves the integrity of information and improves the statistical efficiency.
    The results of the publication bias test indicated that there was no significant publication bias in this study. Based on the main effect test, the shame group showed much more prosocial behavior than the control group (g = 0.33), suggesting that shame can promote the generation of prosocial behavior. The heterogeneity test found significant differences in both within-study variance (levels 2) and between-study variance (levels 3), which indicates significant heterogeneity between studies. The moderating effect test revealed that shame was more likely to induce prosocial behavior in the expose situation than in the masking situation. However, the moderating effects of age, cultural background, shame-induced method, the type of shame, the type of prosocial behavior, and the generating situation of prosocial behavior (experimental situation or daily situation) were not significant, suggesting that the influence of shame on prosocial behavior has a strong stability.
    The study is the first to demonstrate that shame promotes prosocial behavior by using a three-level meta-analysis method, which responds to the controversy of the existing theories and research findings on the topic and provides support for the theory that shame facilitates prosocial behavior. Moreover, for the first time, cultural background, the type of shame, and generating situation of prosocial behavior were examined as moderating variables to investigate the relationship between the two, revealing the reasons for the heterogeneity of shame's influence on prosocial behavior. It provides a new perspective or theoretical interpretation of the inconsistent conclusions of the existing studies on the relationship between the two, and contributes to the theoretical construction of indigenous research on the topic. Based on the findings of this study, future explorations of this topic need to be examined combined with situational factors. Subsequent research could further investigate the influence of cognitive factors and individual characteristics in the effects of shame on prosocial behavior, and examine the different effects of shame and other moral emotions on prosocial behavior.
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    The advantages and disadvantages of interpersonal anger: Evidence from meta-analysis
    WANG Xudong, HE Yaji, FAN Huiyong, LUO Yangmei, CHEN Xuhai
    2023, 31 (3):  386-401.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00386
    Abstract ( 334 )   PDF (2998KB) ( 498 )  
    Previous studies have shown that expressing anger toward others, also known as interpersonal anger, has social effects. The social effects of interpersonal anger remain controversial, with some researchers finding that it improves the behavior of the emotional recipient, while others find that it negatively affects both the expresser and the recipient. It can be perceived that there may be other factors moderating the effects of interpersonal anger, but few studies have explored it. To investigate the pros and cons of interpersonal anger, we conducted a meta-analysis based on a systematic and comprehensive review of published studies on interpersonal anger. We examined the social effects of interpersonal anger and its possible moderating factors from subjective evaluation and behavioral performance.
    The review was performed following the rigorous PRISMA protocol. Published studies were selected from the current major database, including English and Chinese literature. The database used included VIP Journal Integration Platform, Wan Fang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, and ProQuest. Keywords used were “interpersonal anger”, “anger”, “angry”, “interpersonal emotion”, “emotion expression”, and “anger expression”. Finally, a total of 67 studies were included, in which there were 7 studies in Chinese and 60 in English (N = 15462 participants). The random-effect model was used to summarize the effect size (Hedge’s g), and the publication bias analysis and moderating effect analysis were carried out in CMA 2.0.
    Our results showed that expressing anger, whether using the neutral or happy group as the control group, led to more negative subjective evaluations of the expressers, but did not significantly alter the behavioral performance of the recipients. Based on the high heterogeneity of the main effects, we inferred that the dependent variables might need to be subdivided for further analyses. After disintegrating the dependent variables, we found that when the expressers expressed anger, the recipients reduced their evaluation of the expressers’ attitudes, they felt that the situation was unfair, and increased their desire for revenge. Meanwhile, interpersonal anger was found to improve the recipients’ work or study performance, while reducing their willingness to engage in prosocial behaviors. In addition, expressing anger was found to increase the income of the expressers in a competitive environment. Due to the limited number of included literature, the moderating effect analyses were conducted only on the recipients’ cultural backgrounds and social powers. The results showed that in the background of western culture, the anger recipients believed that the affinity of the anger expresser was lower than that of those who expressed neutral emotion, and they were less willing to make concessions. Individuals with lower social power, compared with those with higher ones, made more concessions when receiving anger and had less influence on others when expressing anger.
    In conclusion, interpersonal anger can change the recipients’ behaviors but can also increase their negative evaluations of the anger expresser and the interpersonal situation. Specifically, anger recipients are prone to make more concessions, engage in less prosocial behaviors and more problem-solving behaviors, perceive the current situation as more unfair, and evaluate the anger expresser as less affinitive and competent. The influence of interpersonal anger on prosocial behavior and competitive gain is moderated by the recipients’ cultural background and social power. These results suggest that interpersonal anger has both advantages and disadvantages. It can be used as a suitable strategy but also as an inappropriate way to control others’ behaviors, depending on the expresser’s purpose, relative power, and cultural background.
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    Regular Articles
    Effects of acute versus chronic pain on reward processing and the underlying neural mechanisms involved
    LIU Peihan, ZHANG Huoyin, ZHANG Xukai, LI Hong, LEI Yi
    2023, 31 (3):  402-415.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00402
    Abstract ( 268 )   PDF (1449KB) ( 382 )  
    Pain and reward are two basic motivational factors that regulate human perception and behavior, and can provide individuals with different behavioral motivations and subjective value experiences. Both pain avoidance sand reward seeking are essential for survival. Pain can be categorized into acute and chronic pain, and reward can be differentiated into a motivational component in the anticipatory phase and a hedonic component in the experiential phase. Acute pain increases the motivational component of reward and increases or decreases the hedonic component of reward, whereas chronic pain decreases the motivational component of reward and, and generally, decreases the hedonic component of reward.The neural mechanisms by which pain affects reward are mainly related to changes in the dopamine and opioid systems and neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex(mPFC). Acute pain affects reward processing through neural mechanisms related to increased dopamine release, functional changes in the opioid system, and modulation of the mPFC. On the other hand, chronic pain leads to abnormal changes in the dopamine system, opioid system, and functional connectivity of the mPFC -voxel nucleus in the reward circuit, and reduces activation of brain regions associated with reward processing. These changes in neural mechanisms suggest that adaptive changes in reward circuits based on pain experience can predict the chronicity of pain. Further analysis revealed that the different effects of acute and chronic pain on reward processing are due to the following four factors: First, different symptom expressions in acute and chronic pain; second, different activities of the dopamine and opioid systems in acute and chronic pain; third, different mechanisms of neural activity in the neural in acute and chronic pain; and fourth, different mechanisms of reward processing in acute and chronic pain caused. In acute pain conditions, activation of brain regions that overlap with reward circuits is enhanced, thereby enhancing the motivational and hedonic components of reward processing; in chronic pain conditions, activation of these brain regions is abnormal, reducing the motivational and hedonic components of reward processing. Owing to the inconsistencies between current findings and previous studies, many issues should be addressed and resolved in the future: First, the issue of reproducibility of studies and comparability of results must/should be addressed by standardizing the relevant experimental operations and using uniform experimental paradigms and measures. Second, the immediate neural activity changes in the neural corresponding with the effects of acute pain and chronic pain on reward processing can be further explored. Next, the differences between acute pain and chronic pain can be examined, and based on these differences, the question of whether different types of chronic pain have different effects on reward processing and different changes in reward processing circuits can be investigated, the effects of different types of chronic pain on reward processing neural circuits can be measured separately, and the transition from acute pain to chronic pain can be prevented. Finally, the effects of different types of chronic pain on reward processing can be explored based on the co-morbidity of chronic pain and mood disorders, and further, the effects of different types of chronic pain on reward processing can be explored. Based on this, the relationship between different degrees of deficits, different types of chronic pain, and mood disorders should be clarified.
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    The co-varying relationship between children and adolescents’ peer networks and bullying-related behaviors from the perspective of social networks
    ZHANG Libin, ZHANG Qiwen, WANG Chenxu, ZHANG Yunyun
    2023, 31 (3):  416-427.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00416
    Abstract ( 378 )   PDF (1096KB) ( 543 )  
    Bullying is a group dynamic process, of which peer ecology is an essential context for the occurrence and development of bullying. Although existing studies have focused on peer factors that influence bullying, there is still limited research that systematically examines the development and changes in bullying-related behaviors from a group dynamics perspective. This study reviewed twenty social network studies and analyzed the development of bullying-related behaviors from structural and relational characteristics of social networks in the previous studies. As shown in Figure 1, these social networks include two parts: structures and relationships. Structural characteristics include group structure (e.g., classroom hierarchy) and individual position (e.g., embeddedness and betweenness). Relationship characteristics include static relationships (e.g., rejection and friendship) and dynamic relationships (e.g., selection and influence process).
    Generally, these social network findings could be summarized as follows. First, as for the role of structural characteristics, it was found that classroom hierarchy (as an indicator of social prominence in the peer group) could directly predict the incidence and severity of bullying. Particularly, a classroom with a higher hierarchy tends to worsen the bullying situation, thus, all students in these classrooms are at a greater risk. At the same time, individual’s position in the network is a critical ecological marker for identifying those who are at risk for bullying, which could provide the possibility for early prediction and prevention. Second, as for the role of relationships in the network, on the one hand, these studies found that friendship increases the spread of bullying-related behaviors within the network, for example, bullying, victimization, and defense behaviors. On the other hand, these studies also demonstrated that bullying-related behaviors can format and maintain friendships in the networks, which bring together those with similar behaviors and exclude those with different behaviors. For example, bullies and defenders were unlikely to select victims as friends. Consequently, victimized individuals are excluded and isolated from various groups. By contrast, the mutual selection of bullies attracts them together and forms a "bully" gang. In this way, it polarizes bullying behaviors in groups and intensifies bullying-related behaviors from individual to group.
    Future research could, first, explore the occurrence and development of bullying-related behaviors by measuring individuals' central location in the network (such as degree centrality, closeness centrality) and different relationship strengths, relationship scales, and relationship types in social networks from multiple perspectives. Second, future research should systematically and comprehensively examine the developmental changes in different bullying roles in networks to construct patterns of propagation and dissipation behaviors related to bullying roles and the patterns of mutual transformation among different roles. Meanwhile, the moderators and mediators should also be explored in future studies. Finally, future research should strengthen the collectivist culture and the importance of academic achievement, which could reveal the cultural and social environment imprint of bullying-related behaviors developing in China and provide a better empirical basis for bullying interventions from the perspective of group ecology.
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    Family resilience theory in the risk coping context: Evolution, value and challenge
    AN Yeqing, QI Shisan, ZENG Xiaoye, JIN Tonglin, CAO Chengxu
    2023, 31 (3):  428-442.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00428
    Abstract ( 404 )   PDF (1622KB) ( 808 )  
    In recent years, frequently occurred major risk events such as earthquakes, floods, and the COVID-19 pandemic have posted a significant threat to people's lives and health. Family resilience has become an important protective factor for individuals and families to cope with risks. Family resilience theory has also become one of the most widely applied theories in the field of risk coping.
    Family resilience theory was proposed as a new stress coping model by McCubbin, a clinical psychologist studying the military families' response to the war crisis, based on family stress theory and family systems theory. After several major revisions, the family resilience theory has developed from a static characteristics model into a dynamic change theory and formed a theoretical system with extensive connotation and extension. However, the “Double ABCX model” and “FAAR model” within the theoretical system are most commonly used in empirical research, and many researchers equate these two models with the family resilience theory, which leads to overgeneralization in the application. In addition, this theory came from family therapy in Western culture, and risk coping researchers have often ignored the huge difference between the cultural traditions of Chinese and Western families. To a certain extent, overlooking cultural differences has affected the researcher to deeply understand the family resilience theory in China. Chinese researchers should hold a prudent attitude when applying the family resilience theory to explain the family risk coping in China, avoiding problem of “cutting the feet to fit the shoes”.
    Family resilience theory was applied to topics such as trauma repair and stress coping in the early stage. Later, it was applied to topics such as resilience. It is worth noticing that the family resilience theory revealed a peaked influence in risk coping studies in China over recent years. The consistently enriched research topics and gradually increasing theoretical and empirical studies highlighted the practical value of family resilience theory. At present, The family resilience theory has become a practical guide for clinical interventions. It has also become an important explanatory mechanism for the “crisis-adaptation” relationship at four levels (i.e., state, society, family, and individual) since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The family resilience theory has been expanded many times, its explanatory power has been constantly improved, and it has also been widely used in risk coping. However, applying the family resilience theory to risk coping research still faces challenges from several sources, such as meta-theoretical research, methodology, cross-cultural research, and social change. Meta-theoretical research challenges the family resilience theory primarily from the accuracy of the definition of family resilience concepts and the integration of theoretical models; methodology challenges the accuracy of family resilience assessment mainly from three aspects: research objects, research methods, and assessment tools; the cross-cultural and social change research challenges the applicability of the family resilience theory in Chinese context, mainly based on the strong appeal of localization and the uniqueness of family intergenerational relations in the period of social transformation.
    Future research should cope with these challenges by clarifying the concept of family resilience and integrating the different family resilience models, using mixed methods and developing assessment index systems, and promoting localization of the family resilience theory. It is also important to build a family resilience theoretical system with Chinese characteristics considering Chinese traditional "family culture", in order to improve the vitality and explanatory power of the family resilience theory and reflect the contribution of oriental philosophy to the contemporary world, and further enhance the international academic discourse power of Chinese psychology.
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    Perceived warmth and competence: The role of physiological cues in social cognition
    CHENG Jieting, SHI Mengwei
    2023, 31 (3):  443-454.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00443
    Abstract ( 321 )   PDF (529KB) ( 405 )  
    Warmth and competence provide universal frameworks for analyzing social cognition. They were found to be central to context-driven evaluations of individuals and groups. Consequently, one of the critical questions regarding social cognition is the relationship between these two dimensions and social factors. From a functional perspective, many physiological cues were also thought to reflect the primary concern of the social perceiver in gathering information about someone’s warmth and competence. For example, facial cues were derived from their traits and expression; vocal cues from pitch, intonation, rate, fundamental frequency, and their changes; and body cues from the in-out effect, powerful gesture, vertical motion, and temperature. Individuals attributed the information on these cues to warmth and competence, aiming to assess others’ intentions and ability to enact them. Further, they simultaneously try to follow stereotypes and specific psychological conditions.
    Individuals bring physiological cues into their physical perception and information about warmth and competence in social cognition. Notably, there might be two ways to connect the physical and social domains: correspondence or priming. The correspondence hypothesis between physical perception and social cognition emphasizes the existence of a matching basis, including the same brain regions, social categorization and social concept as mediation, associated memory between non-human subjects and social cognition, and conceptual networks extending the correspondence boundary. The priming hypothesis emphasizes that warmth and competence are the basic dimensions through which individuals interpret all information, including physiological cues. Individuals constantly try to understand the world through specific dimensions, which can be primed by any stimulus from an abundance of physical or social information. Warmth and competence also work similarly, where information about humans, organizations, objects, and artificial intelligence play the role of stimulus. Notably, facial sensory information is essential for classifying warmth and competence. During this priming process, perceivers would translate all sensory information into a coherent understanding based on their own expectations without considering the consistency between the processing results and information content.
    Figuring out the relationship between physical perception and social cognition helps understand how warmth and competence represent the fundamental dimensions of social evaluations and improve their flexibility to interpret myriad situations. First, the relationship between physical perception and social cognition might be so complex that it is necessary to describe which physiological cue of a particular context is drawn by perceivers to assess their own or others’ warmth and competence. Suppose there are multiple physiological cues strongly related to the evaluation of warmth and competence. In that case, this would change the evaluation outcome of warmth and competence efficiently and compendiously. Second, physiological cues are numerous, and each plays only a small role in determining the warmth and competence evaluation results. Therefore, the configuration of physiological cues, as a combination of conditions relevant to a given evaluation outcome of warmth and competence, might correspond significantly to the social cognition process from theoretical and ecological perspectives. The configuration model has two advantages. One is seeking out how various combinations of physiological cues efficiently explain individuals’ intention and action based on the real situation; another is ascertaining whether specific physiological cues have independent influence, including how it works. Finally, physiological cues are maneuverable in most situations and could be changed any time or anywhere. Based on this character of physiological cues and the relationship between physical perception and social cognition, exploring how factors in reality could change individuals’ evaluation outcome of warmth and competence would influence social bias.
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    Legs move, thoughts flow: Physical exercise influences creative thinking
    LI Qingyang, YIN Junting, LUO Junlong
    2023, 31 (3):  455-466.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00455
    Abstract ( 295 )   PDF (553KB) ( 382 )  
    Creative thinking is the ability to generate novel and useful solutions to a problem, of which divergent and convergent thinking are two common types. Evidence shows that physical exercise may influence these two types differently. For divergent thinking, the beneficial effect on creative flexibility and originality is larger than fluency. Although there is no consistent conclusion yet regarding convergent thinking, most studies show that physical exercise is not related to or even detrimental to convergent thinking; however, some studies have found the exercise facilitation when the convergent thinking task is thought-directed.
    Many factors moderate the effect of physical exercise on creative thinking. (1) The optimum exercise intensity varies at different exercise frequencies; moderate intensity proves more beneficial in the case of acute exercise, while higher intensity is needed for long-term exercise. (2) Regarding exercise forms, free exercise such as free walking is more effective than restricted exercise such as treadmill walking. (3) In the simultaneous paradigm, the best exercise duration for creative thinking is 20-30 minutes, while in the relay paradigm, the exercise duration of 5 minutes to 1 hour is effective, which might include some time-delay effect. (4) Compared with children and older people, exercise effect on young adults is lower due to the ceiling effect; The effect is less likely to be seen in children aged 6-13 than in children of other ages who are undergoing physical and mental developmental changes. (5) Individuals who are physically fit and those with an exercise habit show stronger convergent thinking after exercise.There are theories that explain the effect of physical exercise on creativity: the mood hypothesis, the executive function hypothesis, and embodied metaphor theory. The mood hypothesis has two perspectives: the one which considers only emotion valance, suggesting that positive emotions triggered by exercise facilitate creative thinking and negative emotions undermine it; and the other which considers both mood activation, suggesting that both positive and negative emotions that are activated rather than deactivated can enhance creative thinking, but using different routes. Controversy remains in the executive function hypothesis, moreover, with some researchers arguing that physical exercise enhances creative thinking by depleting cognitive control resources. Nevertheless, in recent years an increasing number of studies have found beneficial effects of physical exercise on executive function, with some claims that improvements in creative thinking are dependent on improvements in some executive functions, such as working memory capacity and cognitive inhibition. Embodied metaphor theory suggests that abstract concepts are metaphorically grounded in concrete experience; creative thinking can be likened to free movement or specific gesture, thus inspiring divergent and convergent thinking.
    Further exploration of the relationship between exercise and creative thinking is demanded in the future. Above all, emphasize the normative and scientific aspects of research and expand the scope to include non-intellectual factors of creative thinking, such as emotional creativity and creative personality. Furthermore, more neuroscience research should be conducted further to reveal the mechanism underlying the complex effects of exercise on creativity. Additionally, pay attention to the mechanisms that influence creative thinking through exercise in different population groups, with a view to expanding the scope of research to include young children, older people, and special groups. Finally, the relationship between physical exercise and creative achievement will be explored, especially the long-term and even permanent effects of physical exercise on creative thinking, enabling us to provide scientific support for the exercise prescriptions to improve the public's creativity.
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    Prompt reply: Workplace telepressure in the information and communications technology (ICT) era
    SUN Hui, XU Jie
    2023, 31 (3):  467-479.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00467
    Abstract ( 344 )   PDF (603KB) ( 452 )  
    Workplace telepressure is the sense of urgency felt by employees as they strive to respond to their ICT-based work messages as soon as possible. It has detrimental impact on employees’ occupational psychological health and family life, thus drawing increasing attention in recent years. However, existing studies have revealed the antecedents and consequences of workplace telepressure in a scattered and unsystematic manner. This study strives to provide a comprehensive overview of the antecedents and consequences of workplace telepressure based on job demands-resources (JD-R) model together with effort-recovery model. In terms of antecedents, following a clear conceptual definition of workplace telepressure, this study draws on job demands-resources model to diffientiate different types of ICT use into job demands and job resources. Further, we propose that ICT-related job demands, such as work overload, control over job demands, and organization norms for ICT response, can lead to workplace telepressure, and that employees have the tendency to view ICT-related job demands as challenging job demands rather than hindrance job demands. In addition, this study also distinguishes individual factors into personal demands and personal resources, with personal demands leading to higher workplace telepressure whereas personal resources alleviating workplace telepressure. Regarding the consequences, high workplace telepressure leads employees who struggle to respond to job demands engage in more ICT-based response behaviors during both work and non-work hours. Nevertheless, according to the effort-recovery model, facing high workplace telepressure, employees who prefer responding to ICT messages promptly should have difficulty in detaching from work-related activities psychologically either during work breaks or non-work hours, which prevents them from resource recovery. Continuous exposure to high job demands and insufficient recovery can lead to an accumulation of strain reactions, impairing employees’ chronic health such as occupational psychological health (including burnout, increased feelings of stress, reduced work engagement, etc.), family life (mainly in the form of work-family conflict and reduced well-being), and work performance. Finally, according to the current research progress, we propose several potential directions for future research: (1) To distinguish between task-related and interpersonal-related workplace telepressure as well as to clarify the time intervals to which response delays refer; (2) To investigate further on the effects of personal demands such as ICT anxiety, personal resources such as self-esteem, and job demands/resources such as social norms of time in different cultural contexts, leader-member exchange, and family-supportive organizational climate; (3) To reveal the impact of different communication softwares used in ICT-based communication, as well as to explore the loss spiral effect of workplace telepressure on employees; (4) To conduct intervention studies based on the antecedents and consequences of workplace telepressure, such as developing clearer organizational standards related to response expectations and creating a family-supportive organizational climate. In addition, employees can also proactively craft their jobs to optimize their work environment. By systematically reviewing the antecedents and consequences of workplace telepressure, this study not only enriches our current knowledge about the consequences of ICT use but also provides valuable suggestions for future research and interventions to mitigate the negative effects of workplace telepressure. Meanwhile, this study is of great value for enhancing employee occupational psychological health and improving organizational performance.
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    The double-edged sword effect of consumers’ photo-taking behavior on consumption experience
    LIU Hongyan, ZHENG Yun, LIU Yaozhong, QIAO Fei
    2023, 31 (3):  480-491.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00480
    Abstract ( 346 )   PDF (626KB) ( 441 )  
    The evolution of digital photographic technology and the rise of social media have made photo-taking an indispensable part of people’s daily lives. Photo-taking can provide consumers with concrete evidence of their experiences; it can also invite them to revisit their recollections of the experience and share the memories with others. Although photo-taking has become an integral part of people’s everyday lives, no review studies have been found that synthesize or theoretically explain the influence of photo-taking on consumption experiences. Consumers may use photo-taking to create visual records of their consumption experiences. Photo-taking behavior in the broad sense includes not just shooting images, but also a variety of photo-related activities such as looking back, editing, and sharing photos.
    What impact does photo-taking behavior have on consumption experiences? This paper presents a review of studies on the effect of photo-taking on consumption experiences. We creatively differentiate the influence of photo-taking behaviors on consumption experiences into two categories: bonus effect and deficiency effect, composing the double-edged sword effect, which could be explained from the theoretical perspectives of motivation, cognition, and emotion. On the one hand, photo-taking behavior can provide consumers with a kind of bonus impact based on the “visual experience bonus,” that is, the pleasant emotional and cognitive reactions elicited by photo-taking behavior via concentrating consumers on visual components. For example, taking photos may direct customers’ attention to the focal part of the visual elements and increase their visual recollection of the encounter. On the other hand, photo-taking behavior might cause negative consequences on consumers, in that consumers may miss the genuine experience of other sensory experiences (i.e., smell, taste, hearing, and touch) because of their concentration on the visual experience in a photo shoot, a condition known as “the deprivation of other sensory experiences.” For example, taking photos during an experience forces consumers’ attention to switch between the experience and taking photos, leading to distraction from the experience; taking photos prompts consumers to focus on the visual experience, resulting in less experience with other senses and lower memory accuracy.
    Based on prior research, our paper recommends practical future research directions, with the goal of providing some reference for research and corporate marketing practice in this field. The future research topics can be extended in three aspects. First, researchers can explore how different objects in photo-taking affect consumption experiences, product reputation, and brand attitudes. Furthermore, objects in photo-taking activate visual and other sensory imagery. As a result, it is also possible to investigate the breadth and depth of other sensory imagery experiences elicited by photo-taking behavior. Second, in the future, the boundary conditions of the bonus impact of photo-taking on consumption experiences in various social and experiential settings may be investigated. The influence of photo-taking behavior on consumption experience may change depending on the social milieu and kind of encounter. Third, the double-edged sword impact of photo-taking behavior should be explored more in corporate marketing research. Consumer engagement and immersion in the activity may be reduced if photo-taking behavior concentrates on visual features while disregarding the true senses of hearing, touch, taste, and smell. Therefore, the influence of photo-bonus taking’s effect on improving corporate marketing performance may be particularly investigated, as well as expanding research on the positive impact of photo-taking on re-experiencing intents and behaviors.
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    Zero in consumer decision-making: The zero-price effect and the zero-comparison effect
    YANG Zhichao, WANG Ting
    2023, 31 (3):  492-506.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00492
    Abstract ( 272 )   PDF (578KB) ( 318 )  
    Current research has shown that numbers impact consumer decision-making. The number “zero”, owing to its features as being the minimum natural number and non-divider, influences consumer decision-making through its combinations with the price and attribute dimensions of products. Scholars refer to the effects of zero price and zero attribute on consumption decision-making as the zero-price effect and the zero-comparison effect, respectively. The zero-price effect refers to the phenomenon that in the selection between high- and low-price products, when all product prices are reduced by the same amount and the price of the low-priced product is reduced to zero, the proportion of high-priced product being selected decreases and the proportion of low-priced (free) product being selected increases. Research on the zero-price effect includes the classic zero-price effect, the zero-price effect in bundled promotion, and the zero-price effect in freemium. The zero-comparison effect means that when the desirable attribute of a product shifts from a small non-zero number to zero, the proportion of this product being selected increases, and when the undesirable attribute of a product shifts from a small non-zero number to zero, the proportion of this product being selected decreases.
    The current literature further focuses on the mechanisms underlying the zero-price effect and the zero-comparison effect. Affect and social norms are two psychological mechanisms to explain the zero-price effect. The affect perspective holds that the emergence of the zero-price effect includes two processes. In the first process, the free product evokes consumers’ positive affect. In the second process, positive affect makes consumers more inclined to choose the free product, which generates the zero-price effect. The perspective of social norms is another approach to explaining the zero-price effect. The social norms of reciprocity and politeness make consumers more inclined to choose zero-price products, thus resulting in the zero-price effect. Reference dependence is the mechanism to explain the zero-comparison effect. The reference dependence perspective states that people rely on relative differences of a product attribute to make decisions. Since “0” cannot be used for the comparison of relative differences, consumers thus lose the reference point, which makes it hard to identify relative differences of a given product attribute, thereby lowering the influence of relative attribute differences on consumers’ decision-making which leads to the zero-comparison effect.
    Some studies focus on the boundary conditions of the zero-price effect and the zero-comparison effect. These studies reveal that product price, product type, and consumer psychology are the boundary conditions for the zero-price effect, whereas the number of choice options is the boundary condition for the zero-comparison effect.
    We suggest that future research be carried out in the following ways. For the zero-price effect, future research can further explore how product type, social norms influence the zero-price effect. Since price not only symbolizes the monetary cost (sacrifice), but also the product quality, future research can consider the impacts of price-sacrifice and price-quality on the zero-price effect. Moreover, future research on the zero-price effect can concentrate on attention, examining whether the zero-price effect comes from the fact that the zero price attracts more consumer attention. For the zero-comparison effect, future research can be based on structural alignment model and equate-to-differentiate model to further study consumers' “comparison mechanisms” for product attributes and their influences on the zero-comparison effect. Finally, future research may also investigate the association of the zero-price effect and the zero-comparison effect by exploring whether price can be seen as an “undesirable” product attribute.
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