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    The influence of emotion on eating behavior
    ZHOU Aibao, XIE Pei, TIAN Zhe, PAN Chaochao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (11): 2013-2023.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02013
    Abstract4127)   HTML399)    PDF (439KB)(5653)      

    Eating behavior is not only regulated by the biological needs of people, but is also affected by emotional states, motivations, diseases, and more. There is a complex relationship between emotion and eating behavior. Consuming food can influence people's emotion. On the other hand, food attention, subjective appetite, and food intake can be influenced by emotion. Many studies have focused on emotional eating due to negative emotions. However, fewer studies focus on the effect that positive emotion has on eating behavior. The relationship between positive emotion and eating behavior is still controversial, as the relationship is underrepresented in research. The present study analyzed the eating behavior of clinical and non-clinical individuals who were affected by negative or positive emotions, and further explored the neurophysiology of eating behaviors and the various theories of the effect that emotions have on eating behaviors. The results showed that negative emotion increased attentional bias and intake for food and subjective appetite in the general population. This process was also affected by other factors; for example, modest women may restrict their food intake while experiencing negative emotions, so they may regain a sense of control which would offset the unpleasant feelings they were experiencing. In this study, there were two results regarding the effect that positive emotion has on eating behaviors. One theory was that positive emotions broaden momentary thought-action repertoires of people, which in turn builds their endurance. This leads us to believe that people resist food intake after positive emotion is induced. However, contrarily, positive emotion could increase hedonistic behavior in people, thus increasing food intake to maintain the experience of pleasure. Negative emotion increased both attention bias for food cues and subsequent intake in people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders. Negative emotion causes decreased food intake in people suffering from anorexia nervosa. Positive emotion decreased binge eating in people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders and relieved restrictive eating behaviors in people with anorexia nervosa. According to the reward theory, negative emotion can enhance reward sensitivity toward food. Following increased food intake, this process may show a synergy effect in the amygdala, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Negative emotion ruins the inhibitory control of individuals, meaning that they may begin to overeat, in association with the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. According to self-related theory, negative emotion induces negative self-awareness. People can show attention bias due to immediate environmental stimulus, as overeating is meant to help people escape from their own negative self-awareness. Placing their attention on binge eating allows people with bulimia or other binge eating disorders to avoid dealing with information or environmental stimulus that may be hurtful. From the perspective of social culture, most eating behaviors with positive emotion have some special or celebratory meaning which increases the hedonic-oriented eating behavior of the individual. In general, the association between emotion and eating behavior has a certain regularity to follow. In the study, during a negative emotion, an individual’s eating behavior manifested in an extreme, unhealthy pattern, whether that meant an increased or decreased food intake. This study found a direct association between emotion and eating behavior; However, social culture, symbolism and connotation of certain foods, and an individual’s default eating styles (disinhibited and restrained eating) should be considered alongside the influence that emotion has on eating behaviors. In addition, most past studies self-reported food intake and subjective appetite as recorded by the individuals as the measurement. Future studies should adopt neuro-physiological methods to explore the effect of emotion on eating behavior and study a small set of neurons in the hypothalamus which regulates appetite, for example.

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    Less is more: A theoretical interpretation of minimalism in consumption
    CHEN Siyun, WEI Haiying, XIONG Jiwei, RAN Yaxuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (11): 2043-2061.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02043
    Abstract3213)   HTML272)    PDF (859KB)(2761)      

    Minimalism refers to a lifestyle that seeks satisfaction in a non-material world by reducing consumption. Given the increasing popularity of minimalistic consumption (i.e., voluntary simplicity), it is necessary to understand minimalism more comprehensively. First, we provide a categorization scheme related voluntary simplicity, including its conception, dimensions, and measurements. Characterized by a minimal, simple, and responsible lifestyle, minimalism can be defined as the degree to which consumers select a lifestyle to minimalize their consumption and to take control of their life. The practice of simplified living typically entails minimizing possessions, consuming less, and valuing personal growth.
    Then, factors that influence minimalistic consumption are presented. The reasons for individuals to adopt simplifying behaviors are manifold. That is, motivations for engaging minimalistic consumption are multifaceted and complicated, including both internal (i.e., personal, financial, lifestyle) and external (i.e., economic, social, environmental) motivations. In addition to consumers who curtail their consumption due to financial restraints, there are consumers who consciously consume, although they are financially well off. The rejection of the concept that one’s success is determined by his/her material goods (i.e., materialism) has prompted interest in minimalistic consumption. In addition, some simplifiers (i.e., minimalistic consumers) are driven by motives of environmental sustainability. That is, when consumers give greater consideration to the natural environment and ecological system, they may engage in voluntary simplicity to live both well and sustainably. Furthermore, people can lead an independent and self-determined life through minimalistic consumption; therefore, a desire to achieve an autonomous life is an important antecedent of minimalistic consumption. Moreover, philosophical motivation (i.e., religious belief) is another factor driving minimalism in consumption.
    Moving forward, the potential impacts of minimalistic behavior are shown. Minimalism has a positive influence on individual, societal and environmental wellbeing. Adopting low consumption helps expand mental space, resulting in a feeling of lightness, relaxation, and clarity. A minimalistic lifestyle facilitates individuals’ positive emotions while reducing their negative emotions such as depression. Consumers can also reduce their dependence on the market offerings by curtailing the overall consumption, in search of a simpler but happier life. Additionally, minimalistic practices offer several wellbeing benefits such as meaning and happiness. In addition, a minimalistic lifestyle can improve harmony in communities, as it can help build more connections with others in society. By sharing skills, donating to charities or giving back to the community, simplifiers can experience a sense of community and closeness to others, thus enhancing communal well-being. More importantly, most literature notes that this lifestyle is positively associated with environmental and ecological wellbeing. With a strong ecological awareness, consumers tend to protect the environment through a variety of practices, such as decreasing carbon emissions, avoiding excess packaging, and preserving resources and habitats. Collectively, we categorize antecedents of minimalistic consumption into four types (i.e., demographic, psychological, situational, religious factors). We also summarize the effects of minimalistic consumption in the previous research, such as enhancing happiness and sense of meaning.
    In order to understand voluntary simplicity, four theories (i.e., theory of basic values, self-determination theory; hierarchical theory of needs; self-regulation theory) were introduced. By combining these theories, we shed a novel light on understanding the forming process of minimalistic consumption. Specifically, in self-observation stages, individuals generate self-directed values. Based on these values, consumers make judgments whether their needs are satisfied. Lastly, in the self-reaction phase, consumers adopt the results of these judgments, and they evaluate achieve autonomy, competence and relevance from the self-determination theory. Given the important role of minimalistic consumption in the contemporary marketplace, it is essential for both marketers and scholars to know more details in simplifying practices. Several directions (e.g., developing valid measurements, taking cultural differences into account, identifying boundary conditions) for future research are discussed.

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    Identifying people based on physiognomy: Explanations from cognitive perspective
    ZHANG Chao, WEI Xuhua, LI Yingming
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 308-323.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00308
    Abstract2317)   HTML133)    PDF (952KB)(2927)      

    Physiognomy is an important factor in identifying and inferring the individual traits and behaviors. However, its internal mechanism still needs to be further explored. Physiognomy usually refers to individual facial features, mainly including partial features and overall features. The partial features of facial features include the size and shape of the five sense organs, and the thickness of hair, while the overall features of facial features include objective facial width-to-height ratio and subjective facial attractiveness. Based on general cognitive perspective and evolutionary cognitive perspective, then combined with the local and overall features of physiognomy, this paper expounds the process and effect of judging people by physiognomy.

    The general cognitive perspective emphasizes that people study the process of cognition from the perspective of information processing, which emphasizes the process of perception. The individual’s response to physiognomy is mainly a by-product of the brain’s processing of information, which is the processing mechanism for general information. Based on stereotypes, halo effects, status generalization theory, and social information processing theory, scholars use different cognitive processing systems to illustrate the process of getting to know people and their effects. Specifically, local features such as the size and shape of the five sense organs, the thickness of the hair, and overall features such as the facial width-to-height ratio and facial attractiveness can affect individual recognition of traits such as empathy, friendliness, extroversion, self-confidence, narcissism, aggression, dominance and criminological inheritance through different cognitive processing systems. Observers’ subsequent behaviors is based on the individual traits’ information recognized by the physiognomy. On the one hand, people will judge their income, ability, and social level based on the identified individual traits. On the other hand, these individual traits play an important role in the trust decision-making, the recruitment and promotion decision-making process. All in all, physiognomy affects the recognition of individual traits through various cognitive processing systems, and these traits play important roles in judgment (ability, income, social hierarchy) and decision-making (trust, recruitment, promotion).

    Compared with the general cognitive perspective, the evolutionary cognitive perspective emphasizes that in the process of processing information, people will identify which cues are related to health, survival, propagation and adaptation to the environment according to the evolutionary needs. Based on evolutionary theory, evolutionary intrasexual competition theory and the good genes theory, scholars have discussed how to know people and its effect through two different evolutionary selection mechanisms: natural selection and sexual selection. The observer uses the gene as the driving force to identify the observed physiognomy. Observers assessed marital satisfaction, life satisfaction and happiness based on the health and genetic status they identified. In order to meet the needs of evolution and survival, people will choose a mate according to the health and genetic status of the individual identified when observing facial features, combined with the evolutionary law of "survival of the fittest". In conclusion, physiognomy plays an important role in evaluating individual health and genetic status through various evolutionary selection mechanisms, and thus has an important influence on judgment (marriage satisfaction, happiness, life satisfaction) and mate selection decision.

    In addition, the effect of physiognomy on individual life depends on the situations and individual traits. The decision situation of the face viewer, the cultural context of the face owner, and the individual traits of the face viewer and the face owner all influence the effect of physiognomy’s identification. Future research should investigate the interaction among different physiognomy features, and explore the boundary conditions that influence the effect of facial recognition. Furthermore, it is necessary to improve the external validity of the research through big data analysis, and pay more attention to physiognomy features modified by epigenetics on individuals. It is also important to conduct research within the domestic context. In doing so, it will help enrich physiognomy-related research and build a more systematic physiognomy theory.

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    The effect of attachment on the process of emotional regulation
    HUANG Yufei, SHI Pan, CHEN Xu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 77-84.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00077
    Abstract2042)   HTML181)    PDF (582KB)(3491)      

    Previous studies based on attachment theory have proved the influence of attachment on emotion regulation. These influences can be manifested in many aspects, such as the choice of emotion regulation strategies, the effect of emotion regulation, and some cognitive processing related to emotion regulation. However, these studies ignore the complexity and diversity of emotion regulation as a process, and therefore cannot answer how attachment can affect emotion regulation. The extended process model divides emotion regulation into three stages, and clearly describes the process of emotion regulation and the relationship between various factors in the process. Combining the extended process model and the attachment theory to look back to previous studies is helpful to find out the relationship among these studies and expand new research directions. From the perspective of the extended process model, it can be found that there are individual differences related to attachment in all the three stages of emotional regulation. Specifically, in the recognition stage, the influence of attachment on emotion regulation is mainly reflected in the cognitive processing related to emotions. Both higher attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are related to lower emotion recognition ability. At the same time, higher attachment avoidance is related to lower emotion recognition ability, and higher attachment anxiety is related to lower emotion regulation self-efficacy. In the selection stage, individuals with different attachment styles have different preferences for the choice of emotion regulation strategies. Most studies have found that individuals with secure attachment prefer to use highly adaptable and efficient strategies (such as cognitive reappraisal), and individuals with insecure attachment styles prefer to use strategies which are less adaptable and efficient(such as hypo-regulation or hyper-regulation). In the implementation stage, most studies have found that both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are significantly positively correlated with emotion regulation difficulties or disorders, but in some studies, high attachment avoidance individuals may not have problem with emotion regulation. In general, many factors are influenced by attachment in the process of emotion regulation, and the extended process model provides a theoretical framework for describing the sequence and causal relationship between these factors. However, there are still many key issues that have not yet been resolved. Future research can be expanded from the following aspects: The influence of attachment on emotional regulation should be explored while paying attention to the impact of environmental factors; New experimental paradigms need to be designed to confirm the continuity of the three stages and explore the reasons why attachment could affect emotional regulation. It is necessary to explore the influence of attachment on the emotion regulation flexibility. In addition, future intervention studies should design more targeted interventions to improve the emotion regulation of insecurely attached individuals.

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    Emoji image symbol’s social function and application
    JIN Yuchang, DENG Chenglong, WU Ping, LIN Xi, ZHENG Peixuan, AN Junxiu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 1062-1077.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01062
    Abstract2004)   HTML64)    PDF (662KB)(2321)      

    Nowadays, with the rapid development of the Internet, online communication has become increasingly popular and popular. However, due to the lack of nonverbal cues in face-to-face communication, it is difficult for people to detect the emotional state of each other, which hinders normal communication. Emoji, which compensate for nonverbal cues in online communication, have been introduced into cyberspace to compensate for the absence of gestures and facial attributes in online communication, and have been developing constantly. The development of Emojis has gone through Emoticon composed of ASCII characters, Emoji of pictographic icons and now emerging more vivid and interesting stickers. This paper will mainly comb, analyze and summarize the functions, influencing factors and interaction mechanisms of Emoji in network communication, as well as the current application of Emoji in different fields, and put forward the future research direction of Emoji based on the current research status of Emoji.
    At the beginning, Emoji is borrowed from Japanese animation symbols, and gradually developed into a widely used image symbol system. Since the creation of Emoji by Shigetaka Kurita in 1999, it has been enriched and developed continuously At present, Emoji has become a tool commonly used around the world to replace non-verbal cues such as body gestures and facial expressions in digital communication. In the process of continuous use in Internet communication, Emoji has been equipped with many functions, including expressing emotions, enhancing expression, changing tone, maintaining or enhancing interpersonal relationship, etc. At the same time, the use of Emoji is also affected by many factors, including age, gender, culture, context and platform. In addition, we also explore the interactive mechanism of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of symbol interaction theory, so as to clearly reveal the specific interaction process of people in online communication through Emoji.
    At present, with the continuous development and widespread use of Emoji, its application scope has been extended to many other fields besides Internet communication. In the field of sentiment analysis, Emoji has become an important object of sentiment analysis due to its rich emotions. In psychometrics, Emoji has been developed into a nonverbal tool for evaluating personality and depression which has the same reliability and validity as text items. In the field of commercial marketing, Emoji has begun to play a role in advertising marketing and attracting consumers, and can measure consumers' food-related emotions in the form of questionnaires. In the field of legal judgment, Emoji has gradually become a powerful evidence in judicial trials due to its widespread use. Through the above analysis and summary, we put forward the future research direction of Emoji from the following aspects: (1) explore the application and future development trend of Emoji in online communication; (2) study on the application of Emoji in other fields; (3) further explore the neurophysiological mechanism of Emoji; (4) discuss the positive effect of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of cognitive processing.

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    Effects of mindfulness-based interventions on self-compassion: A meta-analysis
    SUN Tengwei, YAN Yuxian, JIN Yuchang, AN Junxiu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (10): 1808-1828.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01808
    Abstract1986)   HTML163)    PDF (2465KB)(3158)      

    Both mindfulness and self-compassion have positive effects on mental health, and the relationship between them has always been the focus of researchers. And mindfulness and self-compassion are also closely related. Previous research has found that mindfulness can predict an individual's level of self-compassion, a component of which also includes mindfulness. However, different studies used the same two variables to measure, and the correlation coefficient between mindfulness and self-compassion was significantly different. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the reasons for the large correlation coefficient difference between mindfulness and self-compassion. In this study, meta-analysis method was adopted, combined with empirical research results from global research, to deeply explore the relationship between mindfulness-based interventions and self-compassion in different groups and different contrast ways, as well as the factors that affect the relationship between them.

    Through a comprehensive search of Chinese and English literature up to November 2020, a total of 65 literature were finally included in this meta-analysis, including 62 English literature and 3 Chinese literature, and 99 independent effects were obtained, with a total sample size of 8103. In addition, 22 articles were included in the literature using horizontal comparison, 42 articles using longitudinal comparison; 16 articles using follow-up comparison. This paper mainly used Pearson correlation coefficient r as the effect value, and the effect value of the literature was coded as an effect value for each independent sample. If a paper reported multiple independent samples at the same time, the effect value would be coded separately to generate multiple independent effect sizes. After testing the publication bias through funnel plot, Rosenthals Classic Fail-safe N test, and Egger's test, it is found that there was no publication bias. After the heterogeneous test, the article also has high heterogeneity, so the analysis after the random effect model is selected. Sensitivity analysis showed that the degree of heterogeneity was effectively reduced after using One-study removed to gradually delete the research with higher heterogeneity, but regardless of the degree of heterogeneity, the intervention based on mindfulness was positively correlated with self-sympathy. This study discussed the moderating effects of different contrast methods (horizontal comparison, longitudinal comparison, follow-up comparison), sample groups (students, health care related workers, social related workers), and measurement tools (SCS, SCS-SF) on the relationship between mindfulness and self-compassion. The subgroup test showed that the relationship between mindfulness-based intervention and self-compassion was influenced by the moderating effect of contrast style, but not by the sample group or measurement tool.

    The results showed that the mindfulness-based intervention had a significant positive correlation with self-compassion, and the mindfulness-based intervention had a positive impact on the level of self-compassion. The relationship between the mindfulness-based intervention and self-compassion was affected by the way of measurement comparison, but did not have a significant moderating relationship with the group and the measurement tool. The reason why there is such a big difference among many domestic and foreign studies is probably due to the difference of measurement methods and the difference caused by the in unity of measurement methods. Overall, in many experimental studies on the relationship between mindfulness and self-compassion, no matter which contrast method is used for measurement, the individual's level of self-compassion has increased after mindfulness-based intervention.

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    Regulation of facial trustworthiness evaluation: The proposal and empirical verification of the experience transfer hypothesis
    QI Yue, QIN Shaotian, WANG Kexin, CHEN Wenfeng
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 715-722.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00715
    Abstract1917)   HTML103)    PDF (589KB)(2681)      

    The impression of trustworthiness based on facial appearance plays an important role in interpersonal trust and cooperative behavior. Previous research results have indicated that a variety of additional information (e.g., facial features, context) could affect facial judgments by both bottom-up and top-down processes. However, the mechanism of the two adjustment factors is still unclear. Focusing on this issue, our previous research has found that the top-down process is dominant when both approaches work together. Based on previous findings, the current research proposes the “experience transfer hypothesis”, that is, whether additional information could adjust the trustworthy evaluation of the current face is depended on the evaluator’s previous experience and its generalization results. Experience generalization determines the success of experience transfer. When new cues are lack of similarity to the cues from previous experiences or when previous cues are not strongly associated with the propensity to trust, the experience of trust will not be transferred to the new condition and thus the adjustment factors will fail. When people face two conflicting adjustment cues, the cue which is more similar to the previous cues that are closely related to trust tendencies will dominate the adjustment effect. Under the experience transfer hypothesis framework, this research will design and conduct behavioral experiments to verify the critical role of previous experience in adjusting facial trustworthiness. At the same time, we will use neuroimaging techniques to explore the cognitive neural mechanism of facial trustworthiness adjustment. For this purpose, three studies have been designed in the present research. Study 1 is designed to investigate the cognitive mechanism of the bottom-up and top-down adjustment factors and verify the moderating effect of experience transfer on the evaluation of facial trustworthiness. Regarding the adjustment effect, Study 2 will explore the boundary conditions of experience transfer from three different aspects: the similarity of visual cues, the correlation between visual cues and the tendency to trust, and the contrast effect of different visual cues. Referring to the adjustment process, by using neuroimaging techniques, Study 3 will explore the influence of adjustment direction, and clarify the neural mechanism of facial trustworthiness evaluation.

    This project proposes the “experience transfer hypothesis” theoretically and introduces the variable “experience” into the process of facial evaluation adjustment, providing new ideas and empirical evidence to deepen our understanding of how interpersonal trust builds. Moreover, this research will systematically answer the question that how people use previous experiences to adjust the evaluation of facial trustworthiness on a given first impression. We will explore the boundary conditions of experience transfer, the influence of adjustment directions on the evaluation of facial trustworthiness, and find out the reason for the failure of facial evaluation adjustments. The solution to the above problems will help to deepen the exploration of the mechanism of trust behavior and improve the theory of facial evaluation. It has important theoretical significance for our in-depth understanding and discussion of the regulation mechanism of interpersonal trust. Meanwhile, it can help people improve interpersonal trust while maintaining their original appearance through the establishment of external experience. This research will provide the empirical basis for further prediction and adjustment of interpersonal trust behavior, offer suggestions for creating a harmonious and credible interpersonal relationship and social atmosphere, and guide people to adjust their own trust levels more effectively.

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    Effects of ambient light on mood and its mechanism
    LI Yun, RU Taotao, LI Siyu, CHEN Hanyu, XIE Shuya, ZHOU Guofu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 389-405.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00389
    Abstract1896)   HTML176)    PDF (796KB)(2098)      

    As an essential timing factor, ambient light plays a vital role in synchronizing internal biological rhythms with external lighting and dark environments. Meanwhile, ambient light is also a critical mood regulator; its non-image-forming (NIF) effects on mood are especially concerned by researchers. Previous studies have demonstrated that illuminance, correlated color temperature (CCT), and wavelength of ambient illuminance are key physical factors affecting mood. Moreover, unusual lighting patterns such as short lighting periods, artificial lighting during the night, and constant lighting/darkness have destructive effects on emotion and mood that may induce affective disorders such as depression and anxiety.

    To date, the conclusion that short-time light affects emotion is not quite consistent. Studies have found that the NIF effects of short-term light on mood was not only affected by the intensity and spectrum of light, but also modulated by exposure duration, timing, individual characteristics, subjective preferences, and gene types. In a period of time, the longer the subjects received bright light exposure and the earlier they received morning light exposure, the lower their depression score. However, in the short-term lighting experiment of simulating office lighting, prolonged exposure of bright light was not conducive to individuals’ subjective emotional experience; while the positive effect of CCT on emotion may depend on prolonged exposure. It is worth noting that receiving light exposure at different time in a day can advance or delay the circadian rhythms; thus, the timing could also regulate light’s emotional function. In addition, women were found to prefer higher illuminance and lower CCT than men; while young subjects were more sensitive to polychromatic light with shorter wavelength than older subjects. Compared with individuals with PER34/4 genotype, individuals with PER35/5 genotype were more sensitive to light exposure and had a higher risk of depression; the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was also proved to regulate the effect of light on the functional connectivity of the prefrontal cortex in healthy subjects. Lastly, the mechanisms by which light affects mood are shown from two aspects. On the one hand, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells may project light signals to the brain areas responsible for emotion regulation. On the other hand, ambient light may affect mood by altering circadian rhythms, regulating hormone secretion, neurotransmission, and sleep.

    Future research can employ neuroscience technology to simultaneously examine the changes of subjective emotional experience and objective neural activity under multi-levels of illuminance and CCT; and combine multimodal data such as subjective rating, behavioral measurement, physiological response, and neural activity to track the effects of ambient light on mood. Besides, except for the NIF of light, ambient light may convey specific emotional meanings via the visual system, thus leading to various visual experiences transmitted by illuminance or wavelength, or lighting mode (direct or indirect lighting). Therefore, whether the visual perception of light, dominated by rods and cones, also potentially contributes to light's emotional function and how to separate it from the non-visual effects could be a promising direction in future research.

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    Moral injury: A review from the perspective of psychology
    AI Pan, DAI Yan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 168-178.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00168
    Abstract1859)   HTML123)    PDF (679KB)(2586)      

    Moral injury refers to the long-lasting psychological, biological, spiritual, behavioral and social impact on an individual after the exposure to morally injurious events, which entail “perpetrating, failing to prevent, bearing witness to, or learning about acts that transgress deeply held moral beliefs and expectations” (Litz et al., 2009). Since Litz et al. (2009) redefined this concept from the perspective of psychology, moral injury has attracted extensive attention in the fields of psychology, ethics, psychiatry, and sociology. The present article reviews and summarizes the concept, relevant mechanisms, measurements, and interventions of moral injury and offer recommendations for future research. We first review the background of moral injury. Moral injury can be traced back to survivor guilt, which has long been regarded as one of the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, Litz et al.(2009) pointed out that moral injury and post-traumatic stress disorder are two different concepts, and Shay(2014) listed the five differences between moral injury and post-traumatic stress disorder in detail. Next, we review the mechanisms of moral injury. Under the influence of individual and social factors, potentially morally injurious events that severely violate an individual's moral code can lead to cognitive dissonance and intrapsychic conflict, and eventually produce lasting shame, guilt, and anxiety. In addition, different types of potentially morally injurious events may lead to different types of moral injury, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. Self-oriented events (e.g., committing a crime, failing to prevent a crime, etc.) are more likely to result in negative internal emotions and cognitions (e.g., guilt, shame, inability to forgive oneself), whereas other-oriented events (e.g., witnessing an act of violence, betrayal by a trusted person) are more likely to lead to negative external emotions and cognitions (e.g., anger, loss of trust, inability to forgive).Third, we summarizes the existing moral injury scales, with a focus on the scope of application and each scale’s advantages and disadvantages. These scales can be divided into two categories according to their contents, with one group assessing moral injury symptoms alone, and another assessing both the moral injury events and symptoms. Researchers or clinicians can choose these scales according to their practical needs. Moreover, current interventions for moral injury include Cognitive Behavior Therapy, CBT-based Adaptive Disclosure Therapy, CPT-based Spiritually Integrated Cognitive Processing Therapy, etc. While being commonly used in the treatment of PTSD, those therapies are equally effective in treating the core symptoms of moral injury. We concluded this article with limitations of existing research and suggestions for future research. Moral injury events and moral injury outcomes need to be further distinguished, moral injury mechanisms need to be further studied, and the diagnostic criteria of moral injury need to be established. Researchers also need to pay attention to the differences of moral standards in different cultures, expand research on moral injury to more groups, and widen the application of research on moral injury.

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    Cognitive mechanism and neural basis of shyness
    LI Liang, LI Hong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 1038-1049.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01038
    Abstract1774)   HTML74)    PDF (654KB)(2712)      

    Shyness refers to individuals’ inhibition in a social situation; it can be an obstacle to participation in social interactions. In recent years, there has been an increase in cognitive neuroscience research on shyness. Within the frameworks of the metacognition model of shyness, the social fitness model of shyness, the lateralized brain-body emotion model of shyness, and the differential susceptibility to environmental influences model of shyness, researchers have explored the brain function differences, related brain networks, and cognitive processes underlying shyness. However, current cognitive neuroscience research on shyness is still in its infancy. For example: (1) researchers have mainly defined shyness from the perspective of personality; (2) the theoretical models of shyness are far from perfect; (3) the results of relevant empirical research have been unsystematic and inconsistent.
    Based on the above, this study proposes a psychological development model of shyness, which includes the following four perspectives. (1) Timeline of human evolution: the interaction of genetic factors (susceptibility genes), the internal environment (brain), and the external environment (such as school, family, and culture) affects the development of shyness. In the process of human evolution, human beings and their offspring showed different reactivity to the external environment, resulting in the survival of the fittest. The result of this process is that some individuals carry shyness susceptibility genes, which will not only determine their internal environment (brain) but also be affected by their internal environment (brain) and shape their metacognition and cognitive processes under the influences of school, family, culture, and other aspects of the external environment. The brain environment responsible for shyness is an expression of the interaction between the cognitive control system (centered in the prefrontal lobe) and the emotional system (centered in the amygdala-hypothalamus). Specifically, the cognitive bias/emotional arousal of shy individuals is the result of an imbalance in the regulation of the limbic system (centered in the amygdala-hypothalamus) by the prefrontal cortex. In other words, when facing an external stimulus, the amygdala of highly shy individuals is highly activated, which results in a highly emotional interpretation of low-level external stimuli, which is then projected to a wide range of brain regions including the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus then activates emotional expression by regulating the autonomic nervous system. In this process, the prefrontal cortex plays a top-down regulatory role, in which the strong activation of the right prefrontal lobe and the weak activation of the left prefrontal lobe of highly shy individuals leads to the disinhibition of the activated amygdala, hypothalamus, and other brain regions. Thus, the individual’s ability to regulate their emotions becomes weak and they cannot behave in an adaptive manner. The aspects of the internal environment that influence shyness include the differentiation of brain structure, the lateralization of brain function, and the uniqueness of the brain network. Moreover, in specific brain cognitive processing tasks, individuals with different levels of shyness have significant differences in the activity of different frequency bands and different cognitive components. (2) Timeline of individual development: the critical period of individual development affects the development of shyness. Specifically, the key development period of shyness is largely affected by the development of self-consciousness. With the maturity of self-consciousness, the externalized performance of individuals with different levels of shyness can be clearly distinguished. (3) Social situations: in specific social situations, the metacognition of shy individuals guides their cognitive processes, making them show differences in their physical, emotional, and behavioral performance. At the same time, different kinds of social situations will awaken individuals’ shyness to different degrees.
    Future research can be carried out from the following perspectives based on the psychological development model: (1) in terms of personality, clarify whether shyness describes a small number of extreme individuals or is instead a dimension that can sort the whole population; (2) explore the internal process of the emotional experience of shyness; (3) develop experimental research paradigms of shyness; (4) with the help of new brain technology, deeply explore the brain mechanism of shyness; (5) verify, expand, and improve the theoretical model related to shyness in the field of cognitive neuroscience.

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    Why musical emotion can be induced by harmony? The effect and cognitive mechanism of musical consonance
    ZHANG Hang, MENG Le, ZHANG Jijia
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 817-833.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00817
    Abstract1608)   HTML67)    PDF (1418KB)(2281)      

    Music has a significant and far-reaching impact on human society. Archaeological evidence shows that music first emerged at least 3.5 billion years (Paleolithic Period) ago. Such evidence is an important indication that humans have the advanced capacity to process complex auditory information. Musicology has gradually formed a relatively complete theoretical system. However, it still has several fundamental problems in the theory and practice of modern music, such as the rationale for simultaneous consonance. The core of this problem is how our brain possesses musical chords composed of several tones and why some tone combinations sound relatively pleasant (consonance) while others sound unpleasant (dissonance). This question has fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Physicists have been trying to find answers to the differences between acoustic features of consonance and dissonance harmony. Biologists argue that consonance perception is the basic emotional experience evoked by sound events in the auditory system. Psychologists are more inclined to examine whether musical consonance perception is nature or nurture. Such different content of disciplines can be summarized from three perspectives: 1) Emphasize the physical acoustics of musical stimulation. It is considered that certain acoustic characteristics cause a particular chord to be perceived as consonant, for instance, the simplicity of the fundamental frequency ratios of combined tones. Therefore, many theoretical explanations of musical consonance in mathematical physics had been advocated. 2) Emphasize the physiological or psychological basis of music processing, holding the sense of consonance is the basic emotional experience. For example, Hermann von Helmholtz proposed that the roughness (dissonant experience) is often generated by the dissonant intervals which contain frequency components that are too closely spaced to be resolved by the auditory system. Therefore, many biologists advocate for using physiological acoustics and psychoacoustics methods to reveal this universal processing mechanism. Both of the two theories consider the perception of music consonance is an innate ability of human being. 3) Emphasize the roles of culture aspects, arguing the musical cultural exposure and music training significantly affect consonance perception. This article reviews these empirical researches from various disciplines to analyze the basis of musical consonance and to systematically sorts out the theoretical debates going on for centuries. We also proposed that nature and nurture interact to shape how we experience musical consonance.

    Although musical consonance has been researched mainly using western theoretical perspectives, studying musical consonance in Chinese traditional music culture is urgently needed. Music is an advanced activity of human cognition and one of the universal ways of emotional expression in life. As the core element connecting music and emotion, the rationale for simultaneous consonance is still unsolved. We hope our work will facilitate further empirical research on musical consonance, especially in Chinese traditional music culture.

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    The performance and psychological mechanism of contamination effect in consumer behavior
    MENG Lu, XIE Yufeng, LI Tongmao, DUAN Shen, ZHANG Liangbo
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 941-952.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00941
    Abstract1486)   HTML68)    PDF (828KB)(1965)      

    The pneumonia outbreak caused by the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has been defined as a public health emergency by the World Public Health Organization and poses a serious threat to economic development worldwide. Since that COVID-19 is highly contagious, and the number of infected people and is unprecedented, many governments have taken strong measures to control the spread of COVID-19. In the face of sudden major disasters, people are prone to panic. As a result, individuals pay more attention to personal protection-related issues, and the consumption of protective and health products increases significantly (Yang et al., 2020). Because COVID-19 is spread mainly by droplets and contact, consumers are avoiding products that others may have touched or used for fear of catching the virus. Data from iiMedia Research also showed that the number of users of shared charging banks in China maintained rapid growth to 307 million in 2019. However, due to COVID-19, the number of users dropped to 229 million in 2020. It can be seen that consumers are increasingly concerned about health-related issues, thus amplifying the potential contamination effect on consumer behaviors.

    It has been more than 20 years since contamination effect was first introduced into psychology. Up to now, contamination effect has been widely adopted to explain behaviors in many fields, including product evaluation, celebrity effect, organ transplantation, preference for shrine, valuation of original artwork, cross-cultural differences in collecting behavior, gambling decisions, individual abilities and performance, and even romantic relationships. Although consumers are often faced with a variety of content cues to induce their perception of contamination in daily consumption, there is little known about what consumer behaviors will occur under the influence of contamination effect and what the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions are for these behaviors. There is still no an integrated research framework that can generalize and explain the application of contamination effects to consumer behavior to answer these questions. More importantly, the continuous updating of emerging research backgrounds such as Internet +, new retail and big data provide new insights for the study of contamination effects, however, there is little systematic review of these effects and paradigms.

    In this study, we mainly review the definition and characteristics of contamination effect in the studies of consumer behavior, and then explore the antecedents of contamination effect from the aspects of exposure factors, location factors, product factors and social factors, and further summarize its negative and positive effects on consumer behavior. Finally, the theoretical basis and boundary conditions of contamination effect are well discussed. Based on these discussions, the future research direction of contamination effect in the field of consumer behavior is prospected.

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    Implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP): Measuring principle and applications
    WEN Fangfang, KE Wenlin, ZUO Bin, DAI Yuee, NIE Siyuan, YAO Yi, HAN Shi
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (11): 1936-1947.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01936
    Abstract1475)   HTML62)    PDF (724KB)(1167)      

    The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a new implicit measurement method based on relational frame theory (RFT) and is used to directly measure social cognition, beliefs, or attitudes. The method consists of two basic tasks: congruent and incongruent. The basic hypothesis is that subjects’ prior experience and response bias affect their responses to congruent or incongruent tasks. Specifically, a judgment response that conforms to subjects’ cognitive experience should occur faster than a judgment response that does not conform. As a widely used implicit attitude measurement paradigm, the IRAP demonstrates a certain degree of reliability and validity. However, different response choices (e.g., similar/opposite vs. true/false) and social situational factors (e.g., mixed/single gender, public/private scene, etc.) are all important factors influencing the IRAP’s effects. Simultaneously, the applicability of the IRAP differs somewhat from that of the relationship evaluation procedure (REP), implicit association test (IAT), relationship response task (RRT), and simple implicit procedure (SIP), and it has its own unique applicability. For example, the IRAP can directly measure the characteristics of implicit attitudes, while the implicit attitudes measured by the IAT can only be obtained as relative results. Starting from the structure of human speech relations, the IRAP can be used to explore even more complex and diverse relationships, such as measuring both “I am valuable” and the subjects’ implicit attitude toward “I want to be valuable.” In addition, the IRAP can directly use declarative sentences as stimuli, while non-relativity and flexibility allow the IRAP to explore more complex and diverse relationships. The relational frame theory (RFT), relational elaboration and coherence model (REC), and differential relational responding effects (DAARRE) provide theoretical explanations for the different effects of the IRAP.
    To extend the applicability of the IRAP to a wider range of research fields and make it suitable for different experimental purposes, researchers have improved the original paradigm, and designed different variants such as the natural language IRAP, training IRAP, and change agenda IRAP. The IRAP was originally used in clinical diagnostic research and has gradually been extended to a wide range of applications in the fields of self, social cognition, population, and attitudes. To further verify the reliability and validity of different forms of the IRAP, exploring the psychological mechanism and effects of the IRAP, as well as its applicability in different fields—especially the research fields of implicit social cognition and intergroup interaction—will be important directions for future research. In conclusion, the IRAP provides a new perspective and method for researching implicit social cognition and even psychology as a whole, and lays a foundation for a deeper discussion of psychological scientific issues, thereby creating broad application prospects.

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    The neural mechanism and transfer effect of creative cognitive reappraisal in negative emotion regulation
    WU Xiaofei, XIAO Feng, LUO Jing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (3): 477-485.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00477
    Abstract1459)   HTML196)    PDF (613KB)(2201)      

    Cognitive reappraisal plays an important role in regulating negative emotions. However, traditional cognitive reappraisal has some issues, such as a lower reconstruction degree and a lower emotion regulation effect. Considering these issues, we propose an effective emotion regulation strategy called creative cognitive reappraisal, which refers to a novel and unique interpretation that is highly creative and appropriate for current emotional stimuli. During the emotion regulation process, an individual suddenly experiences an "Aha!" moment when combining the interpretation with the stimulus situation. This study found a dramatic shift from negative to positive emotions and a long-lasting regulatory effect. According to imaging results, creative cognitive reappraisal was associated with the formation of a novel association in the hippocampus and positive emotional arousal in the amygdala.

    However, the guided reappraisal used in this work was more akin to an understanding of reappraisal interpretation than active emotion regulation, which has lower ecological validity. Furthermore, it is difficult to generate high creative reappraisal on one’s own, making the application of creative cognitive reappraisal challenging. Thus, the goal of this project is to teach participants how to learn the method of creative cognitive reappraisal and then transfer and apply this strategy to specific negative emotion regulation in daily life, i.e., to establish a "learn and then use" emotion regulation mode that can truly play the role of creative cognitive reappraisal during emotion regulation. Furthermore, because teenagers have more serious mood problems but also have higher creativity, this project intends to apply a creative cognitive reappraisal strategy for emotion regulation to teenagers while also teaching them creative emotion regulation strategies to assist them in learning cognitive transformations and reconstructions. This method can teach teenagers how to use positive emotional regulation strategies to deal with negative life events while also preserving their creativity.

    The specific research contents are as follows: 1) exploring the transfer effect of creative cognitive reappraisal in negative emotion regulation of college students and adolescents; 2) investigating changes in brain activation and representation patterns before and after creative cognitive reappraisal transfer; and 3) examining the similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of creative cognitive reappraisal transfer between adolescents and adults. This project is an extension and expansion of the applicant's existing work, and it would establish a theoretical foundation for verifying and promoting creative cognitive reappraisal as a learnable, usable and efficient emotional regulation strategy.

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    The impact of materialism on green consumption: Promotion or inhibition?
    LI Jing, WU Xuyao, YUE Lei, ZENG Xiangli, FANG Qingyuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (6): 1191-1204.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01191
    Abstract1413)   HTML160)    PDF (838KB)(1663)      

    In order to build a beautiful China, the Chinese government has put forward many policies to promote the construction of ecological civilization, among which the 14th Five-Year Plan clearly points out “promoting the development of green, healthy and safe consumption.” It is apparent that green consumption is a vital measure for solving environmental problems, however, in today's Chinese society, materialistic values are prevalent. In this context, the promotion of green consumption is an issue worthy of consideration. Previous studies have explored the relationship between materialism and green consumption. Some scholars have found a negative correlation between the two, while others have found a positive correlation. On account of these contradictory results, the current research puts forward an innovative perspective and for the first time takes both conspicuous and inconspicuous characteristics of green products themselves as the breakthrough point. In other words, green consumption is divided into conspicuous and inconspicuous green consumption according to the showable nature of green products and whether they are printed with environmental protection signs. Based on this, this research intends to comprehensively use questionnaire survey, behavioral experiment, eye movement experiment, field experiment, and educational intervention to conduct a series of four studies. First, it investigates the boundary conditions of materialism affecting green consumption, that is, the moderating effect of the conspicuous characteristics of green products. It further explores the different psychological mechanisms of materialism affecting conspicuous green consumption and inconspicuous green consumption. We believe that when green products have conspicuous characteristics, they can help materialists build and maintain their own identity and show their unique identity and status, thus promoting them to show conspicuous green consumption behavior, that is, “materialism → status motivation → conspicuous green consumption”. However, when green products do not have the characteristics of showing off, they cannot meet the materialists' pursuit of identity and status. At this time, the essence of their indifference to the environment is revealed, and they may show a negative pro-environment attitude, which inhibits the inconspicuous green consumption behavior, that is, “materialism → pro-environment attitude → inconspicuous green consumption”. Finally, aiming at the negative impact of materialism on inconspicuous green consumption, this research will conduct further intervention studies to investigate the moderating role of nature contact in the impact of materialism on pro-environmental attitudes and inconspicuous green consumption. The above studies not only theoretically integrate the contradictory results of existing research and provide a new idea for solving the existing research differences, but also have important management implications for effectively encouraging people to participate in green consumption behavior under the social background of the prevalence of materialistic values. Therefore, we can use the identity construction or status motivation of materialists, such as adding environmental protection labels to green products to increase the flaunting of products in promoting their conspicuous green consumption; alternatively, we can change the materialists’ negative pro-environmental attitudes and promote their participation in inconspicuous green consumption by improving their degree of nature contact.

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    Effects of aerobic exercise on memory and its neurobiological mechanism
    KE Jinhong, WANG Bo
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 115-128.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00115
    Abstract1405)   HTML76)    PDF (705KB)(1639)      

    Aerobic exercise is the rhythmic and continuous use of large muscle groups with sufficient oxygen supply. The aim of this review is to summarize previous research regarding the effects of aerobic exercise on working memory, episodic memory and implicit memory, and moderators among the relationships, such as timing of aerobic exercise, aerobic exercise duration, aerobic exercise intensity, cognitive engagement of aerobic exercise, age and gender. The following databases were used for the computerized searches: CNKI, Web of Science and PubMed. Aerobic exercise can improve processing speed in working memory tasks, denoted by both reaction time and event related potential. Moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic exercise before memory encoding or during consolidation can enhance episodic memory. Vigorous intensity aerobic exercise can promote implicit memory.
    As for the moderators, a) timing of aerobic exercise has similar effects on the three types of memory. Aerobic exercise before memory encoding can promote all three types of memory (One study for working memory (Budde et al., 2010), one study for implicit memory (Angulo-Barroso et al., 2019), and for episodic memory in a previous meta-analysis, d = 0.11, 95% CI [-0.01, 0.23] (Loprinzi, Blough, et al., 2019)). Aerobic exercise during memory encoding can damage working memory (2 out of 3 studies have showed significant damaging effect (Loprinzi, 2018)) and episodic memory (d = -0.12, 95% CI [-0.22, -0.02] (Loprinzi, Blough, et al., 2019)), especially for vigorous intensity. Few studies have explored the effect of aerobic exercise during implicit memory encoding. Aerobic exercise during memory consolidation can promote episodic memory (d = 0.47, 95% CI [0.28, 0.67] (Loprinzi, Blough, et al., 2019)) and implicit memory (in one experimental study (Lundbye-Jensen et al., 2017)). b) Research synthesis indicates that chronic aerobic exercise is beneficial to working memory and episodic memory, while acute aerobic exercise has no significant effect. Yet, no study has directly compared the effects of acute and long-term aerobic exercise on implicit memory. c) Emerging research suggests that aerobic exercise intensity has different effect on the three kinds of memory. Moderate intensity aerobic exercise has positive effect on working memory. Vigorous intensity aerobic exercise can improve episodic memory and implicit memory. However, vigorous intensity aerobic exercise can negatively impacts working memory, which may lead to fatigue or interference, but this negative effect may be attenuated if the post-exercise recovery period is sufficient. d) Open skill aerobic exercise is performed in a dynamic and changing environment and require more cognitive engagement, such as football and basketball, while closed skill aerobic exercise take place in a predictable and static environment, requiring less cognitive engagement, such as rope skipping and stair climbing. The cognitive engagement of aerobic exercise may have positive effect on memory. e) The interactions are complex and several other moderators, such as types of memory (item memory and source memory), emotional characteristics of the learning materials, gender and age, should be carefully considered.
    Next, we review the neurobiological mechanism underlying the effect of aerobic exercise on memory from the aspects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and hippocampus. Animal studies generally show that BDNF is the mediator of the relationships between aerobic exercise and memory. However, the results of human research remain controversial. The change of BDNF lasts for only a few hours, thus it is easier to observe the increase of BDNF when sampling immediately after aerobic exercise. Specific gene affects the expression of BDNF. As for Val/Met heterozygous carriers, although aerobic exercise can negatively impact the episodic memory, studies have found that increasing aerobic exercise intensity can offset the adverse effects of Val/Met gene on working memory. Future research can focus on how aerobic exercise can improve the memory of Val/Met heterozygous carriers. Aerobic exercise can also cause long-term potentiation, activate hippocampus and other memory related brain areas, and induce neurogenesis. Future research can also test the laterality of fMRI activation to infer whether aerobic exercise can maintain the health of specific brain areas vulnerable to aging.
    In conclusion, Future research should focus on the moderating effects of memory types, aerobic exercise timing and duration, aerobic exercise intensity and cognitive engagement, as well as age and gender, and explore the mediating role of BDNF and other molecular mechanisms (e.g., the endocannabinoid system) in human experiments, so as to reveal the neurobiological mechanism underlying the impact of aerobic exercise on memory.

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    The impact of social media on executive functions: Beneficial or harmful?
    MA Yajie, ZHAO Xin, HE Xiangchun, REN Liping
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 406-413.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00406
    Abstract1360)   HTML166)    PDF (547KB)(1547)      

    The effect of social media on executive functions remain controversial. Some studies have shown that the use of social media promotes an individual’s executive functions, and some studies have found that social media use has a negative impact on executive functions. Recent studies have shown that, there may be an inverted U-shaped relationship between social media use and individual's executive function, and that social media use does not necessarily impair or promote executive function, but there is an optimal tipping point between the two. Moderate-intensity use of social media is the best level to promote executive functions. This is related to the moderating role played by the intensity of use. The paper first introduces the behavioral evidence that the effect of social media on executive functions, including three parts: positive effects, negative effects, and inverted U-shaped relationships. Secondly, it analyzes the moderating effect of intensity of use in the inverted U-shaped relationship between social media use and executive functions, and attempt to reveal the debate over the pros and cons of social media use on executive functions. Moderate-intensity use of social media will produce a social media flow experience, allowing individuals to filter out various distracting information when faced with various complex information stimuli in social media, focusing on useful information, and target information is constantly being affected. With storage and update, the individual's executive functions (especially the shifting function) get long-term and repeated exercise under such requirements, and finally improve. In addition, the flow experience generated by the use of social media can be used as an intrinsic motivation to increase the interaction of social networks to make positive changes in interpersonal relationships. This provides individuals with continuous social rewards and emotional support. To a certain extent, it buffers the negative impact of excessive use of social media on cognitive function, and slows down the decline of age-related executive functions. However, high-intensity use of social media causes individuals to worry about their performance in the task, which tends to maintain a wider range of attention and is more susceptible to interference from irrelevant information, while low-intensity use of social media causes individuals to be in a state of lack of proactiveness, the psychological effort process of information processing is reduced or even disappeared, which has a negative impact on executive functions.

    Future research in this area should examine the dose-effect of social media use affecting executive functions. The positive impact of social media use on the executive function may require a relatively long and continuous process of using social media. Whether an optimal social media can be determined the level of media usage maximizes individual's executive functions? In addition, previous research mainly focuses on the impact of social media usage frequency on individual's executive functions in daily life, but lacks a single sub-component of the type of social media usage on the executive function investigation of development and changes. In the future, the relationship between different types of social media usage and sub-components of executive function should be further clarified. Finally, the lifting effect of social media may be more significant in groups whose brain structure is in a period of change. Most previous studies only show that the use of social media can change individual's neural pathways or brain response patterns (and little is known about whether changes in the physiological structure of executive function have an impact on the cognitive level of social media users. Future research should combine behavioral and cognitive neurological methods to examine the brain regions of social media users with different cognitive levels in performing specific tasks. The difference in activation makes the neural mechanism of social media use affecting executive function more precise and comprehensive.

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    Public service motivation in the Chinese context: Theory construction and workplace consequences
    WEN Bo, TAO Lei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 239-254.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00239
    Abstract1353)   HTML105)    PDF (681KB)(1820)      

    Crystalizing the consensual notions of public service motivation (PSM) in the Chinese context serves as a requisite condition for China to forge a committed public workforce and improve its public human resource management strategies. Existing research on PSM, albeit copious, overlooks its massive conceptual divergence between Chinese and Western contexts. Moreover, current PSM studies have paid scant attention to the micro-intervention mechanisms of PSM and its negative behavioral impacts. This research hence aims to develop an integrated PSM theory in the Chinese context through investigating its core components, activation mechanism and workplace consequences. Specifically, this study conceptualizes PSM as a mixed-motives construct. By virtue of a grounded theory approach, we will then identify the core components of PSM among front-line employees and subsequently develop a measurement scale fitting the Chinese context. Through the lens of micro-interventions, additionally, this study will examine the effects of beneficiary contacts, self-advocacy, and idea reflections on activating public servants’ PSM. Finally, this study will investigate the mechanisms underlying both desirable and undesirable effects of PSM on public employees. In a nutshell, the furtherance and completion of this study will not only echo an enduring scholarly call for the establishment of localized PSM theories cast against the Chinese background, but also generate ample evidence-based policy implications about the approaches through which the work motivation and job performance of Chinese public employees can be viably augmented.

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    Cognitive reappraisal inventiveness in emotion regulation
    YAO Haijuan, WANG Qi, LI Zhaoqing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (3): 601-612.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00601
    Abstract1324)   HTML150)    PDF (664KB)(1481)      

    Emotion regulation is an essential ability to maintain individual mental health and life happiness. Cognitive reappraisal is one of the most effective emotion regulation strategies. Cognitive reappraisal inventiveness is a central component of the generation process in the context of cognitive reappraisal. It is the ability to create multiple and different reappraisals for negative situations. The total number and diversity of cognitive reappraisal strategies produced by individuals in cognitive reappraisal (i.e., the fluency and flexibility of cognitive reappraisal strategies) are taken as indicators of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness. A high creative cognitive reappraisal is an effective premise for ensuring individual emotional regulation.

    Here, we review recent studies on cognitive reappraisal inventiveness. A large body of research demonstrates that inventiveness in cognitive reappraisal is positively correlated with divergent thinking and openness, but not with neuroticism and trait anger. Creative cognitive reappraisal strategies, or high-level cognitive reconstruction using metaphor and analogy, are more conducive to the regulation of negative emotions, and the superior regulatory effect of creative cognitive reappraisal can be mediated by amygdala-based salient emotional arousal, hippocampus-based new association formation, and striatum-based mental rewarding to produce to a novel and positive experience that can be kept in long-term memory. These results are consistent with the creative reconstruction theory of cognitive reappraisal. The theory holds that an individual’s response to negative situations comes not from the event itself, but from their view of the event. Emotional situations are viewed as problems that can be solved by a variety of reappraisal styles. To regulate negative emotions, it is necessary to produce a novel and effective psychological representation of the emotional situation or event, modifying the initial maladaptive representation. Creative individuals may be more likely to find effective reappraisals. However, other studies claim that there is no correlation between cognitive reappraisal inventiveness and reappraisal effectiveness. Thus, no consistent conclusion about the relationship between cognitive reappraisal inventiveness and reappraisal effectiveness has yet been reached.

    By comparing the neural mechanisms of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness (using the Reappraisal Inventiveness Test, RIT) and traditional creativity (using the Alternative Use Test, AUT), it was found that both, the RIT and AUT, exhibited a comparatively strong increase in alpha power at prefrontal sites, indicating that they have similar brain activation patterns; however, the activation degree of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness is higher in the middle region of the prefrontal cortex, whereas the activation degree of traditional creativity is higher in the ventral prefrontal apex region. The regions of brain activation of the two forms of creativity overlap primarily in the right cerebellum, central anterior gyrus, central posterior gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex, especially in the left prefrontal network. Cognitive reappraisal inventiveness activates the right superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and left and right angular gyrus. Traditional creativity tasks primarily activate the left superior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, and left inferior frontal gyrus. This shows that traditional creativity and cognitive reappraisal inventiveness have common cognitive processing needs, including inhibiting strong responses, switching between different perspectives, and controlling memory retrieval; however, the process of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness requires the specific executive function of emotional representation.

    Future research may expand the group of participants by selecting participants with emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety disorders), improve the measurement methods of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness, explore the situational and internal factors that affect cognitive reappraisal inventiveness (e.g., positive metaphor, trait anxiety, self-efficacy, and humorous personality), and further reveal how the neural mechanisms of the special process, or reaction mechanism of cognitive reappraisal inventiveness, differ from traditional creativity.

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    The function and mechanisms of prediction error in updating fear memories
    LI Junjiao, CHEN Wei, SHI Pei, DONG Yuanyuan, ZHENG Xifu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 834-850.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00834
    Abstract1321)   HTML61)    PDF (922KB)(1804)      

    The error-driven learning theory believes that the reinforcement brought by the stimulus must be surprising or unpredictable for the individual to form learning. The mismatch between the expected consequence of behavior and the actual result, known as prediction error (PE), is the driving factor of learning, according to this theory. The Rescorla & Wagner model, the Pearce-Hall model, and the temporal difference (TD) model are the three most common models for calculating prediction error. The RW model and the TD model, in particular, have had a significant impact on the research of prediction error-driven learning and memory. Under different learning models, prediction error is classified as reward or punishment prediction error (RPE or PPE); positive or negative prediction error; and singed or unsigned prediction error (SPE or UPE). As a type of salience, PE is different from other types of saliences. Salience includes stimulus novelty, valence evaluation, stimulus rareness and other salience. Physical salience, surprise (unexpected novelty), and expected novelty are all types of novelty, but only unexpected novelty can promote dopamine release; physical salience with no direct rewards can only cause a short spike in dopamine. Prediction error, on the other hand, are mostly related to the recognition, result perception, and valence evaluation processes.

    A large body of work investigated the role of prediction error in the formation and updating of fear memory. Firstly, prediction error is considered to be a necessary factor in the process of fear acquisition. Negative PE is the source of successful fear extinction. Secondly, under the framework of Reconsolidation Interference of conditioned fear memory, prediction error is demonstrated as a necessary condition of memory destabilization. Prediction error plays a key role in fear memory reconsolidation: (1) PE during memory reactivation is an important boundary condition for memory destabilization; (2) PE is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the triggering of reconsolidation. The degree of prediction error determines whether or not the memory can become unstable. PE's role in memory updating has progressed from a qualitative to a quantitative examination, which has become an important measure of such research development; (3) The size of PE required for memory destabilization is proportional to the memory’s original strength. Thus, it is critical to take both sides into account when evaluating a retrieval manipulation. We propose an integrated model of retrieval boundary conditions and memory features for the reconsolidation of fear memories based on these studies and previous models.

    However, until recently, the neural mechanism underlying the involvement of prediction error in fear memory update has remained largely elusive. Recent work has revealed the brain areas involved mainly include the amygdala, ventrolateral peri-aqueduct gray matter (vlPAG), hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC, in particular, is a distinct area that may distinguish the fear extinguish with or without reconsolidation. While a range of neurotransmitters are linked to the role of PE in memory destabilization in terms of neuromodulation in brain circuits, the most significant of which is dopaminergic. However, glutamate’s participation in the same process is also worth mentioning.

    We propose that in the future direction of the research on fear memory updating, further exploration should be made on quantitative research based on the PE calculation model, integrating the interaction between PE and other boundary conditions, and investigating the role of different types of saliences in memory reconsolidation. Importantly, multidisciplinary methods are urgently need to be used to investigate the neural and molecular mechanisms of PE's role in fear memory renewal. Individual differences in the effects of PE, on the other hand, must be investigated in order to facilitate the translation of studies from bench to bedside.

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