ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

Top Read Articles

    Published in last 1 year |  In last 2 years |  In last 3 years |  All
    Please wait a minute...
    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Emoji image symbol’s social function and application
    JIN Yuchang, DENG Chenglong, WU Ping, LIN Xi, ZHENG Peixuan, AN Junxiu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 1062-1077.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01062
    Abstract4371)   HTML168)    PDF(pc) (662KB)(3497)       Save

    Nowadays, with the rapid development of the Internet, online communication has become increasingly popular and popular. However, due to the lack of nonverbal cues in face-to-face communication, it is difficult for people to detect the emotional state of each other, which hinders normal communication. Emoji, which compensate for nonverbal cues in online communication, have been introduced into cyberspace to compensate for the absence of gestures and facial attributes in online communication, and have been developing constantly. The development of Emojis has gone through Emoticon composed of ASCII characters, Emoji of pictographic icons and now emerging more vivid and interesting stickers. This paper will mainly comb, analyze and summarize the functions, influencing factors and interaction mechanisms of Emoji in network communication, as well as the current application of Emoji in different fields, and put forward the future research direction of Emoji based on the current research status of Emoji.
    At the beginning, Emoji is borrowed from Japanese animation symbols, and gradually developed into a widely used image symbol system. Since the creation of Emoji by Shigetaka Kurita in 1999, it has been enriched and developed continuously At present, Emoji has become a tool commonly used around the world to replace non-verbal cues such as body gestures and facial expressions in digital communication. In the process of continuous use in Internet communication, Emoji has been equipped with many functions, including expressing emotions, enhancing expression, changing tone, maintaining or enhancing interpersonal relationship, etc. At the same time, the use of Emoji is also affected by many factors, including age, gender, culture, context and platform. In addition, we also explore the interactive mechanism of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of symbol interaction theory, so as to clearly reveal the specific interaction process of people in online communication through Emoji.
    At present, with the continuous development and widespread use of Emoji, its application scope has been extended to many other fields besides Internet communication. In the field of sentiment analysis, Emoji has become an important object of sentiment analysis due to its rich emotions. In psychometrics, Emoji has been developed into a nonverbal tool for evaluating personality and depression which has the same reliability and validity as text items. In the field of commercial marketing, Emoji has begun to play a role in advertising marketing and attracting consumers, and can measure consumers' food-related emotions in the form of questionnaires. In the field of legal judgment, Emoji has gradually become a powerful evidence in judicial trials due to its widespread use. Through the above analysis and summary, we put forward the future research direction of Emoji from the following aspects: (1) explore the application and future development trend of Emoji in online communication; (2) study on the application of Emoji in other fields; (3) further explore the neurophysiological mechanism of Emoji; (4) discuss the positive effect of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of cognitive processing.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Prevalence of mental health problems among senior high school students in mainland of China from 2010 to 2020: A meta-analysis
    YU Xiaoqi, ZHANG Yali, YU Guoliang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 978-990.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00978
    Abstract2643)   HTML125)    PDF(pc) (537KB)(2188)       Save

    High school is the key period of psychological development, and it is also the frequent period of a variety of psychological problems. The mental health problems of senior high school students not only come from adolescents themselves, but also should attract extensive attention from families, schools and society. In order to improve the mental health of senior high school students and ensure the effective development of follow-up mental health work, it is necessary to understand the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students in China, so as to master the basic situation of mental health of senior high school students. Although many previous studies have involved the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students, there is no consistent conclusion on the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students in China in recent ten years. In order to clarify the detection rates and influencing factors of mental health problems of senior high school students in China in recent ten years, this study makes a comprehensive and systematic meta-analysis of the relevant detection rate articles of senior high school students (including higher vocational students) in recent ten years, so as to form a clearer understanding of the general situation of their mental health. Because there are too many indicators involved in mental health problems, this study focuses on the detection rate of two common problems in senior high school students: internalizing problems (including anxiety, depression, sleep problems, somatization, suicidal ideation, and suicide plan) and externalizing problems (including self injury and suicide attempt. In addition, this study also investigated the regulatory effects of publishing age, relevant factors of measurement tools (measurement tools, detection standards, detection time), and demographic variables (grade, region, gender, only child or not, birthplace) on the detection rate of mental health problems.
    By searching the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database and Web of Science core collection database from 2010 to 2020, 252 effective literatures were finally obtained, including 48 articles on anxiety, 99 articles on depression, 21 articles on sleep problems, 14 articles on somatization, 29 articles on self injury, and 41 articles on suicide. The results of meta-analysis showed that (1) The prevalence from high to low were depression (28.0%), anxiety (26.3%), sleep problems (23.0%), self-injury (22.8%), suicidal ideation (17.1%), somatization (9.8%), suicide plan (6.9%), and suicide attempt (2.9%); (2) In the past ten years, the mental health problems of senior high school students in China have deteriorated with the passage of time, especially anxiety; (3) The detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students is affected by the relevant factors of measurement tools (measurement tools, detection standards and detection time); (4) The mental health problems of senior high school students increased with the increase of grade, especially sleep problems; (5) The mental health problems of senior high school students were affected by regions, especially in economically underdeveloped areas. It can be seen that the prevalence of mental health problems of senior high school students in China was affected by the year of publication, measurement tools, detection standards, detection time, grade and region. In the future, efforts should be made to prepare standardized evaluation tools, build a long-term mechanism of mental health education, and focus on the mental health problems of senior class and underdeveloped area senior high school students.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Cognitive mechanism and neural basis of shyness
    LI Liang, LI Hong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 1038-1049.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01038
    Abstract2503)   HTML149)    PDF(pc) (654KB)(3444)       Save

    Shyness refers to individuals’ inhibition in a social situation; it can be an obstacle to participation in social interactions. In recent years, there has been an increase in cognitive neuroscience research on shyness. Within the frameworks of the metacognition model of shyness, the social fitness model of shyness, the lateralized brain-body emotion model of shyness, and the differential susceptibility to environmental influences model of shyness, researchers have explored the brain function differences, related brain networks, and cognitive processes underlying shyness. However, current cognitive neuroscience research on shyness is still in its infancy. For example: (1) researchers have mainly defined shyness from the perspective of personality; (2) the theoretical models of shyness are far from perfect; (3) the results of relevant empirical research have been unsystematic and inconsistent.
    Based on the above, this study proposes a psychological development model of shyness, which includes the following four perspectives. (1) Timeline of human evolution: the interaction of genetic factors (susceptibility genes), the internal environment (brain), and the external environment (such as school, family, and culture) affects the development of shyness. In the process of human evolution, human beings and their offspring showed different reactivity to the external environment, resulting in the survival of the fittest. The result of this process is that some individuals carry shyness susceptibility genes, which will not only determine their internal environment (brain) but also be affected by their internal environment (brain) and shape their metacognition and cognitive processes under the influences of school, family, culture, and other aspects of the external environment. The brain environment responsible for shyness is an expression of the interaction between the cognitive control system (centered in the prefrontal lobe) and the emotional system (centered in the amygdala-hypothalamus). Specifically, the cognitive bias/emotional arousal of shy individuals is the result of an imbalance in the regulation of the limbic system (centered in the amygdala-hypothalamus) by the prefrontal cortex. In other words, when facing an external stimulus, the amygdala of highly shy individuals is highly activated, which results in a highly emotional interpretation of low-level external stimuli, which is then projected to a wide range of brain regions including the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus then activates emotional expression by regulating the autonomic nervous system. In this process, the prefrontal cortex plays a top-down regulatory role, in which the strong activation of the right prefrontal lobe and the weak activation of the left prefrontal lobe of highly shy individuals leads to the disinhibition of the activated amygdala, hypothalamus, and other brain regions. Thus, the individual’s ability to regulate their emotions becomes weak and they cannot behave in an adaptive manner. The aspects of the internal environment that influence shyness include the differentiation of brain structure, the lateralization of brain function, and the uniqueness of the brain network. Moreover, in specific brain cognitive processing tasks, individuals with different levels of shyness have significant differences in the activity of different frequency bands and different cognitive components. (2) Timeline of individual development: the critical period of individual development affects the development of shyness. Specifically, the key development period of shyness is largely affected by the development of self-consciousness. With the maturity of self-consciousness, the externalized performance of individuals with different levels of shyness can be clearly distinguished. (3) Social situations: in specific social situations, the metacognition of shy individuals guides their cognitive processes, making them show differences in their physical, emotional, and behavioral performance. At the same time, different kinds of social situations will awaken individuals’ shyness to different degrees.
    Future research can be carried out from the following perspectives based on the psychological development model: (1) in terms of personality, clarify whether shyness describes a small number of extreme individuals or is instead a dimension that can sort the whole population; (2) explore the internal process of the emotional experience of shyness; (3) develop experimental research paradigms of shyness; (4) with the help of new brain technology, deeply explore the brain mechanism of shyness; (5) verify, expand, and improve the theoretical model related to shyness in the field of cognitive neuroscience.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Why musical emotion can be induced by harmony? The effect and cognitive mechanism of musical consonance
    ZHANG Hang, MENG Le, ZHANG Jijia
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 817-833.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00817
    Abstract2351)   HTML114)    PDF(pc) (1418KB)(2865)       Save

    Music has a significant and far-reaching impact on human society. Archaeological evidence shows that music first emerged at least 3.5 billion years (Paleolithic Period) ago. Such evidence is an important indication that humans have the advanced capacity to process complex auditory information. Musicology has gradually formed a relatively complete theoretical system. However, it still has several fundamental problems in the theory and practice of modern music, such as the rationale for simultaneous consonance. The core of this problem is how our brain possesses musical chords composed of several tones and why some tone combinations sound relatively pleasant (consonance) while others sound unpleasant (dissonance). This question has fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Physicists have been trying to find answers to the differences between acoustic features of consonance and dissonance harmony. Biologists argue that consonance perception is the basic emotional experience evoked by sound events in the auditory system. Psychologists are more inclined to examine whether musical consonance perception is nature or nurture. Such different content of disciplines can be summarized from three perspectives: 1) Emphasize the physical acoustics of musical stimulation. It is considered that certain acoustic characteristics cause a particular chord to be perceived as consonant, for instance, the simplicity of the fundamental frequency ratios of combined tones. Therefore, many theoretical explanations of musical consonance in mathematical physics had been advocated. 2) Emphasize the physiological or psychological basis of music processing, holding the sense of consonance is the basic emotional experience. For example, Hermann von Helmholtz proposed that the roughness (dissonant experience) is often generated by the dissonant intervals which contain frequency components that are too closely spaced to be resolved by the auditory system. Therefore, many biologists advocate for using physiological acoustics and psychoacoustics methods to reveal this universal processing mechanism. Both of the two theories consider the perception of music consonance is an innate ability of human being. 3) Emphasize the roles of culture aspects, arguing the musical cultural exposure and music training significantly affect consonance perception. This article reviews these empirical researches from various disciplines to analyze the basis of musical consonance and to systematically sorts out the theoretical debates going on for centuries. We also proposed that nature and nurture interact to shape how we experience musical consonance.

    Although musical consonance has been researched mainly using western theoretical perspectives, studying musical consonance in Chinese traditional music culture is urgently needed. Music is an advanced activity of human cognition and one of the universal ways of emotional expression in life. As the core element connecting music and emotion, the rationale for simultaneous consonance is still unsolved. We hope our work will facilitate further empirical research on musical consonance, especially in Chinese traditional music culture.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The influence of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation on memory in adolescents and the underlying neural mechanisms
    ZHANG Mingxia, LI Yuxin, LI Jin, LIU Xun
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00001
    Abstract2233)   HTML75)    PDF(pc) (1197KB)(3558)       Save

    Motivation is the core of all behaviors. Motivation can be classified as the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The processing of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation involves the reward, value, and control systems that would interact with the hippocampal memory system to facilitate memory performance. During adolescence, the brain develops rapidly, making it a critical period for memory development. Meanwhile, the subsystems of motivation develop unbalanced during adolescence (i.e., the reward system is sensible and the control system is immature), making it a special period for the motivation development. However, so far, the investigation of how extrinsic and intrinsic motivation impact teenage memory is on the start stage. There is a lack of systematic exploration and comparison of the behavioral rules and neural mechanisms of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation’s impact on memory during adolescence. It remains unclear whether the rules and mechanisms of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation’s impact on memory are common or specific and how the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation interacts with each other to affect memory during adolescence.

    As the monetary reward is easy to operate and quantify, previous research always used monetary reward to manipulate extrinsic motivation. In addition, intrinsic motivation is a hotspot in recent neuroscience research. Autonomy is the core concept of intrinsic motivation, which is often induced by self-determined choice. The current research will focus on monetary reward (extrinsic motivation) and self-determined choice (intrinsic motivation). We will integrate psychological and neuroscience methods and conduct a series of experiments to systematically reveal the impact of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation on memory during adolescence on multiple levels (cognitive level, neural activity level and neural network level). Specifically, the current research will directly compare the mechanisms via which the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation affects memory and we will also examine how the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation interacts with each other to affect memory, so as to reveal the unique behavioral rules and neural mechanisms via which the two types of motivation (the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation) affect memory during adolescence. This research will greatly enrich the theory and improve the level of the field of motivation and memory. It has important theoretical significance for us to understand the nature of motivation, the underlying mechanisms of how motivation affects memory and the brain development during a very critical period in our life, the adolescence. It also has important practical significance for promoting adolescents’ motivation and learning.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Regulation of facial trustworthiness evaluation: The proposal and empirical verification of the experience transfer hypothesis
    QI Yue, QIN Shaotian, WANG Kexin, CHEN Wenfeng
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 715-722.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00715
    Abstract2226)   HTML137)    PDF(pc) (589KB)(3020)       Save

    The impression of trustworthiness based on facial appearance plays an important role in interpersonal trust and cooperative behavior. Previous research results have indicated that a variety of additional information (e.g., facial features, context) could affect facial judgments by both bottom-up and top-down processes. However, the mechanism of the two adjustment factors is still unclear. Focusing on this issue, our previous research has found that the top-down process is dominant when both approaches work together. Based on previous findings, the current research proposes the “experience transfer hypothesis”, that is, whether additional information could adjust the trustworthy evaluation of the current face is depended on the evaluator’s previous experience and its generalization results. Experience generalization determines the success of experience transfer. When new cues are lack of similarity to the cues from previous experiences or when previous cues are not strongly associated with the propensity to trust, the experience of trust will not be transferred to the new condition and thus the adjustment factors will fail. When people face two conflicting adjustment cues, the cue which is more similar to the previous cues that are closely related to trust tendencies will dominate the adjustment effect. Under the experience transfer hypothesis framework, this research will design and conduct behavioral experiments to verify the critical role of previous experience in adjusting facial trustworthiness. At the same time, we will use neuroimaging techniques to explore the cognitive neural mechanism of facial trustworthiness adjustment. For this purpose, three studies have been designed in the present research. Study 1 is designed to investigate the cognitive mechanism of the bottom-up and top-down adjustment factors and verify the moderating effect of experience transfer on the evaluation of facial trustworthiness. Regarding the adjustment effect, Study 2 will explore the boundary conditions of experience transfer from three different aspects: the similarity of visual cues, the correlation between visual cues and the tendency to trust, and the contrast effect of different visual cues. Referring to the adjustment process, by using neuroimaging techniques, Study 3 will explore the influence of adjustment direction, and clarify the neural mechanism of facial trustworthiness evaluation.

    This project proposes the “experience transfer hypothesis” theoretically and introduces the variable “experience” into the process of facial evaluation adjustment, providing new ideas and empirical evidence to deepen our understanding of how interpersonal trust builds. Moreover, this research will systematically answer the question that how people use previous experiences to adjust the evaluation of facial trustworthiness on a given first impression. We will explore the boundary conditions of experience transfer, the influence of adjustment directions on the evaluation of facial trustworthiness, and find out the reason for the failure of facial evaluation adjustments. The solution to the above problems will help to deepen the exploration of the mechanism of trust behavior and improve the theory of facial evaluation. It has important theoretical significance for our in-depth understanding and discussion of the regulation mechanism of interpersonal trust. Meanwhile, it can help people improve interpersonal trust while maintaining their original appearance through the establishment of external experience. This research will provide the empirical basis for further prediction and adjustment of interpersonal trust behavior, offer suggestions for creating a harmonious and credible interpersonal relationship and social atmosphere, and guide people to adjust their own trust levels more effectively.

    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The relationship between socioeconomic status and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    ZHANG Yali, ZHANG Jiangen, LI Hongxia, JIANG Yongzhi
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (12): 2650-2665.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02650
    Abstract2129)   HTML59)    PDF(pc) (1244KB)(2173)       Save

    Socioeconomic status is an important topic concerned by social class psychology. With the transformation of social development, its influence on individual psychological development has been paid increasing attention. In recent years, scholars in different fields have carried out a series of discussions on the relation between socioeconomic status and mental health, especially depression, but results remain mixed. Some have reported negative correlations between socio-economic status and depression, and others have found weak to nonsignificant correlations. In general, the reported correlation coefficients ranged from -0.45 to 0. At present, no studies have systematically generalized the scattered results on this topic, nor have they dissected the reasons for the inconsistent results. Therefore, it is necessary to gain better insight into the relation between socioeconomic status and depression, and the factors that affect this relation. At the same time, China is in the deep-water area of reform and development. The rapid economic development has made the gap between the rich and the poor increasingly intensified, and it has also made class mobility more difficult. Therefore, exploring the relation between socio-economic status and depression can provide a more detailed basis for the formulation of the current social mental health service system in China.
    In Chinese database (China National Knowledge Infrastructure database), the keywords “社会地位” or “经济地位” were respectively matched with “抑郁”, and the literatures with such keywords in the abstract were searched. In foreign databases (Web of Science Core Collection, Elsevier SD, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses), the keywords “socioeconomic status”, “socio-economic status”, “social class”, and “social status” were matched with “depress*” respectively, and the literatures with such keywords in the abstract were searched. In addition, to avoid omissions, literature supplementation was performed through citations during literature reading and Google Scholar. Finally, a total of 11110 studies were obtained. After literature screening, a total of 58 studies (including 65 effect sizes and 76,715 participants) were finally included, with a time span from 1973 to 2022. The correlation coefficient r was used as the effect size, and the random effects model in software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.0 was used to conduct the meta-analysis.
    The main effect analysis indicated a small significant negative correlation between socio-economic status and depression (r = -0.15). Further sensitivity analysis showed that the estimated effect size fluctuated between-0.158 and -0.147, indicating that the estimated result was stable. The moderating effect analysis showed that: (a) The moderating effect of the sampling year was significant (b=-0.008, 95%CI [-0.015, -0.001]), and the relationship between socioeconomic status and depression became stronger with the development of the times; (b) The moderating effect of SES measurement tool is significant, and the correlation measured by SSS is the strongest, while the correlation measured by FISS or principal component analysis was the weakest; (c) The moderating effect of SES measurement type was significant, and the correlation between subjective socioeconomic status and depression was higher than that of objective socioeconomic status;. (d) The moderating effect of SES measurement form was significant, and the correlation between family socioeconomic status and depression was lower than that of one's own socioeconomic status; (e) The moderating effect of depression measurement tool was marginally significant, the correlation measured by SCL was not significant, and the correlation measured by CDI or CESD was higher than other tools; (f) Gender, age, individualism index and design form (cross-sectional design vs longitudinal design) had no significant moderating effects on the relationship between socioeconomic status and depression.
    This is the first study to analyze the overall strength of the association between socioeconomic status and depression. The results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between them, indicating that relevant public policies should be formulated and supporting schemes should be provided to care for the socio-economic disadvantaged groups, especially to improve their education and income levels, so as to prevent the occurrence of group depression. In addition, the present study also found that the effect size was affected by many operational characteristics (i.e., socio-economic status measurement type and depression measurement), suggesting that future researchers should pay more attention to the choice of scales when conducting research. Specifically, for socioeconomic status, objective and subjective indicators should be combined as far as possible, and it is best to directly measure the socioeconomic status of the individual rather than the family. For depression, scales that measure too few depressive symptoms should be avoided as far as possible. This study also found that the effect size is affected by the development of the times, suggesting that China should vigorously promote the policy of common prosperity in the new era, promote class mobility, prevent class solidification and the further expansion of the gap between the rich and the poor, so as to reduce the occurrence of depression from the social level. Finally, although age and research design failed to moderate the relation between socioeconomic status and depression, both essentially reflect the long-term effect of socioeconomic status on individual's depression. This suggests that public services and public policies should pay attention to long-term effectiveness in the implementation.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    How sharing on social media influences consumer choices
    JIN Fei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (8): 1785-1793.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01785
    Abstract2085)   HTML145)    PDF(pc) (661KB)(2209)       Save

    In today’s highly interconnected mobile and computer-mediated environment, where the act of posting is only a click away, consumers increasingly post their consumption experiences online, from social media to review websites and e-commerce marketplaces. Echoing this momentum, a growing number of brands and marketplaces explicitly encourage consumers to post their purchase experiences by deftly including social media buttons or using hashtag-rich digital communications that directly prompt consumers to post to trigger greater engagement and sales. Previous research has mainly focused on when and why consumers share on social media after purchases. The current research examines whether, how, and when exposure to sharing cues (e.g., social media buttons) during a purchase episode influences consumer choices. We argue that exposure to sharing cues promotes impression management motivation and decreases sense of autonomy. Based on these accounts, we examine two consequences: product interest and decision termination.

    In the first research, we examine how the mere presence of sharing cues on a webpage may influence consumer behavior in unexpected ways that can variably help or hurt companies promoting their products online. Drawing upon research on the use of both social media and product consumption for self-presentation purposes, we hypothesize that the presence of social media cues increases feelings of public self-consciousness and this increased self-consciousness influences consumers’ interest. We further show that the effect of public self-consciousness on product interest is moderated by product self-presentational value. Consumers’ interest will increase for products that they would like others to see them own or use (i.e. desirable self-presentational value). However, consumers’ interest will decrease for products that they would not like others to see them own or use (i.e., undesirable self-presentational value).

    Technological advances enable firms not only to record and track transactions but also to analyze consumers’ responses to their offerings even prior to making their decisions. The pervasiveness of situations in which we are observed or even merely feel observed goes beyond direct human interactions at different stages of the decision process in the social media era. In the second research, we propose that social media cues make consumers feel being observed by others and reducing feelings of independency. This threatens consumers’ sense of autonomy, which is defined as feeling that decisions are made free from external influence. We argue that sense of autonomy, the fundamental motivation of humans, is most pronounced during the process when consumers are comparing different options. Specifically, the pre-decisional or process stage captures the stage wherein consumers are still considering the choices in the consideration set, reviewing the available information, and examining the trade-offs. On the contrary, the post-decisional or outcome stage captures the stage in which consumers already know their preferences and remind them by either sharing on social media. Notably, this distinction pertains to whether consumers are still in the midst of constructing their preferences while being observed or had already finished constructing their preferences and are being observed while indicating their choice. We show that threats to sense of decision autonomy occur if consumers are observed prior to finalizing their choice (vs. during making decisions).

    The current findings contribute to social sharing and give insights to how digital environment affects consumer behavior. Managerially, the findings demonstrate when brand-led efforts to prompt customers to share their purchases backfires.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Prevalence of mental health problems among college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020: A meta-analysis
    CHEN Yumeng, ZHANG Yali, YU Guoliang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 991-1004.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00991
    Abstract1968)   HTML176)    PDF(pc) (582KB)(2846)       Save

    College students are a huge part and an important member of the young people. Their physical and mental health not only directly affects their own long-term development, but also has a significant influence on the future of the nation. Therefore, the mental health of college students has become the focus of families, schools and even the whole society. In recent years, some studies have conducted meta-analyses on the prevalence of a certain mental health problem (such as depression and sleep problem) among college students in China, but such studies cannot reflect the mental health status of college students comprehensively. And some of the previous studies cannot reflect the current status of contemporary college students’ mental health. Furthermore, the selection of moderator variables was not comprehensive enough to reveal the key factors affecting the prevalence. Therefore, we employed a meta-analysis in this study to estimate the prevalence of typical mental health problems among college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020, and the moderating effects of publication year, measurement tools and detection standards, detection time, region, birthplace, only child or not were further analyzed. For the selection of indicators, mental health problems were divided into two categories: internalizing problems and externalizing problems. The indicators of internalizing problems include anxiety, depression, sleep problem, somatization, and suicidal ideation, while the indicators of externalizing problems include nonsuicidal self-injury and suicide attempt.
    Through the process of literature search and selection, 128 studies (136 effect sizes) of anxiety, 237 studies (244 effect sizes) of depression, 56 studies (58 effect sizes) of sleep problem, 49 studies (49 effect sizes) of somatization, 31 studies (31 effect sizes) of nonsuicidal self-injury, 51 studies (51 effect sizes) of suicide ideation, and 8 studies (8 effect sizes) of suicide attempt were included in this study. Homogeneity test indicated that random effects model was appropriate for the meta-analysis. The p-curve analysis illustrated no publication bias. Ultimately, the results of the main effect test showed that the prevalence rates of sleep problem, depression, nonsuicidal self-injury, anxiety, suicidal ideation, somatization, and suicide attempt were 23.5%, 20.8%, 16.2%, 13.7%, 10.8%, 4.5%, and 2.7%, respectively. The results indicate that internalizing problems, especially sleep problem and emotional problem, are more serious among Chinese college students compared to externalizing problems.
    The results of the moderating effect indicated that (1) The prevalence of anxiety, depression, sleep problem and suicide attempt among college students has increased significantly in the last decade, while the prevalence of self-harm has declined significantly; (2) The prevalence of anxiety, depression, sleep problem, and somatization varied significantly between measurement tools and detection standards, and the prevalence of suicidal ideation differed to a significant extent depending on the detection time. Therefore, the fluctuation of prevalence was accounted by measurement tools, detection standards and detection time. (3) There existed obvious regional differences in the prevalence of sleep problem and suicidal ideation, with the feature of the worst mental health among college students in western China and better mental health among college students in northeastern and central China. (4) The prevalence of mental health problems among demographical variables including gender, only child or not, and birthplace showed no significant difference, which indicated that gender, only child or not, urban or rural areas were not the critical factors influencing college students’ mental health.
    In summary, by employing the method of meta-analysis, this study is the first study to systematically investigate the prevalence of the typical mental health problems of college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020. The results clarified the controversy over the inconsistent prevalence in previous studies and explored the main reasons for the inconsistent findings. Thus, this meta-analysis is conducive to promoting subsequent studies and educational practice.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The impact of materialism on green consumption: Promotion or inhibition?
    LI Jing, WU Xuyao, YUE Lei, ZENG Xiangli, FANG Qingyuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (6): 1191-1204.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01191
    Abstract1935)   HTML243)    PDF(pc) (838KB)(2459)       Save

    In order to build a beautiful China, the Chinese government has put forward many policies to promote the construction of ecological civilization, among which the 14th Five-Year Plan clearly points out “promoting the development of green, healthy and safe consumption.” It is apparent that green consumption is a vital measure for solving environmental problems, however, in today's Chinese society, materialistic values are prevalent. In this context, the promotion of green consumption is an issue worthy of consideration. Previous studies have explored the relationship between materialism and green consumption. Some scholars have found a negative correlation between the two, while others have found a positive correlation. On account of these contradictory results, the current research puts forward an innovative perspective and for the first time takes both conspicuous and inconspicuous characteristics of green products themselves as the breakthrough point. In other words, green consumption is divided into conspicuous and inconspicuous green consumption according to the showable nature of green products and whether they are printed with environmental protection signs. Based on this, this research intends to comprehensively use questionnaire survey, behavioral experiment, eye movement experiment, field experiment, and educational intervention to conduct a series of four studies. First, it investigates the boundary conditions of materialism affecting green consumption, that is, the moderating effect of the conspicuous characteristics of green products. It further explores the different psychological mechanisms of materialism affecting conspicuous green consumption and inconspicuous green consumption. We believe that when green products have conspicuous characteristics, they can help materialists build and maintain their own identity and show their unique identity and status, thus promoting them to show conspicuous green consumption behavior, that is, “materialism → status motivation → conspicuous green consumption”. However, when green products do not have the characteristics of showing off, they cannot meet the materialists' pursuit of identity and status. At this time, the essence of their indifference to the environment is revealed, and they may show a negative pro-environment attitude, which inhibits the inconspicuous green consumption behavior, that is, “materialism → pro-environment attitude → inconspicuous green consumption”. Finally, aiming at the negative impact of materialism on inconspicuous green consumption, this research will conduct further intervention studies to investigate the moderating role of nature contact in the impact of materialism on pro-environmental attitudes and inconspicuous green consumption. The above studies not only theoretically integrate the contradictory results of existing research and provide a new idea for solving the existing research differences, but also have important management implications for effectively encouraging people to participate in green consumption behavior under the social background of the prevalence of materialistic values. Therefore, we can use the identity construction or status motivation of materialists, such as adding environmental protection labels to green products to increase the flaunting of products in promoting their conspicuous green consumption; alternatively, we can change the materialists’ negative pro-environmental attitudes and promote their participation in inconspicuous green consumption by improving their degree of nature contact.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The role of inhibition function in pain
    LIU Bo, CHENG Xiangjuan, YUE Heng, BAO Hugejiletu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (6): 1253-1261.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01253
    Abstract1888)   HTML73)    PDF(pc) (607KB)(1678)       Save

    Increasing evidence shows that pain interacts with inhibition function, and this relationship may be an important reason for the development of chronic pain. However, the cognitive mechanism of the interaction between pain and inhibition function remains unclear. This study attempts to clarify how pain affects inhibition function and how inhibition function regulates pain. Pain significantly activates the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The structure and function of the DLPFC change with the development and healing of pain, and the DLPFC plays an important role in the pain farther down the inhibition system. At the same time, the DLPFC is also a key brain area that reflects inhibition function. The overlap of pain and inhibition function in the DLPFC provides physiological evidence for the interaction between pain and inhibition function. Both laboratory pain and chronic pain damages the inhibition function. As a prominent sensory stimulus threatening human survival, pain will automatically induce the individual's self-defence mechanism to control pain from top to bottom. Inhibition is also a top-down control of conflicting information and superior response. According to the theory of cognitive resources, the control of pain will occupy the cognitive resources of the inhibition function and impair the inhibition function. However, the pain-influencing inhibition function is not unidirectional. In turn, inhibition function can predict the incidence of chronic pain and regulate the pain experience. Although the relationship between inhibition function and pain sensitivity is controversial, in the study of distracted analgesia, inhibition function was significantly positively correlated with the performance of distracted tasks, showing consistency across studies. The performance profile of distracted tasks reflects the degree of pain interference by individuals, and individuals with high inhibition function are less affected by pain than individuals with low inhibition function. For individuals with low inhibition function, pain brings more interference and increases the individual’s pain fear and pain catastrophe. This process updates the psychological meaning of pain to the individual and further increases the individual’s negative expectations for the next occurrence of pain. Conversely, individuals with high inhibition function reduce their negative expectations for the next occurrence of pain. The daily activities of patients with chronic pain are interrupted long-term by pain, and the patients' stronger inhibition function helps to reduce pain interference and negative expectations of pain. When patients have more positive expectations than negative expectations for pain relief, the effect of pain treatment is significantly increased. Unfortunately, research on the effect of inhibition function on pain is mainly based on a relevant design, because inhibition function as a personal characteristic is difficult to control in the laboratory. Future research should use more longitudinal designs and methods to control inhibition function (short-term cognitive training) to further clarify the causal relationship between inhibition function and the pain experience. Pain can impair inhibition function, and poor inhibition function is not conducive to pain relief. The interaction between pain and inhibition function highlights the importance and urgency of inhibition function in the treatment of pain by psychological factors. Especially for elderly individuals with poor inhibition function and patients with mild chronic pain, early inhibition function intervention can help reverse the development of chronic pain. According to the existing research results, in-depth exploration of the cognitive mechanism of the interaction between pain and inhibition function is conducive to perfecting the related theories of pain psychobehavioural therapy and further guiding the inhibition function to target pain.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The performance and psychological mechanism of contamination effect in consumer behavior
    MENG Lu, XIE Yufeng, LI Tongmao, DUAN Shen, ZHANG Liangbo
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 941-952.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00941
    Abstract1858)   HTML105)    PDF(pc) (828KB)(2287)       Save

    The pneumonia outbreak caused by the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has been defined as a public health emergency by the World Public Health Organization and poses a serious threat to economic development worldwide. Since that COVID-19 is highly contagious, and the number of infected people and is unprecedented, many governments have taken strong measures to control the spread of COVID-19. In the face of sudden major disasters, people are prone to panic. As a result, individuals pay more attention to personal protection-related issues, and the consumption of protective and health products increases significantly (Yang et al., 2020). Because COVID-19 is spread mainly by droplets and contact, consumers are avoiding products that others may have touched or used for fear of catching the virus. Data from iiMedia Research also showed that the number of users of shared charging banks in China maintained rapid growth to 307 million in 2019. However, due to COVID-19, the number of users dropped to 229 million in 2020. It can be seen that consumers are increasingly concerned about health-related issues, thus amplifying the potential contamination effect on consumer behaviors.

    It has been more than 20 years since contamination effect was first introduced into psychology. Up to now, contamination effect has been widely adopted to explain behaviors in many fields, including product evaluation, celebrity effect, organ transplantation, preference for shrine, valuation of original artwork, cross-cultural differences in collecting behavior, gambling decisions, individual abilities and performance, and even romantic relationships. Although consumers are often faced with a variety of content cues to induce their perception of contamination in daily consumption, there is little known about what consumer behaviors will occur under the influence of contamination effect and what the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions are for these behaviors. There is still no an integrated research framework that can generalize and explain the application of contamination effects to consumer behavior to answer these questions. More importantly, the continuous updating of emerging research backgrounds such as Internet +, new retail and big data provide new insights for the study of contamination effects, however, there is little systematic review of these effects and paradigms.

    In this study, we mainly review the definition and characteristics of contamination effect in the studies of consumer behavior, and then explore the antecedents of contamination effect from the aspects of exposure factors, location factors, product factors and social factors, and further summarize its negative and positive effects on consumer behavior. Finally, the theoretical basis and boundary conditions of contamination effect are well discussed. Based on these discussions, the future research direction of contamination effect in the field of consumer behavior is prospected.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The function and mechanisms of prediction error in updating fear memories
    LI Junjiao, CHEN Wei, SHI Pei, DONG Yuanyuan, ZHENG Xifu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 834-850.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00834
    Abstract1670)   HTML88)    PDF(pc) (922KB)(2110)       Save

    The error-driven learning theory believes that the reinforcement brought by the stimulus must be surprising or unpredictable for the individual to form learning. The mismatch between the expected consequence of behavior and the actual result, known as prediction error (PE), is the driving factor of learning, according to this theory. The Rescorla & Wagner model, the Pearce-Hall model, and the temporal difference (TD) model are the three most common models for calculating prediction error. The RW model and the TD model, in particular, have had a significant impact on the research of prediction error-driven learning and memory. Under different learning models, prediction error is classified as reward or punishment prediction error (RPE or PPE); positive or negative prediction error; and singed or unsigned prediction error (SPE or UPE). As a type of salience, PE is different from other types of saliences. Salience includes stimulus novelty, valence evaluation, stimulus rareness and other salience. Physical salience, surprise (unexpected novelty), and expected novelty are all types of novelty, but only unexpected novelty can promote dopamine release; physical salience with no direct rewards can only cause a short spike in dopamine. Prediction error, on the other hand, are mostly related to the recognition, result perception, and valence evaluation processes.

    A large body of work investigated the role of prediction error in the formation and updating of fear memory. Firstly, prediction error is considered to be a necessary factor in the process of fear acquisition. Negative PE is the source of successful fear extinction. Secondly, under the framework of Reconsolidation Interference of conditioned fear memory, prediction error is demonstrated as a necessary condition of memory destabilization. Prediction error plays a key role in fear memory reconsolidation: (1) PE during memory reactivation is an important boundary condition for memory destabilization; (2) PE is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the triggering of reconsolidation. The degree of prediction error determines whether or not the memory can become unstable. PE's role in memory updating has progressed from a qualitative to a quantitative examination, which has become an important measure of such research development; (3) The size of PE required for memory destabilization is proportional to the memory’s original strength. Thus, it is critical to take both sides into account when evaluating a retrieval manipulation. We propose an integrated model of retrieval boundary conditions and memory features for the reconsolidation of fear memories based on these studies and previous models.

    However, until recently, the neural mechanism underlying the involvement of prediction error in fear memory update has remained largely elusive. Recent work has revealed the brain areas involved mainly include the amygdala, ventrolateral peri-aqueduct gray matter (vlPAG), hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC, in particular, is a distinct area that may distinguish the fear extinguish with or without reconsolidation. While a range of neurotransmitters are linked to the role of PE in memory destabilization in terms of neuromodulation in brain circuits, the most significant of which is dopaminergic. However, glutamate’s participation in the same process is also worth mentioning.

    We propose that in the future direction of the research on fear memory updating, further exploration should be made on quantitative research based on the PE calculation model, integrating the interaction between PE and other boundary conditions, and investigating the role of different types of saliences in memory reconsolidation. Importantly, multidisciplinary methods are urgently need to be used to investigate the neural and molecular mechanisms of PE's role in fear memory renewal. Individual differences in the effects of PE, on the other hand, must be investigated in order to facilitate the translation of studies from bench to bedside.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Prevalence of mental health problems among primary school students in Chinese mainland from 2010 to 2010:A meta-analysis
    HUANG Xiaoxiao, ZHANG Yali, YU Guoliang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 953-964.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00953
    Abstract1661)   HTML129)    PDF(pc) (574KB)(3115)       Save

    In recent years, the age of mental health problems shows a descending trend. Primary school students, as a special group in the critical stage of personal growth, are experiencing increased mental health problems that has caught wide attention from society. If the mental health problems of primary school students are not screened, prevented, and intervened in time, they may develop into lifelong mental diseases, which are difficult to redress and treat. Hence, as the basic premise of improving mental health, it is particularly important to find out the prevalence of pupils' mental health problems, so as to understand their real mental health status, and make targeted detection and intervention in the future.
    However, the prevalence of primary school students' mental health problems described in literature shows inconsistent results, and the prevalence varied greatly, which has brought confusion to mental health educators and workers. Although some researchers tried to use meta-analysis to quantitatively integrate the existing research findings, avoid the influence of biased samples, demographic characteristics, and other factors, and attempt to explore the detection rate of primary school students’ mental health problems objectively and accurately, there were still some deficiencies. Firstly, it only revealed the prevalence of some mental health problems, and did not cover more comprehensive mental health problems. Secondly, it did not specifically analyze the mental health problems in recent 10 years. Finally, the inclusion and discussion of regulatory variables were not specific enough. Therefore, based on the research results in recent 10 years, it is necessary to integrate the prevalence of primary school students' mental health problems and explore its influencing factors by using meta-analysis method.
    In order to clarify the debate on the different prevalence of primary school students' mental health problems, we analyzed and estimated the detection rate of primary school students' mental health problems in mainland China from 2010 to 2020 and investigated its moderation effects. The meta-analysis technology was used to retrieve the research on anxiety, depression, somatization, withdrawal, sleep problems, aggressive and discipline behaviors in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database and Web of Science core collection database from 2010 to 2020. Finally, a total of 101 research and 289396 primary school students were obtained: 9 articles about anxiety, 34 articles about depression, 12 articles about somatization, 10 articles about withdrawal, 11 articles about sleep problems, 13 articles about aggressive behavior, and 12 articles about disciplinary behavior. The software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.3 and the random effect model was selected for analysis.The results showed that (1) The prevalence of mental health problems in primary school students from high to low were sleep problems (25.2%, 95%CI = [0.16, 0.37]), depression (14.6%, 95%CI = [0.12, 0.18]), anxiety (12.3%, 95%CI = [0.06, 0.23]), aggressive behavior (4.1%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.10]), withdrawal (3.8%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.06]), disciplinary behavior (3.7%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.07]) and somatization (3.6%, 95%CI = [0.02, 0.07]); (2) Measurement tools, measurement standards and detection period were the key factors causing the fluctuation of prevalence of mental health problems among primary school students in China. Generally speaking, the overall mental health status of primary school students in China is acceptable except that the prevalence of sleep problems, depression and anxiety are high. In the future, we should develop mental health assessment tools and detection standards suitable for Chinese primary school students to provide support for the prevention and accurate intervention of mental health problems.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Moderation analysis for longitudinal data
    FANG Jie, WEN Zhonglin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (11): 2461-2472.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02461
    Abstract1579)   HTML48)    PDF(pc) (933KB)(1284)       Save

    At present, the analysis of moderating effect is mainly based on cross sectional data. This article discusses how to analyze the moderating effect with longitudinal data. If the independent variable X and the dependent variable Y are longitudinal data, longitudinal moderation models can be divided into three categories according to the type of moderator: time-invariant moderator, time-variant moderator, and moderator generated from X or Y. For example, Xtj is divided into two parts, time-varying intra-individual differences $X_{t j}-\bar{X}_{\bullet} j$ and time-invariant inter-individual differences$\bar{X}_{\boldsymbol{\bullet} j}$, and then the moderating effect of $\bar{X}_{\boldsymbol{\bullet} j}$ on the relationship between $(X_{t j}-\bar{X}_{\bullet} j)$ and Ytj can be analyzed. In that case, there will be no new moderator Z, which is characteristic of moderation research on longitudinal data in contrast to research on cross-sectional data.

    Four types of longitudinal moderation analysis approaches are summarized: 1) Multilevel model (MLM); 2) Multilevel structural equation model (MSEM); 3) Cross-lagged model (CLM); 4) Latent growth model (LGM). It is found that the decomposition of the moderating effect and the use of the latent moderating structural equation (LMS) method are the two characteristics of the moderation analysis for longitudinal data. Specifically, MLM, MSEM, and CLM divide the moderating effect of longitudinal data into three parts: the time-varying intra-individual part, time-invariant inter-individual part, and the cross-level part. In addition, the moderating effect of longitudinal data can be decomposed into the moderating effect of initial level and rate of change by LGM.

    In the present study, we propose a procedure to analyze longitudinal mediation analysis. The first step is to decide whether it is necessary to make a causal inference. If the aim of research is to make a causal inference, CLM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation. Otherwise, proceed with the second step. The second step is to decide whether it is necessary to treat longitudinal data as multilevel data. If longitudinal data is treated as multilevel data, MSEM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation, because MSEM and MLM are more suitable for describing individual differences. Otherwise, LGM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation, because only an LGM can simultaneously examine the effect of some variables on change and how the change affects other variables. The third step is to decide whether MSEM converges. If MSEM converges, the result of MSEM should be reported. Otherwise, MLM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation. Compared with MLM, MSEM takes sampling error into account when the group mean is calculated, but the convergence of the MSEM is more difficult. Therefore, the MSEM with sampling error taken into account is preferred. If convergence fails, MLM will be considered.

    This paper exemplifies how to conduct the proposed procedure by using Mplus. Directions for future research on moderation analysis of longitudinal data are discussed, such as the moderation analysis for intensive longitudinal data based on the dynamic structural equation model.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The relationship between disgust and suicidal behavior
    XIAO Tingwei, DONG Jie, LIANG Fei, WANG Fushun, LI Yang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (1): 87-98.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00087
    Abstract1556)   HTML57)    PDF(pc) (851KB)(2138)       Save

    Suicide is the primary cause of adolescent death, and suicide seriously endangers the life security and mental health of human being. Suicidal behavior includes suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt and suicide. Suicidal ideation refers to serious suicidal thoughts of preparing for a fatal, self-directed, and potentially injurious behavior, or refers to the intension to die without specific plans. Suicidal attempt refers to the intension to commit suicide, including the plans for suicide and even committed suicide; they might attempt to attract attention through bodily harm, but not necessarily causing actual harm. However, suicide is self-directed harm or death. According to suicidal theories which were based on the ideation-to-action framework, self-disgust is a key factor for the formation of suicidal ideation. This article reviews theoretical basis, correlation factor and neurophysiological mechanism of disgust induced suicidal behavior, and predicts future research direction.

    Many recent studies suggested that many psychological problems, including suicide, are caused by patients' disgust to the surroundings and the environment. Disgust is a basic emotion, which is a response to disgustful things, and it is a defensive mechanism to keep people away from spoiled foods or from pollutants to prevent potential diseases, viruses and pollution. However, under heavy burdens and pressures, people would feel depressed and self-disgust, and ultimately lead to despair (extreme self-disgust), resulting in suicidal ideation. Under the condition of having suicidal ability, suicidal ideation would turn to be suicidal attempts, and thus suicide.

    It is also suggested that early life trauma might be the root for disgust inducing suicidal ideation. And life stress and mental illness might aggravate the induction of disgust to suicide. High-intensity self-disgust has been proved to be the most relevant predictor of suicidal risks in mental illness. Psychoanalysis shows that when people are disgusted by themselves, the aggression behavior induced by disgust would also be directed to themselves, so self-disgust might induce suicide.

    The neural mechanism of self-disgust inducing suicide may be related to monoamine (including serotonin) and oxytocin. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are related to the stress response system that plays a very important role in disgust-induced suicidal ideation. Besides, self-disgust may be affected by traumatic stresses in early life, current psychological problems and mental diseases, which might lead to the mal-development of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system, that determines the pattern of stress response in adulthood, including suicide.

    However, there are still some limitations in current suicide studies. First of all, most studies are still limited to cross-sectional design and cannot compare time factors. Therefore, future studies should adopt vertical design and prospective research. Secondly, since most studies are limited to questionnaire studies, future studies could apply neuroscience technologies, such as neuroimaging and electrophysiology, in investigating the neural mechanisms of suicidal behavior, as well as the psychological and neural mechanisms of suicidal behavior affected by disgust.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Cognitive neural characteristics of professional action video game players
    MIAO Haofei, CHI Lizhong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (1): 127-144.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00127
    Abstract1551)   HTML25)    PDF(pc) (1539KB)(1839)       Save

    Action video games (AVG) are probably one of the most popular and mentally challenging games in e-sports. The skill profile of AVG's professional players is unclear. The professional players and players ranked in the top 7% of their games were both of the professionals in this review. The cross-sectional studies incorporating professionals compared to non-professional players and the intervention studies with AVG were searched to analyze the cognitive and neural characteristics of professionals. According to the selected studies, professional action video game players had faster selective attention, better sustained attention and multiple-object tracking performance. Professional players also had better working memory capacity. In particular, the spatial working memory capacity advantage was prominent. In addition, the professionals were less susceptible to the attentional blink effect. However, the current findings for professional players in attentional inhibition and mental flexibility were inconclusive. A little evidence showed potential advantages for action video game players in terms of mathematical and reasoning abilities.

    The better attentional performance of the professionals may be related to the higher P3 amplitude of event-related potential (ERP). The working memory capacity of the professionals was associated with plastic changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right posterior parietal cortex. These plastic changes may be the neurological features that are linked to their excellent visuospatial abilities. The ERP results also revealed that the differences in the contralateral delay activity (CDA) component between professionals and amateurs, suggesting that the professionals had better working memory capacity. In addition, professionals also had enhanced resting-state intra-network functional connectivity of the Central Executive Network. And the enhanced inter-network functional connectivity between the Central Executive Network and Salience Network in professionals reflected the advantages of professionals in information integration.

    According to the intervention studies with AVG, the attention and working memory capabilities, as well as mathematical skills can be improved by AVG training. The mechanism of improvement may be that the AVG play did not teach any one particular skill but instead increases the ability to extract patterns or regularities in the environment. This enhanced learning capability was termed learning to learn. However, the overall duration of game training in intervention studies tended to be less than 30 days. Accordingly, the degree of cognitive promotion from AVG training is not enough to bridge the cognitive gap between professional players and novices.

    In terms of the prediction of game performance by cognitive ability, the relatively basic cognitive abilities such as attention and working memory have low predictive power for the player’s game performance. Any kind of cognitive ability could only explain less than 10% of the variance of player’s rankings. In traditional sports, sports-specific tasks refer to tests that include information about sports scenarios. And there was a greater discriminating effect for sport-specific task compared to general ones. The cognitive tests in AVG did not incorporate information from game scenarios which still stayed on general cognitive tests. What’s more, decision-making ability test is a good way to distinguish the level of players. The weak predictive power in AVG may be limited by the lack of research on decision making or the anticipation task. Therefore, these relatively basic cognitive abilities did not distinguish or predict the player’s game performance very well. Whether they were specific cognitive tests or decision making tests, they contained information about real-life sports scenarios. This real-world information in the sports scene is essentially Chunking or patterns. And it was these patterns that experts hold. Chunking theory may explain the phenomenon of the low predictive power of game performance by cognitive abilities. That is, the player's long-term memory of the game lineup, the spatial position of the characters in the game confrontation, etc. The abundant chunking of game confrontation reserved in the long-term memory is the more important cognitive feature of professionals. The basic cognitive ability may not be as important to the player's game performance as the player's chunking reserved in long-term memory. In the future, we can extend the cognitive studies of the decision-making, chunking or patterns recognizing based on the spatial location of characters.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The big data analysis in cultural psychology
    WU Michael Shengtao, MAO Yunyun, WU Shuhan, FENG Jianren, ZHANG Qingpeng, XIE Tian, CHEN Hao, ZHU Tingshao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (3): 317-329.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00317
    Abstract1515)   HTML21)    PDF(pc) (876KB)(1893)       Save

    With the further development of computers and big data technology, human society and its cultural forms are undergoing profound changes. The production and interaction of cultural symbols have become increasingly complex, and cultural members and their social networks have left numerous texts and behavior footprints, which makes it necessary to describe, predict, and even change the culture, so that computable cultural symbols and their interaction process have gradually become the research object of cultural psychology. In this vein, Computational Cultural Psychology (CCP), which employs big data and computation tools to understand cultural symbols and their interaction processes, has emerges rapidly, making large-scale or even full sample cultural analysis possible. The key variables of CCP are mainly about individualism and collectivism, and the analysis technologies include feature dictionaries, machine learning, social networks analysis, and simulation.
    New research avenues of CCP involve the cultural change effect from the temporal perspective and cultural geography effect from the spatial perspective. For the former, Google Ngram Viewer, Google News, Google Search, name archives, pop songs, and micro-blogs were used to analyze the cultural changes after the long-term historical development and the short-term economic transformation. For the latter, both social media (e.g., Twitter, Facebook, and Weibo) and large-scale survey were used to analyze the cultural differences of various countries or regions in different geographic spaces, as well as the relationship between culture and environment, such as cultural diversity along the "Belt and Road", person - environment fit and cultural value mismatch across different regions in a country or all over the world.
    It should be noted that there are several limitations in CCP, including decoding distortion, sample bias, semasiological variation, and privacy risk, although new methods and paradigms are provided. In future directions, theoretical interpretation of variables, cultural dynamics, interdisciplinary integration, and ecological validity should be seriously concerned. In particular, accurate definition and theoretical interpretation of big data measurement are needed; a variety of big data corpus (e.g., historical archives) should be used for the evolutionary analysis of dynamic cultures; deep integration, but not conflict, should be encouraged between culture psychology and the sciences of computer, communication, and history; and the "scenarios" of big data should be considered in promoting the ecological validity of cultural psychology.
    Taken together, a review of the emergence of CCP, as well as the empirical research on the big data analysis of cultural change and cultural geography, is helpful in understanding the advantages, limitations, and future direction of this new field, which sheds light on theoretical and methodological innovation of cultural psychology.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Predictors of continuation and cessation of non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents
    JIANG Jiali, LI Liyan, LI Ziying, LEI Xiuya, MENG Zelong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (7): 1536-1545.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01536
    Abstract1401)   HTML107)    PDF(pc) (671KB)(1759)       Save

    Non-suicidal self-injury is a socially unacceptable behavior whereby an individual deliberately harms themselves without suicide ideation; it is an important risk factor for future suicide ideation, suicidal behavior and long-term psychological disorders. As a high risk group, non-suicidal self-injury behavior in adolescents poses a serious risk to their physical and mental health, and has a significant social “contagion” effect. Understanding the factors that predict the continuation or cessation of non-suicidal self-injury behavior in adolescents is helpful to provide new perspectives for early prevention and intervention.
    This study combed through relevant literature from China and abroad using longitudinal tracking and retrospective studies, and employed Nock’s integrative theoretical model to classify the factors that are predictive of the continuation or cessation of non-suicidal self-injurious behavior in adolescents into three categories: physiological mechanisms, personal traits and social factors. In terms of physiological mechanisms, a neurobiological basis for the continuation or cessation of non-suicidal self-injurious behavior in adolescents was identified. For example, when β-endorphin levels and the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the amygdala and frontal lobes were abnormal in adolescents, these individuals might become dependent on non-suicidal self-injurious behavior as a means of restoring homeostasis in the body, and thus, they perpetuate the behavior.
    In terms of personal traits, adolescents with deficits in emotion regulation were more likely to develop and maintain non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, while those who were good at accepting their emotional responses, and able to use adaptive emotion regulation strategies, were more likely to stop this behavior in the future; adolescents with borderline personality disorder, impulsive personality traits, low levels of self-esteem, and high levels of self-criticism and self-punishment tended to persist in non-suicidal self-injury behavior over a longer period of time, whereas adolescents with high levels of self-esteem, positive beliefs about adversity, and low levels of self-punishment were more likely to stop the behavior. The non-suicidal self-injury function on which the adolescent relied also influenced the course of the behavior, with adolescents who relied on non-suicidal self-injury for intrapersonal functions (e.g., anti-dissociation, self-punishment, and affect regulation, etc.) being highly likely to maintain the behavior over time. However, those who relied on non-suicidal self-injury for interpersonal functions (e.g., peer-bonding, interpersonal influence, autonomy, revenge, etc.) were more likely to stop the behavior after a period of time. In addition, adolescents’ prior experience of non-suicidal self-injurious behavior might also be one of the strongest predictors of future persistence with this behavior, with adolescents with more severe levels of non-suicidal self-injurious behavior being at greater risk of continuing the behavior and, conversely, being more likely to stop.
    In terms of social factors, risk factors such as peer bullying and poor family relationships might weaken an individual's ability to cope with distress, which in turn might trigger or exacerbate non-suicidal self-injurious behavior in adolescents. Conversely, effective social support, such as peer support, family support, psychological counselling and therapy, could provide protective resources for the development of non-suicidal self-injurious behavior and might help adolescents to stop this behavior.
    At present, most of the relevant studies at home and abroad focus on the prevalence, research methods, relevant influencing factors and functions of non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, and relatively little theoretical and practical exploration of the persistence or cessation of non-suicidal self-injurious behavior has been carried out. Future research should pay more attention to the diversification of research methods and measurement techniques for non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, and the expansion of research areas (e.g., personality, cognitive orientation, etc.), as well as to the differences in age groups and cultural backgrounds, in order to further identify risk and protective factors that are significant predictors of the development of non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, and to further explore the interaction between these factors.

    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Early screening tools for Autism Spectrum Disorder in infancy and toddlers
    CHEN Guanghua, TAO Guanpeng, ZHAI Luyu, BAI Xuejun
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (4): 738-760.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00738
    Abstract1388)   HTML59)    PDF(pc) (1714KB)(1563)       Save

    The purpose of screening research is to provide a comprehensive understanding about the risks of early identification of autism spectrum disorder. This study comprehensively and systematically reviewed the commonly-used screening tools for early detection of autism in infants and preschool children. Under the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA), we queried the topic “screening tools for autism spectrum disorder” against the three major literature retrieval databases (WOS, Scopus, PubMed) and obtained 175 articles, of which 35 articles and 18 corresponding screening tools were further evaluated to comply with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) checklist. These tools were analyzed from the aspects of application level, psychometric and measurement properties, cultural adaptability, diagnostic criteria and classification accuracy. From the aspect of application level, the screening tools were categorized into three levels based on the types of screening samples, wherein Level- I screening tools, totaling up to 4, focus on general-purpose screening of population and the examination of other developmental disorders, and the evaluation is mainly based on the reports from parents; Level-II screening tools, totaling up to 8, were mainly based on the clinical reports from well-trained clinicians or the observations from the interactions between trained professionals and children; the hybrid-level screening tools, totaling up to 6, were based on the Level-I general population and the Level-II clinical samples. From the aspect of psychometric and measurement properties, existing studies only adopted several metrics of reliability and validity, e.g., internal consistency reliability, rater reliability, test-retest reliability and criterion validity, to evaluate the psychometric properties of screening tools,, whereas the other metrics such as split half reliability, measurement error, content validity, structural validity, cross-cultural validity and hypothesis test were seldom adopted except in only a few studies, and one-third studies did not carry out any psychometric evaluation, potentially resulting in the high-risk bias of QUADAS-2. From the aspect of cultural adaptability, the series of M-CHAT tools(M-CHAT, M-CHAT/F,M-CHAT-R/F), subjected to extensive evaluation in multiple languages, have demonstrated obvious cultural adaptability, and were recognized as the most widely-used and the most famous screening tool based on parent reports. However, there is an increasing trend that screening tools developed to be localized to the culture and languages in communities or countries with scarce resources. From the aspect of diagnostic standards, the DSM-IV or DSM-IV-TR (accounting for 43%) were still used as the main reference standard instead of the DSM-5 manual (accounting for 34%). It was concluded from sensitivity and specificity that the tools for preschool children outperform those for infants in terms of classification accuracy. The tools rated as good level for infants include M-CHAT-R/F and PDQ-1, and the tools rated as excellent level for children include OERA and TIDOS, wherein M-CHAT-R / F is one of the most promising screening tools for estimating the risks of autism spectrum disorder. Lastly, we discussed the limitations of QUADAS-2 and the necessity of choosing stringent quality assessment measures and the importance of further validating these measurements.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics