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    Conceptualization of time poverty and its impact on well-being: From the perspective of scarcity theory
    SUN Xiaomin, YANG Shuting, KONG Xiaoshan, LIU Zhenzhen, MA Rongzi, YUAN Yue, ZHANG Nan, JIANG Xinying, CAO Peiling, BAO Ruiji, LIN Yiqin, LI Ning, LI Zhihang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2024, 32 (1): 27-38.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00027
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    In today’s fast-paced world, increasing numbers of individuals are facing time poverty, i.e., having too much to do and not enough time. It can impact people's cognitive processes and behaviors by affecting their attention. However, the extant literature provides only a limited understanding of the influence of time poverty and its effects on individual multi-faceted well-being. Therefore, a comprehensive investigation of the concept of time poverty and its impact on well-being is of great importance theoretically and practically. The current study intends to present a three-dimensional theoretical model for the construct of time poverty from an integrated perspective, aiming to explore its effects on multi-faceted subjective well-being and investigate the potential mechanisms by which time poverty reduces well-being based on scarcity theory.

    Specifically, the current study proposes a three-dimensional structure for the concept of time poverty, which includes length, intensity, and quality. Most researchers agree that spending an excessive amount of time on paid work or unpaid domestic work and having an insufficient amount of free time leads to time poverty. Moreover, the number of tasks to be completed per unit of time may be an independent source of pressure resulting in the perception of time poverty. The stressful pace caused by over-rapid task completion and too short intervals could increase the sense of time poverty. Lastly, the quality dimension of time poverty comprises time integrity, time autonomy, and time synchronization. Low time quality could worsen the perception of time poverty. Based on the three-dimensional model of time poverty, the current study aims to develop a time poverty scale and construct a large-scale Chinese time poverty database. This database is designed to collect demographic information as well as the level of time poverty of representative samples, aiming to explore the dominant type of time poverty for different demographic groups and trace the dynamic changes in time poverty over time.

    Furthermore, the current study proposes that time poverty can have a significant impact on people’s well-being. Time poverty can develop a scarcity mindset, leading people to focus on the scarcity of time. Consequently, they overemphasize productivity, resulting in a strong inclination of completing more tasks in a shorter amount of time. Such a mindset shifts people’s attention from the activity’s process to its results, reducing intrinsic motivation and, as a result, ruining people’s well-being. An excessive focus on productivity can also harm interpersonal and family well-being by underestimating the importance of investing time and energy in nurturing relationships, thereby lowering the quality of relationship-oriented interactions. Therefore, we argue that by promoting the over-productivity orientation, time poverty can adversely affect individual, interpersonal, and family well-being. Furthermore, time poverty in one spouse's workplace produces an over-productivity tendency which then spills over to the family environment and is conveyed to the other spouse in their daily interactions. Such processes are likely to negatively influence both parties’ well-being.

    Overall, the current project develops a three-dimensional time poverty theoretical model, based on which a time poverty scale will be developed. With the new scale, a large-scale database will be constructed. The project will explore the experiences of different groups of people with distinct characteristics in Chinese society, and how such experiences influence personal, interpersonal, and family well-being. The results of the current project are of great importance for not only the successful coping of time poverty for individuals but also for societies aiming to improve the well-being of their people.

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    The effects of gender nonconformity on adolescent peer evaluation and related dynamics
    WEN Fangfang, KE Wenlin, FANG Zeming, WANG Yang, LEI Yatian, ZUO Bin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (8): 1331-1341.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01331
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    Inherent gender is an important dimension of self-identity and social categorization, and has a huge impact on individual psychology, interpersonal relationships, intergroup behaviors and social development. Gender stereotypes, gender socialization and gender attitudes have been stable themes in disciplines, such as social psychology, developmental and educational psychology and sociology. Gender is the core component of the self-concept and an important dimension of social categorization. Gender Nonconformity is a psychological phenomenon in which individuals display gender norms that do not correspond or are inconsistent with their birth sex. In recent years, the phenomenon of Gender Nonconformity has become increasingly prominent among adolescents, and previous studies have shown that Gender Nonconformity adolescents face challenges in social adjustment such as peer relationships. Although some research paradigms and theoretical findings have been accumulated in the area of Gender Nonconformity and related areas, there are still limitations. Although some research paradigms and theoretical findings have been accumulated in the area of Gender Nonconformity and related areas, there are still limitations. Firstly, previous studies have mainly adopted the traditional binary approach of gender conformity and non-conformity; secondly, there is a lack of cognitive-motivational pathways to examine the prototypical matching and avoidance intentions of Gender Nonconformity in influencing adolescents' peer evaluations; thirdly, previous studies have mainly adopted a static perspective on gender-biased peer evaluations, ignoring the dynamic processes of gender-biased generation and evolution. To address these limitations, this study will break through the gender binary category and explain the psychological mechanisms of static effects and dynamic changes of Gender Nonconformity on peer evaluation from the perspective of the relationship between basic attributes and gender attributes, and provide possible interventions to change the negative peer evaluation of Gender Nonconformity individuals. The specific aims of the study include: firstly, to develop and provide neurophysiological evidence for the basic attributes of Gender Nonconformity; secondly, to reveal the cognitive-motivational dual-path mechanism of prototype matching and avoidance intention in the process of Gender Nonconformity influencing peer evaluation; and thirdly, to explore the dynamic evolutionary mechanism of Gender Nonconformity influencing peer evaluation.

    Focusing on the above three research aims, this study systematically examines the influence of Gender Nonconformity on peer evaluation and its evolutionary psychological mechanisms according to a progressive research hierarchy of "realization layer - algorithmic layer - computational layer". The study includes three aspects. (1) A polymorphic refinement examines the effects of Gender Nonconformity on peer evaluation, constructs a view of the underlying attributes of Gender Nonconformity and provides behavioral and neurophysiological evidence of the layers of realization. (2) A dual cognitive-motivational pathway mechanism for Gender Nonconformity to influence peer evaluation is revealed at the algorithmic level. The social cognitive paradigm is used to explore the cognitive activation of "prototype matching" and the motivational activation of "intention to avoid" in the process of Gender Nonconformity influencing peer evaluation through questionnaires, behavioral experiments and situational experiments. (3) Exploring the dynamic evolutionary mechanisms of Gender Nonconformity in peer evaluation from the abstract computational level. Using reinforcement learning paradigms, computational modelling, implicit measurement, contextual experiments and live experiments, the prototype formation process of Gender Nonconformity peer evaluations is simulated using reinforcement learning models based on a dual pathway of cognition and motivation to explore the dynamic evolutionary mechanisms of gender-biased peer evaluations and possible intervention pathways for negative peer evaluations of gender-biased individuals. The findings of this study can provide some managerial and educational insights into the effective promotion of youth gender development, peer relationships and mental health based on a gender perspective.

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    Does classical music make you smarter? A meta-analysis based on generalized Mozart effect
    CHEN Lijun, HUANG Meilin, JIANG Xiaoliu, WANG Xinjian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (12): 2232-2262.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02232
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    Since the last century, scholars have increasingly focused on examining how Mozart’s music affects people’s cognitive performance, leading to rapid growth in the empirical literature on the Mozart effect. However, the effect size reported in empirical studies has been inconsistent. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis based on a systematic and comprehensive review of studies on the impact of classical music, seeking to determine its influence on cognitive performance and the underlying mechanisms at work. We also investigated whether the characteristics of research participants (e.g., age group, gender, cultural context) and elements of experimental design (e.g., type of experimental design, types of control music, the order of music, cognitive task and cerebral hemisphere) moderate the magnitude of the Mozart effect.

    We identified studies by searching Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest, WanFang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from 1993 to 2022 using the following terms: (“Mozart effect” OR “Mozart music” OR “music effect” OR “classical music”) AND (cognit* OR intellig* OR spati*). Our selection criteria were as follows: (1) the study reported original empirical findings; (2) at least two out of three possible treatments (listening to Mozart's Sonata KV 448, other classical music, or silence/other sounds) were administered to the groups; (3) the study involved the generalized Mozart effect and cognitive performance; (4) participants were the general public, excluding clinical or animal samples; (5) the study was written in either Chinese or English (the languages spoken by the authors).

    Ninety-one studies (with a total of 172 independent effect sizes and 7,159 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. Given that effect size could be influenced by participant characteristics (e.g., age, gender, cultural context), we applied a random-effects model. After coding the data, the “metafor” package (version 3.4.0) in R software was used to evaluate the total effect size of classical music and to analyze the publication bias test and moderating effects.

    The results showed that classical music improved cognitive task performance with a small effect (g = 0.36, 95% CI [0.24, 0.49]). The impact of publication bias was minimal, and the major findings remained valid. Additionally, the moderation analyses revealed that the strength of the relationship was moderated by age group, cultural context, type of experimental design, and dominant hemisphere of the brain. Specifically, the effect size of Chinese subjects was significantly larger than that of foreign subjects (g: 0.64 > 0.27, p = 0.018), and the effect size of preoperational stage children (3~6 years) was the largest (g= 1.10). Compared with the within-subject design, the between-subject effect was significantly greater (g: 0.48 > 0.22, p = 0.037). The right hemisphere also performed much better than the left (g: 0.44 > 0.08, p = 0.019). Moreover, gender interacted with age group, cultural context and cerebral hemisphere. The direct priming hypothesis received more robust support from this meta-analysis (g: 1.29 > 0.34, p = 0.045).

    To summarize, this study makes several important theoretical advances. First, this study systematically assessed the effects of listening to classical music on cognitive performance basing on a broad definition of Mozart effect, covering a wider range of musical genres and cognitive task types. It bridged the limitations of existing meta-analyses, clarified the debate on the reliability and scientific validity of the Mozart effect, and laid the groundwork for in-depth discussions. More importantly, this paper was the first to compare the effect sizes based on the "Direct Priming Hypothesis" and the "Arousal-mood Hypothesis", indicating the former to be more adept at explaining the Mozart effect. This provided a clearer theoretical guide for future researches. Finally, by examining the moderation effects of several factors, this paper explained why previous literature on the Mozart effect has reported inconsistent findings and provided more targeted design guidance for future studies. Beyond its theoretical advancements, the current paper’s results also have practical implications, such as the implications of age group differences and their interactions for children's cognitive development. The results can also aid in utilizing music education more effectively to boost cognitive performance. Future researches are encouraged to examine the long-term facilitative effect of classical music on cognitive performance, to explore the role of music preference in cognitive facilitation, and to explore more underlying moderators for the intervention effect size, such as subjects' personality traits, familiarity with music, and difficulty of the cognitive task.

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    Personality dynamics: The integration of process and trait
    WU Fan, HU Yueqin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (7): 1269-1287.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01269
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    Personality dynamics is a research perspective that focuses on intra-individual processes and their relationship with inter-individual personality traits such as Big Five. From the beginning, personality psychology has emphasized the dynamic nature of personality. Early theories of personality dynamics have been proposed but were not tested due to restrictions in methodology until the last two decades when the widespread use of intensive longitudinal analyses brought the personality dynamic approach back into focus.
    Theories of personality dynamics have several emphases: (1) distinguishing between stable and unstable components in the personality system; (2) the personality system is self-regulating; (3) situational and environmental factors are integral to understanding personality; and (4) personality is a multi-process system. While different theories of personality dynamics share the goal of explaining the underlying processes of observable personality traits, they can be further divided into personality process models and integrative models according to their different theoretical emphases. Personality process models focus on the influencing factors and mechanisms that produce behaviors in different contexts, i.e., why people behave differently in different situations. Prominent theoretical perspectives include theories that explain behaviors based on neurophysiology (e.g., the reinforcement sensitivity theory), the social-cognitive theories that explain behaviors via processes such as information processing, goal pursuit, and self-regulation (e.g., the cognitive-affective personality system model), and theories that emphasize the different types of interactions between persons and situations/environments (e.g, the person-environment relations model). In contrast, personality integrative theories attempt to integrate personality process models and trait models, focusing on explaining the causes of stable intra- and inter-individual personality structures by zooming in on the evolutional basis of human beings or the complex interactions of dynamic social-cognitive processes. Research questions include, for example, “What is the specific set of causal processes that underlie a specific trait?”, or “What are the causing forces underlying the inter-individual personality structures such as the big five personality traits?”. Representative theories addressing these issues include the whole trait theory, the knowledge-and-appraisal model of personality architecture, and the cybernetic big five theory.
    Empirical research on personality dynamics employs a range of methods designed to analyze the within-person multivariate dynamic functioning, the complex interrelationships therein, and the relationships between processes and traits. Intensive longitudinal design with the experience sampling method is commonly used. Intensive longitudinal data are usually analyzed using statistical models that can handle multi-level structures (e.g., multilevel models, multilevel structural equation modes), reciprocal relationship (e.g., dynamic structural equation models and group iterative multiple model estimation), multivariate network system analysis and visualization (e.g., graphical network analysis), and system-level feature extraction (e.g., dynamic system models). Based on these methods, applied personality research in organizational, educational, and clinical psychology has made progress on topics such as within-person variability in personality states and their correlation with variables of interest in the related field.
    Future research could address the following issues. Theoretically, researchers should pay attention to the distinctions and connections between intra-individual and inter-individual personality structures. Also, theories of personality dynamics, which focuses on the personality of normal individuals, can be integrated with the theory of psychopathology. In addition, future researchers can also consider how to incorporate temporal effects into theories. Empirically, future researchers could: incorporate different sampling methods, such as self-reports, others’ reports, behavioral indicators, and electronic footprints, to further sort out the sources of variance in personality states; measure multiple psychological processes simultaneously, such as the biological, cognitive, affective, and motivational processes underlying a particular trait; manipulate or measure personality states in a clearer and more precise manner to ensure that they are representative of the chosen personality, for example, measure personality facets rather than traits; and report reliability at the within-person level in multilevel analyses.

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    Tainted or elegant? Sexy effect on marketing
    XIE Zhipeng, QIN Huanyu, WANG Ziye, WANG Jingyuan, HE Yi
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (11): 2200-2218.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02200
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    Sexiness refers to an individual’s outward sexual charm or inner sexual attractiveness that is able to attract attention and induce sexual thoughts in others. As one of the most important forms of advertising, sexual advertisements trigger consumers’ sexual associations, emotions, or impulses by incorporating sexual content to promote brands and products. With the development of technology and the economy, the construct of sexual advertisements has become more complicated. New market trends such as “de-sexualization”, “sexual innuendo” and “over-sexualization” have emerged. However, existing theories regarding sexual advertisements cannot meet the needs of the rapidly growing market. Scholars have not yet reached a consensus on the classification of sexual advertisement. In addition, there are many contradictions in the theory and practice of the sexy effect in marketing, accompanied by a fragmented distribution of research fields. Drawing on studies from psychology, sociology, management, and other fields, this paper reviews the categories, effects, mechanisms and boundaries of sexual advertisements. This paper comprehensively and systematically studies sexual advertisements to provide a reference for both scholars and practitioners alike.

    First, this paper classifies sexual advertisements based on three aspects: direct representation, indirect representation, and social relationship representation. We found that sexual advertisements with direct representation may be perceived as immoral by consumers. And indirect representation may be difficult to perceive. Besides, sexual advertisements of social relationship representation can signal social connection and emotion, which can be utilized by the brands. Compared to direct and indirect represented sexual advertisements, the form of social relationship representation is more easily accepted by consumers. That’s why sexual advertisements of social relationship representation are becoming more and more common in recent years.

    Second, sexual advertisements are a powerful tool in marketing, but it is also a double-edged sword. On the one hand, sexual advertisements meet consumers’ compensatory needs by attracting their attention, enhancing their positive attitudes, and promoting manufacturers to realize their marketing goals. On the other hand, advertisements that are focused excessively on sexual content may result in attention loss for the brand. In this case, sexual content may be counterproductive to the brand’s long-term image. Direct sexual arousing advertisements and excessive sexual innuendo are easily perceived by consumers as lacking morality, and more importantly, carry certain legal risks.

    Finally, sexual advertisements influence consumers’ perceptions in different ways. The explanatory mechanism of sexual advertisement has shifted from consumer cognition and physiological impulses to social benefits. This paper specifically explores the mediating mechanism of the effect of sexual advertisements from four aspects, including consumer cognition, physiological motivation, sexual self-schema and social presence. The study shows that sexual advertisements can evoke consumers’ sexual thoughts and change their attitudes toward the advertised brands. However, these effects vary in different contexts. Accordingly, different product types, advertising contexts and individual traits also have an impact on the boundaries of the effects of sexual advertisements.

    As a whole, the concept of sexiness has gone through dramatic changes in recent years. Specifically, consumers are more open towards sexiness due to the changes in social trends and regulations, and the rising social status of women. In addition, the introduction of sub-cultural elements such as anime and manga has enriched the definition of sexiness. In the future, we can focus on these newly-emerged types of sexual advertisements. Moreover, the psychological and social mechanism and moderating effect of sexual advertisements can also be explored in future research. For example, future researchers may pay attention to the perceptual differences in sexiness under different cultural contexts. They may also focus on other interaction effects that could arouse sexual impulses, for example, specific colors and color saturation in advertisements. Also, future research can also explore new channels of sexy content, including AR and VR, etc.

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    The occurrence mechanism of short video indulgence from the perspective of human-computer interaction
    DONG Wanghao, WANG Weijun, WANG Xingchao, LI Wenqing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (12): 2337-2349.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02337
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    Short video indulgence refers to an individual’s compulsive and uncontrollable consumption of short videos, leading to significant behavioral or attention impairments, and subsequently causing difficulties in interpersonal relationships, learning, and/or work adaptation. With the continuous expansion of the short video user base and the trend towards younger groups, threats of short video indulgence to users’ physical and mental health have aroused extensive attention. From a human-computer interaction perspective, we synthesized and delineated the relevant factors contributing to the occurrence of short video indulgence. The objective is to formulate a comprehensive framework delineating the intricate mechanism that underpins the phenomenon of short video indulgence, thereby shedding light on the intricacies involved in its developmental process.

    At first, in order to explore the delineation between short video usage and indulgence, we categorized short video usage into “instrumental” and “ritualistic” forms. Instrumental usage refers to user behavior driven by specific goals or needs, where short videos serve as tools or means to achieve particular objectives. Ritualistic usage refers to user behavior without a specific objective, where short videos become habitual behaviors associated with particular contexts, times, or situations. The transition from conventional utilization of short videos to the state of short video indulgence appears to encompass a notable shift in usage behavior, evolving from a utilitarian “instrumental” function to a more “ritualistic” engagement.

    After that, the present work formulates a conceptual framework delineating the mechanisms underlying the onset of short video indulgence, delving into the domains of human-computer interaction and susceptibility traits. The first section encompasses four facets: information technology, content provision, human-computer interaction, and user experience. Their salient characteristics encompass technological advancement, content richness, interactive efficiency, and user immersion. Furthermore, propelled by recommendation algorithms, users’ engagement with short videos becomes increasingly fortified. The second section systematically expounds the susceptibility factors contributing to short video indulgence. The four categories of unique susceptibility traits align with the four stages of interactive mechanisms, while the categories represented by common susceptibility traits have an inducing effect on general addictive behaviors. Considering the analogous nature of short video indulgence to general online indulgence, the unique and common susceptibility traits exhibit mutual intersection and overlap. Overall, the role of interactive mechanisms lies in arousing susceptibility traits, rendering individuals more susceptible to allure and ensnarement in a cycle of addictive behaviors. Simultaneously, susceptibility traits amplify users’ responsiveness and vulnerability to inducing factors. The multifaceted components within the realm of human-computer interaction, propelled by recommendation algorithms, intricately intertwine with users’ susceptibility traits, driving the transformation of users’ engagement with short videos from an “instrumental” to a “ritualistic” approach, ultimately leading to the emergence of short video indulgence. This framework seeks to illuminate the genesis and progression of short video indulgence, offering researchers in this domain a comprehensive conceptual structure to foster the scientific governance of short video indulgence.

    Subsequently, in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind short video indulgence, we offered theoretical interpretations of short video indulgence from cognitive, emotional, motivational, and social perspectives. The dual process theory, opponent process theory, uses and gratifications theory and social shaping of technology theory were employed to elucidate the process of short video indulgence formation.

    Finally, this study concludes by summarizing the existing shortcomings in the current field of research. The points are concluded as follows: 1) The research methods are limited, there should be a diversification of research perspectives; 2) Insufficient attention to technology emphasizes the need to emphasize improvements in technology that contribute to addiction; 3) The mechanism of formation is unclear, there should be a deepening of the research into the mechanisms of occurrence; 4) Inadequate research on user characteristics highlights the need to focus on susceptibility factor studies.

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    Warm reading: Clarifying the mechanisms of empathy in text reading
    TONG Yuguang, LI Ying, CHEN Jie
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (11): 2025-2039.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02025
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    The Social Processes and Content Entrained by Narrative (SPaCEN) model was proposed in recent years. This model marked a significant shift in the focus of text reading research away from coherent representations and toward the principles and goals of social functions. One of the key social cognitive skills is empathy, which can provide a valuable lens through which to examine how text reading serves a social purpose. Understanding the social role of empathy in text reading necessitates having a thorough understanding of the whole life cycle of empathy in text, including the process of its initiation, its action and the operation of its subsequent influence.

    Empathy during reading can be induced through the linguistic features of the text, textual elements, and self-simulation processes. Specifically, the linguistic features of the text coordinate attentional resources and balance aesthetic experiences by manipulating vocabulary, phonetics and rhetorical techniques to obtain an enhanced empathic experience; the textual elements induce empathic experiences by constructing scenes with different content features; and the self-simulation process emphasizes the reader's awareness and evaluation process of the textual information. The empathy induced by different pathways all include three components of empathy, narrative involvement, emotion and evaluation in different degrees.

    Various writing styles, reader attributes, and text qualities all influence how readers act on their empathic experiences. Specifically, authors may choose writing strategies that aim to evoke empathic experiences of certain readers for specific groups, depending on the intended audience group, including bounded narrative empathy acting on in-groups, ambassadorial narrative empathy acting on out-groups, and broadcast narrative empathy acting on objects of general interest. Readers' internal (e.g., experiences, personality traits) and external characteristics (e.g., reading style, reading medium, reading environment) can also contribute to differences in empathic experiences. Different genre types and text features may induce or enhance readers' empathic experiences through different paths such as arousing attention, activating familiar features, and reducing defensiveness. The arrangement of textual content can also facilitate readers' integration into the storyline from a character's perspective by easing readers' inferences about the psychological theory of textual roles through emotional valence, perspective markers, and protagonist characteristics.

    The distributed elementary processing model of text reading and empathy offers a new view on how empathy in text reading processes from a multidimensional perspective. According to this model, the author, the reader and the text work together to produce empathy. The author's writing strategy, the type and content of the text, and the characteristics of the reader all influence the empathic experience of the reader. With the superposition of the elements in each component, a slow activation of empathy from scratch is gradually achieved. The model further assumes that the empathic experience activated by text reading is reflected at the neural level, the cognitive-emotional level, and the behavioral level. Along with memory, encoding, and retrieval-related brain regions (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex associated with intertemporal and cross-modal processing), as well as motivational and reasoning-related brain regions (e.g., ventral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, temporoparietal junction) being active during reading, explicitly empathy-related brain regions such as the inferior frontal gyrus also exhibit sustained or fluctuating activation.

    In conclusion, reading with empathy not only improves readers' comprehension of others' thoughts and feelings and their ability to draw inferences about the theory of mind underlying texts, but it also serves to dispel prejudices and encourage actions that assist animals and the environment. Future research should concentrate on how to maximize the effectiveness of text reading in triggering empathy, creating a strong spiritual motivation for readers, and promoting the development and improvement of their healthy personalities at the application level, in addition to identifying which idiosyncratic text elements can effectively trigger empathy at the basic processing level.

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    The cognitive mechanism and neural substrates enabling self-control to reduce the decision to procrastinate
    ZHANG Shunmin, LI Keqian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (9): 1560-1568.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01560
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    Procrastination often prevents individuals, businesses, and governments from completing set tasks on time, hindering people's work, studies, and disease prevention and treatment. Self-control is the main ability to autonomously reduce procrastination, but it is a relatively limited cognitive resource. Uncovering how self-control works can help reduce procrastination more effectively. This project intends to investigate the mechanism and neural basis of self-control based on the decision mechanism of “do it now or do it later” in the temporal decision model. The temporal decision model holds that decision to procrastinate depends on the individual's trade-off between the process utility and outcome utility of task. When considering implementing a task immediately, the present-self will feel a high negative process utility but a low positive outcome utility. Therefore, the present-self is unwilling to execute it immediately. When anticipating to do a task in the future, the present self expects that the future self has a higher outcome utility, forming a feeling of “I will definitely do it in the future”. According to the temporal decision model and the mode of action of self-control, there may be three ways for self-control to reduce procrastination in decision-making. First, regulate negative emotions and thus reduce procrastination by reducing the utility of negative processes. Second, focus on task’s positive outcome and reduce procrastination by enhancing positive outcome utility. Third, regulate the allocation of attention, and reduce procrastination by paying less attention to negative processes or more attention to positive outcomes when making decisions. Based on the three ways, Study 1a will construct the corresponding three types of models, and compare the goodness of fit of these models to determine the efficient mode of self-control. Subsequently, Study 1b will use the experience sampling method to track the procrastination-reducing effect of different self-control ways, so as to test the stability of its effect. Study 2a will develop a brain imaging experimental paradigm capable of ecologically modeling task evaluation (process utility and outcome utility) and decisions to procrastinate, based on the temporal decision model. Specifically, the study will set up difficult target tasks with monetary rewards, and easy distractor tasks without monetary rewards. When the subjects choose the target task, it can be considered that they have chosen “execute immediately”; when they choose the interference task, it can be considered that they have chosen to delay the target task. Study 2b will use neurostimulation technology to enhance the excitability of neurons in the self-control brain area on the basis of study 2a, and investigate the effect and mechanism. In general, this project will systematically investigate “how self-control reduces procrastination” from two aspects of cognitive mechanism and neural basis based on the decision-making mechanism of “do now or later” in the temporal decision model. In terms of theory, this project was able to incorporate the failure of self-control to explain procrastination behavior into the theoretical framework of the temporal decision model. On the practical side, this project can provide theoretical and practical guidance for designing new procrastination intervention programs. Among them, the research results of cognitive mechanisms can help design behavior training programs based on self-control strategies, while the research results of neural foundations can provide more precise and personalized targets for interventions such as neural stimulation and neurofeedback training.

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    Job replacement or job transformation? Definition, consequences, and sources of technology-driven job insecurity
    TU Yan, HAO Po, LONG Lirong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (8): 1359-1373.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01359
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    During the digital transformation of Chinese enterprises, effectively alleviating and coping with employee job insecurity is crucial for building harmonious and stable labor relations. Although traditional job insecurity research has extensively examined the sources and consequences of job insecurity, it has paid little attention to the rapid development and application of artificial intelligence technology, which is an essential context for the current organizational management practice and research. This study innovatively puts forward a new concept of technology-driven job insecurity in the context of artificial intelligence, reflecting individual perceived job insecurity due to the development and application of artificial intelligence technology. Based on this, this study has three objectives. First, we theorize the definition and dimensionality of technology-driven job insecurity. Considering that artificial intelligence technology leads to two types of job changes (i.e., AI automation and AI augmentation), we distinguish job replacement insecurity from job transformation insecurity, thus expanding the research on the conceptualization and dimensionality of job insecurity. Second, we examine the impact of technology-driven job insecurity on employee work outcomes and career outcomes. Drawing upon signaling theory, we suggest that technology-driven job insecurity conveys information about employees’ career prospects and influences employee work and career outcomes via their perceptions of the occupational future (i.e., occupational future time perspective). Two dimensions of occupational future time perspective, namely focus on limitations and focus on opportunities, are examined. We expect that job replacement insecurity has negative indirect effects on work engagement, job performance, proactive career behavior, and career satisfaction via activated focus on limitations and deactivated focus on opportunities. In contrast, job transformation insecurity has negative indirect effects on work engagement, job performance, proactive career behavior, and career satisfaction via activated focus on limitations and in the meanwhile, has positive indirect effects on these outcomes via activated focus on opportunities. In addition, these effects are contingent on developmental human resource practices such that developmental human resource practices strengthen the positive indirect effects of technology-driven job insecurity and buffer its adverse indirect effects on employee outcomes. In doing so, this study can not only enrich the theoretical perspectives of job insecurity research but also reveal the unique consequences of technology-driven job insecurity. Finally, we investigate how job characteristics of the current job and technology-related personal characteristics impact employee technology-driven job insecurity. In light of cognitive appraisal theory, we suggest that high information-processing demands, low job complexity, and low problem-solving demands are associated with increased job automation expectations and subsequently heighten job replacement insecurity. Conversely, low information-processing demands, high job complexity, and high problem-solving demands are related to increased job augmentation expectations and subsequently heighten job transformation insecurity. Regarding employee personal characteristics, we expect that smart technology, artificial intelligence, robotics, and algorithms (STARA) awareness is associated with increased technology-driven job insecurity, while technology readiness is associated with decreased technology-driven job insecurity. Besides, job and personal characteristics have interactive effects on technology-driven job insecurity. Specifically, STARA strengthens the impacts of job characteristics on technology-driven job insecurity, while technology readiness mitigates these impacts. By revealing the opposite effects of the same job characteristic on job replacement and job transformation insecurity and identifying the boundary conditions for these effects, this study deepens the understanding of how job characteristics are associated with technology-driven job insecurity. Together, this study not only enriches the research on job insecurity in the context of artificial intelligence but also has implications for building harmonious and stable labor relations and improving employee well-being at work during the digital transformation of Chinese enterprises.

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    Honor culture and face culture: A comparison through the lens of the dignity, honor, and face cultural framework and indigenous social theory
    WEI Xindong, ZHANG Kaili, FU Xurong, WANG Fengyan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (8): 1541-1552.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01541
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    Honor and face cultures attach great importance to regulating individual behavior by social expectations and cultural norms. However, the two cultural phenomena differ in several crucial aspects. The new cultural framework of dignity, honor, and face was proposed based on three different cultural logics and reveals that while both honor culture and face culture place importance on adhering to social norms, honor culture places greater emphasis on both self-awareness and external evaluations for self-worth, whereas face culture places more weight on external evaluations. Additionally, honor culture is characterized by an unstable social hierarchy prone to competition, violence, and virtue, while face culture prioritizes modesty, harmony, and cooperation within a more stable hierarchy. However, the framework does not fully explore the cultural practices and specific connotations that are locally relevant to each respective culture.

    From indigenous perspectives, the self-image and social image in honor culture are relatively consistent, and honor encompasses moral, gender, and family-related aspects that may be defended through violence. In contrast, self-image and social image in face culture tend to be incongruent, and face involves morality and social achievement, which is expressed through the dimensions of seeking face and avoiding losing face with an emphasis on status and authority.

    Combined with the above two perspectives, these core differences between honor and face cultures can be attributed to the moralization and instrumentalization of social cultural norms. Specifically, honor tends to moralize social and cultural norms by transforming descriptive norms into prescriptive norms, where majority and typical behaviors that exist in a culture are considered behaviors that group members should or must abide by. In contrast, face instrumentalizes social and cultural norms by using descriptive and prescriptive norms as means and tools to maintain relationships, demonstrate status, and uphold authority. This perspective provides new insights into cultural phenomena, such as the positive correlation between violence and virtue in honor cultures, where violence becomes a social norm that adapts to the honor culture environment and is moralized into a virtuous attribute. The social norm of harmony in face culture exists both as value-oriented harmony influenced by Confucian culture and instrumental harmony in daily life, leading to a dissonance between face and heart. This comparative analysis can help in developing new measurement models to test the core differences between the honor and face cultures and explore the impact of changing values and social ecological variables on the moralization and instrumentalization of social norms in the context of cultural change.

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    The effect of scarcity mindset on the executive function in children living in poverty and its mechanisms
    JIANG Ying, HU Jia, FENG Liangyu, REN Qidan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2024, 32 (5): 728-737.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00728
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    China has now embarked on the new journey of rural revitalization from poverty eradication to the elimination of absolute poverty. Thus, how to comprehensively and effectively measure the rapidly changing environment after poverty eradication, investigate the negative impact of potential poverty on children's cognitive development, and reveal its internal mechanisms have become important scientific issues at present. Therefore, this project intends to systematically examine the impact of experiencing multidimensional poverty on school-age children's executive function and explore its mechanisms based on scarcity mindset. First, with the current income of poverty-stricken families exceeding the poverty line, there are several potential poverty subordinate conditions that require consideration and could construct a dynamic poverty model under the context of rural revitalization. Thus, it is necessary to summarize the meaning of multidimensional poverty comprehensively and examine the impact of the transformation of poverty dimensions on children's executive function over a long time span. Second, as much attention has been paid to the environment or individual characteristics in explaining poverty in previous studies, the perception of poverty has always been ignored despite its leading role in children’s development. In fact, based on the implicit theory, the perception will gradually form a specific mindset which allows individuals to organize and encode information in terms of life experiences and often leads their development. However, the role of scarcity in children is still unclear. Accordingly, this study extends the findings of previous work on scarcity theory in younger Chinese samples to explain the adverse effects of poverty on executive function and reveals the internal mechanisms underlying the scarcity mindset. Specifically, this project includes four studies. Study 1 proposes a multidimensional overlapping deprivation analysis method to assess children's poverty experiences and examines the effect of multi-poverty and its changing patterns over time on executive function using potential transition analysis. Study 2 intends to clarify the moderating role of scarcity on the relation between poverty and executive function in a sample of school-aged children through a moderation-of-process design. Based on the results above, Study 3 ties to explore the multiple attention mechanisms of scarcity between poverty and decreased executive function for confused components (i.e., selective attention and sustained attention) in the attention process. To better understand scarcity mindset, which is a more generalized mindset or primed state for children in poverty, study 4 will use fMRI to explore the neural mechanisms of scarcity under different scarcity priming conditions.

    Overall, considering the profound impact of early child development, education should parallel poverty reduction and sustainable development. China is now still exploring a path at this stage that corresponds with its own national conditions and is suitable for preventing children from returning to poverty when they grow up. This not only requires the improvement of material environments but also the consideration of psychological aspects to ensure the healthy development of children who have experienced poverty. Therefore, this study creatively starts from children’s initiative in understanding and constructing the world, not only broadens the perception of children’s experiences in poverty but also fills the gap that often considers economic background while ignoring the subject’s interaction with the environment. In addition, the results of attention and neural mechanisms of poverty and decreased executive function help distinguish the key attention components of scarcity, providing scientific evidence for precise interventions. Thus, in future education, this study provides a new perspective that changing the scarcity mindset could alleviate the cognitive impairment of children in poverty. Combined with the characteristics of children's development, corresponding intervention courses could be designed for schools that allow impoverished children to experience and grow in actual participation and serve the construction of rural revitalization in China.

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    The pleasurable effect of aggressive behavior
    ZHOU Bingtao, LIU Yuping, ZHAO Hui, YANG Bo
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (9): 1714-1727.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01714
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    Aggressive behavior can make individuals produce positive emotions, indicating it has a pleasurable effect. It is supported by evidence from at least three aspects. First, the direct emotional experience of aggressive behavior is pleasurable, which exists not only in reactive aggression but also in proactive aggression. Secondly, this effect is also reflected in the association between some personality traits (such as sadism, sensation-seeking, and psychopathy) and aggression, among which the most typical is sadism. In addition, this effect is supported by neuroimaging studies of aggressive behaviors, in which aggressive behaviors activate reward-processing regions represented by the nucleus accumbens and weakens the prefrontal cortex's regulation of these areas. The opponent-process theory and the reinforcement model of aggression explain the formation of this effect. The former pays close attention to the change of individual level, focuses on extreme violence, and thinks that individuals will produce intense negative emotions when they first attack, and aggression will gradually become pleasurable as the experience of violence accumulates. While the latter explains the causes from the perspective of population evolution, focusing on everyday aggressive behavior and arguing that humans have developed an inherent link between aggression and reward over time. They illustrate the gradual internalization of motivation for aggressive behavior from different perspectives. The long-term accumulation of this effect will make individuals gradually form “aggressive behaviors can make people happy” cognition. On this basis, when making decisions, an individual will have the anticipative pleasurable experience of the possible attack scenes in the future, which will facilitate him to continue to make aggressive behavior. This explanation path can be incorporated into the meta-theoretical framework of the aggression-General Aggression Model, enriching its short-term and long-term effect models. The pleasurable effect of aggressive behavior indicates that we should avoid using cathartic therapy singly or excessively in psychotherapy, especially in violent criminals with reward preference. At the same time, the neurophysiological basis of aggression also suggests that aggression and addiction have similarities, and the future needs to explore the common mechanism between them. Future research should consider the physiological arousal of emotion based on the measurement of its valence and monitor the emotional changes in real-time during aggression through emotion computing and other technologies. It is also necessary to further explore the factors that affect the pleasurable effect of aggressive behavior, such as gender, the perception of the victim's pains, and the type of aggression. In addition, the future should conduct research in real situations to further improve the ecological validity of the field, using the empirical sampling method to avoid possible ethical issues.

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    Balanced time perspective and mental health: Mechanisms and theoretical framework
    LI Xiaobao, YU Xuchen, LYU Houchao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2024, 32 (1): 138-150.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00138
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    Time Perspective is a crucial psychological framework that allows individuals to classify, organize, and manage their life and social experiences, describing how individuals view their past, present, and future. Recent research suggests that achieving a balance between the past, present, and future time perspectives is essential for optimizing social adaptation, facilitating well-being, and promoting mental health. Thus, much attention has been paid to the relationships between balanced time perspective (BTP) and mental health. However, the theoretical framework and underlying mechanisms linking BTP to mental health remain unclear due to the lack of clarity in its concept and limited measurement methods. Our review aims to clarify the conceptual orientations of BTP and explore the underlying mechanisms between BTP and mental health.

    The concept of BTP is developed based on time perspective research, specifically according to Zimbardo Time Perspective Theory. This theory suggests that time perspective is an individual’s adaptive process of external social and cultural environment. And different time perspectives may lead to various behavioral decisions and mental health outcomes. There are five common time perspectives, including Past Positive (viewing the past in a positive light), Past Negative (viewing the past in a negative attitude), Present Hedonistic (a preference for immediate gratification), Present Fatalistic (a helpless and fatalistic outlook of life), and Future (a tendency to plan for the future). All of these time perspectives are evidently associated with happiness-related variables. In contrast to a specific temporal bias, the idea of a balanced time perspective is proposed to optimize individuals’ well-being and mental health.

    Based on the existing literature, this review first distinguished two conceptual orientations of BTP. One is the “time shift orientation” BTP, which is defined as the cognitive process or mental ability to effectively switch between different time perspectives based on situational demands. The other is “general healthy orientation” BTP, which combines high level of adaptive time perspectives (e.g., Past Positive, Future, and Present Hedonistic) with low levels of maladaptive time perspectives (e.g., Past Negative and Present Fatalistic), reflecting an overall positive outlook on subjective time. The former is a theoretical concept with limited research on measuring the process or capacity of switching between time perspectives. The latter is the dominant focus of current research, and the existing scales and methods of BTP are all designed to assess the general healthy orientation toward the past, the present, and the future.

    Our review also proposed a dual-pathway theoretical framework to clarify the direct and indirect paths between BTP and mental health. The direct pathway emphasizes the direct effect of habitual temporal cognitive processes on mental health. The indirect pathway highlights the role of BTP in influencing adaptive behaviors, which in turn affect mental health. In terms of the time shift orientation BTP, higher BTP requires individuals to effectively switch between time perspectives. Such a switching capacity might help individuals to have greater psychological and social adaptation. Additionally, higher BTP enables individuals to better observe and evaluate environmental characteristics, thereby inhibiting maladaptive time perspectives and exhibiting adaptive time perspectives. This necessitates strong self-regulation abilities in individuals. Therefore, the self-regulation process, including self-control and flexible selection of emotional regulation strategies, may serve as underlying mechanisms linking time shift orientation BTP and mental health. Regarding the general healthy orientation, the higher the BTP is, the more likely individuals are to positively think about the past, experience the present, and anticipate the future, resulting in good mental health. For instance, recalling past positive experiences and anticipating positive future events can directly facilitate life satisfaction and positive emotions. Conversely, viewing the past and future from a negative perspective is easy to induce negative emotions. General healthy orientation BTP can also indirectly promote mental health through a range of adaptive behaviors. For example, individuals with high levels of adaptive time perspectives (e.g., Past Positive and Future) tend to have more adaptive behaviors such as planning, healthy eating, exercise, and environmental protection. On the contrary, individuals higher on Past Negative and Present Fatalistic are likely to exhibit problematic behaviors such as aggression and substance abuse. These behaviors can further promote or damage mental health. In addition, the dual-pathway model also discussed the potential moderating role of age and life environment between BTP and mental health. Future research should aim to clearly distinguish between these different conceptual orientations of BTP, focus on developing measurement methods for time shift orientation BTP, and deepen both theoretical and empirical exploration of BTP and mental health, particularly within the context of Chinese culture.

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    Tendency to time anthropomorphism and its impact on prosocial behavior
    XU Xiaobing, CHENG Lanping, SUN Hongjie
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (9): 1569-1582.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01569
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    Time anthropomorphism refers to the process of assigning human characteristics, motives, intentions, or emotions to time. This phenomenon has a subtle and far-reaching influence on our behavior, yet little is known about who is susceptible to it, how it operates, and its impact in various contexts, so focusing on time anthropomorphism and its influence on consumer behavior is an important topic with both theoretical and practical implications. Therefore, this study proposes that time anthropomorphism is specific in its cause and plays a unique role in consumption decisions and behaviors.
    This study proposes that time anthropomorphism is influenced by the need for structure motivation, which is a desire for simple, structured, and organized things and environments. Time is abstract, powerful, ubiquitous, and part of human existence compared to other physical anthropomorphic objects, we argue that time anthropomorphism also differs from other anthropomorphisms in its genesis. Existing anthropomorphism research suggests that anthropomorphism has three main motivations: efficacy motivation, social motivation, and contextual knowledge, which reflect a passive feedback to the cognitive object. We propose that time anthropomorphism has initiative differences in motivation, and that this difference is independent of the cognitive object, that is need for structure motivation influences people's tendency to time anthropomorphism. People cannot know the nature of time, so individuals with high structural needs prefer to construct their own cognition about time by a simple human-time-relationship, and time anthropomorphism is a means to achieve this purpose. This motivation is reflected in different variables, first is gender, women show higher tendency of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion, so we believe that women have higher tendency of time anthropomorphism; the second is social class, middle class consumers have limited resources and are more concerned about environmental order, so we believe that middle class consumers have higher tendency of time anthropomorphism; the third is power distance, those with high power distance have higher hierarchy and order requirements, so they have a higher tendency to anthropomorphize time.
    Furthermore, we propose that time anthropomorphism has an effect on consumers' prosocial behavior. Existing studies on the influence of anthropomorphism have focused on consumers' perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral changes toward anthropomorphic objects, but the abstract, generalized nature of time makes it possible for anthropomorphism to affect individual human decision making patterns and consumption behaviors across domains and objects by changing consumers' self-perceptions and perceptions. Time contains rich emotional factors, and time cues tend to stimulate consumers' emotional responses, while anthropomorphizing time can induce consumers to transform their relationship with time into a social relationship, which triggers emotion-based decision-making patterns., making consumers expect more positive emotional experiences and guiding their behavior with this goal. Prosocial behavior leads to positive affective rewards, so we argue that time anthropomorphism increases prosocial behavior and emotion-based decision making mediates this effect. This is due to the fact that anthropomorphism evokes an immediate emotion in consumers, and this immediate emotion is neutralized when consumers have other emotional states, so we argue that consumers' affective states at the time moderate this pathway, and that time anthropomorphism even has little effect on consumers' prosocial behavior when they are in a certain strong emotional state.
    This study takes the motivation of time anthropomorphism as the starting point and the decision pattern as the entry point to examine the tendency of time anthropomorphism and its influence on consumers' prosocial behavior, and further explores the psychological mechanisms involved. The development of this study achieves a theoretical development of existing research. In terms of the causes of anthropomorphism, this study contributes to a better understanding of the qualities of time anthropomorphism and directs attention to the active tendency and individual differences of consumer anthropomorphism; from the perspective of psychological mechanisms, this study explores the impact of temporal anthropomorphic cues on current consumption decisions and explores the related emotional mechanisms based on a decision-making process perspective, which provides a new way of thinking about anthropomorphism; in terms of the consumer decision perspective, the consumer prosocial behavior brought about by our exploration of temporal anthropomorphic tendencies is specific to general consumption situations, arguing that the overall individual affective and cognitive changes brought about by time anthropomorphism, which migrate and affect consumer prosocial behavior.

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    Neurocognitive basis underlying interpersonal emotion regulation
    DONG Wanxin, YU Wenwen, XIE Hui, ZHANG Dandan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2024, 32 (1): 131-137.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00131
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    Interpersonal emotion regulation refers to the process in which one person intentionally influences the emotional state of another person during social interactions. It has been found to be beneficial for individual psychological well-being and the development of social relationships, and it has distinct advantages compared to Interpersonal emotion regulation (i.e. individual’s regulation of their own emotional states). In recent years, research on the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal emotion regulation has gained momentum, providing some insights into the neural basis of this process. Specifically, interpersonal emotion regulation involves the participation of the mentalizing system (including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the temporo-parietal junction, and the anterior insula), the emotional response system (including the amygdala and the insula), and the emotion regulation system (including the frontal and parietal lobes), with the mentalizing system being the core brain area.

    This present review focused on these three brain networks and provided an overview of the current understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying extrinsic and intrinsic interpersonal emotion regulation. In extrinsic interpersonal regulation, the regulator relies on the mentalizing system to infer the emotional state of the target and selects appropriate emotion regulation strategies for him. The regulator also needs to engage the emotion regulation system to actively search for and implement emotion regulation strategies, in order to alter the neural activity levels of the target’s emotion response system. Furthermore, the regulator's reward system is likely involved and promotes emotion regulation during prosocial helping. In intrinsic interpersonal regulation, the target relies on the mentalizing system to understand the regulating intentions and behaviors of others. With the help of others providing regulation strategies, the target' s reliance on the prefrontal control system tends to decrease during emotion regulation. However, the field of interpersonal emotion regulation is still relatively new, and our understanding of its cognitive and neural mechanisms, particularly the cognitive neuroscientific mechanisms, is still limited.

    Based on existing research, we believed there are four important issues that need to be addressed in future studies. Firstly, the current research on the brain mechanisms underlying extrinsic and intrinsic interpersonal emotion regulation is still incomplete, and the available neuroscientific evidence is insufficient. We recommended that future studies utilize brain imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), along with innovative research paradigms in interpersonal emotion regulation, to explore those unanswered questions. Secondly, most existing studies have focused on the neural activity of single brains and lack dual-brain research. However, dual-brain evidence is essential for constructing cognitive neuroscientific models of interpersonal emotion regulation. We suggested using whole-brain coverage techniques such as electroencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy hyperscanning to reveal the interactive processes between regulator and target. Thirdly, the cognitive neuroscientific models of interpersonal emotion regulation are not yet fully developed, and the specific brain regions that distinguish interpersonal regulation from self-regulation need further investigation and clarification. We recommend future research to fully consider the interactive and complex nature of interpersonal emotion regulation, examine the impact of various factors such as interpersonal relationship contexts, gender, personality traits, and intimacy levels on interpersonal emotion regulation using a combination of neurophysiological observations, behavioral measurements, and path analysis techniques to reveal the cognitive mechanisms underlying the interaction between regulator and target. Fourthly, there is currently a lack of applied research in the field, particularly in terms of noninvasive neuromodulation as well as a lack of intervention studies. We recommend that future applied research be conducted in two areas: enhancing the interpersonal emotion regulation abilities of healthy individuals through training and providing clinical interventions for specific populations such as individuals with depression.

    In conclusion, the field of interpersonal emotion regulation is still emerging, and further research should prioritize addressing the aforementioned issues to advance this important area of research.

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    Awe’s prosocial effect: The mediating role of the small self and the authentic self
    ZHAO Yue, HU Xiaoyong, MA Jiaxin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (11): 2171-2182.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02171
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    Awe is an emotional response to vast stimuli that challenge the current frames of reference and require a new schema to accommodate. A large body of empirical studies have highlighted that awe engenders various forms of prosocial behavior. Regarding the psychological mechanisms implicated, the small-self hypothesis posits that the vastness of stimuli that evokes awe elicits feelings of self-smallness, which diverts the individual's attention away from the self and towards others, thus promoting prosocial behavior; the authentic-self hypothesis suggests that awe helps to facilitate a shift in the individual's attention from regular mundane concerns to a larger spiritual presence, which stimulates the individual's pursuit of his or her authentic self, thus promoting prosocial behavior. Though these two hypotheses present distinct viewpoints regarding the psychological mechanisms through which awe fosters prosocial behavior from the perspectives of attention and transformation, relatively. Nevertheless, the relationship between the two suppositions in the promotion of prosocial behavior via awe remains unclear. An organized theoretical framework is wanting to clarify and integrate this inquiry, which can potentially be resolved by considering the “Big Two” perspective. Based on the Big Two framework, the agentic and communal dimensions are considered as the fundamental aspects of the self. The small self, which is affiliated and submissive, is part of the communal dimension of the self-concept. On the other hand, the authentic self is seen as unique and self-determined, and is part of the agentic dimension of self. Positive awe can enhance prosocial behavior through two parallel pathways, the agentic dimension (authentic self) and the communal dimension (small self) of self. The Big Two framework is also beneficial in comprehending the recent discoveries in the field of threat-based awe. Although threat-based awe can promote prosocial behavior on the communal dimension of the self (small self), it also impedes prosocial behavior on the agentic dimension of the self (powerlessness). As opposed to the consistent findings obtained in the field of positive awe, threat-based awe produces contrasting effects on prosocial behavior.

    Research in this domain will facilitate the examination of the pivotal position of emotions in relation to human sociability. Future research endeavors could develop into the following domains: primordially, scrutinizing the universality of the effects of awe on prosocial behavior, with particular emphasis on threat-based awe tinged with fear, which has elicited inconsistent and heterogeneous findings in extant research and warrant further exploration with greater depth in the future. Secondly, the prevailing hypotheses suffer from certain inadequacies. The notion of “small-self” lays emphasis on the act of shifting attention, which results in a stark dichotomy between self-directed and other-directed attention. Similarly, the “authentic-self” hypothesis warrants refinement regarding the mechanisms involved in the generation of prosocial motivation. In due course, there is a pressing need for both theoretical and empirical advancement aimed at redressing the deficiencies that currently exist. Lastly, although interventions aimed at facilitating awe have been proposed, very few initiatives target the core mechanism through which awe engenders transformation of small and authentic selves. Hence, future studies ought to construct intervention programs focused on self-transformation for this mechanism, imparting a scientific psychological insight to progress a philanthropic-based third distribution strategy.

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    The influence of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering and its mechanism
    SHAO Hongtao, REN Guiqin, DING Xiaoqian, SHI Mengmeng, LI Ruiyan, LI Yang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (12): 2368-2379.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02368
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    Mind wandering is a common psychological phenomenon that we commonly face in our daily lives, and it can have negative effects, such as increasing the incidence of car accidents and affecting academic performance. Given the adverse effects of mind wandering on people, it is particularly important to adopt a reasonable intervention to mitigate the negative effects of mind wandering. Mindfulness meditation as a form of intervention has gained traction in recent years. In order to investigate the effects of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering and its mechanism, based on a systematic review of previous studies, the present study summarized the effects of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering from different perspectives, such as training duration, training format, the setting of the controlled group, and different groups. Combining the two aspects of neural mechanism and related theoretical models, the mechanism of mindfulness meditation to improve mind wandering was also explained. First of all, there are different training durations for mindfulness meditation, such as 8 minutes, 4 days, 8 weeks or even longer. This study analyzed the effects of different training durations of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering, and clarified that different training durations of mindfulness meditation have different effects on the improvement of mind wandering, and fewer longitudinal studies have been used in the past. Second, there are many forms of training for mindfulness meditation, such as mindful breathing exercise, sitting meditation, and body scan. This study found that different forms of mindfulness meditation have different effects on mind wandering by comparing different studies. Third, most of the previous related studies were examined in the form of randomized experimental group and controlled group. Based on the examination of different controlled groups, it is clear that it is important to use appropriate controlled group in the study of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering, such as the use of controlled group by considering active controlled group and passive controlled group. This method is conducive to avoiding the interference of additional variables and highlighting the effect of mindfulness meditation. Fourth, by examining different groups, it was also found that the degree of effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in reducing mind wandering may depend on the characteristics of the target group. For example, the researcher's study on the normal group found that mindfulness meditation reduced the occurrence of mind wandering. In contrast, for individuals with negative emotions, the improvement of mind wandering by mindfulness meditation was shown to be protective. Fifth, by measuring the changes in neural mechanisms before and after the intervention, for example, EEG components such as alpha and beta, ERP components such as N2, P3, and MMN, and the default mode network in the brain, we explained the mechanism of action of mindfulness meditation to improve mind wandering from the perspective of neural mechanisms. Sixth, combining the natural cognitive fluctuation model and the cycle of meditation and mind wandering, the present study found that the improvement of mind wandering by mindfulness meditation works through different stages, such as attentional modulation, meta-consciousness enhancement, and the calming thought. These stages do not necessarily occur in a sequential manner, and the applicability of these stages to other forms of mindfulness meditation needs to be verified. Previous studies have defined mind wandering as a single structure and directly examined the effects of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering, without distinguishing between intentional and unintentional mind wandering. Future research should continue to delve deeper and clarify the effects of mindfulness meditation on different types of mind wandering. In addition, previous studies have examined the effects of a single form of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering, neglecting a direct comparison of the effects of different forms of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering. In the future, it is possible to directly compare the effects of different forms of mindfulness meditation on mind wandering, in order to clarify the most effective form of improving mind wandering, and to determine the most effective duration of different forms of mindfulness meditation interventions. In the future, we can also continue to explore the underlying mechanisms, such as understanding the time course of the effects of mindfulness meditation, exploring the reasons for the differences between different processes, and validating the different stages of mindfulness meditation to improve mind wandering, so as to validate and improve the existing theoretical models.

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    The concept, manifestation and cause of naturalness preference
    ZHANG Haotian, YU Feng
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (12): 2393-2405.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02393
    Abstract1421)   HTML46)    PDF(pc) (527KB)(1889)       Save

    Naturalness preference, characterized by a tendency to value natural environments, products, and innate abilities, is a crucial psychological phenomenon guiding aesthetic judgments, everyday consumption, and evaluations of others’ achievements. In this study, we define naturalness preference as a tendency to value entities or individuals that are naturally occurring with minimal human intervention. In terms of the extension of the concept, naturalness preference can be broadly categorized into three domains: natural environments, natural objects, and human characteristics. The domain of natural environments reflects people's preference for environments originating from nature, characterized by their pristine and non-artificial features. The domain of natural objects encompasses people's preference towards entities that are naturally generated or crafted by hand. Lastly, the domain of human characteristics primarily reflects people's preference for innate abilities, traits, and talents.

    This paper is the first to summarize the causes of naturalness preference into three factors: cognitive (psychological essentialism), affective (positive and negative emotions), and normative (sacred moral values). The cognitive causes of naturalness preference are mainly associated with psychological essentialism, where entities perceived to possess higher natural essence are regarded as more authentic. The mutual transmission of essence is one of the core psychological mechanisms in the perception that human intervention disrupts or enhances naturalness. The affective causes of naturalness preference mainly include positive emotions and negative emotions. Positive emotions, such as satisfaction and happiness, boost the approach motivation towards naturalness, which makes people prefer natural objects. While negative emotions, such as disgust and fear, can stimulate avoidance motivation towards naturalness, which makes people stay away from unnatural objects. The normative aspect of naturalness preference primarily manifests in sacred moral values. People generally regard the natural world as benevolent, sacred, and inviolable. The sacred value of naturalness cannot be traded, let alone measured by worldly values such as money and power.

    Future research should focus on the following three aspects. First, we should pay attention to the potential “dark sides” of naturalness preference and promote science popularization of beneficial products that are perceived as “non-natural” by the public. Employing “nudging” methods may help rectify biased perspectives and irrational consumption behaviors caused by naturalness preference. Second, future studies should delve into the cultural and psychological differences in naturalness preference, exploring how indigenous religious beliefs and traditional cultural thoughts shape distinct attitudes towards nature among Chinese and Western people. Last but not least, future research should approach the issue of emerging technology acceptance from the perspective of naturalness preference. Understanding the psychological aspects of naturalness preference can significantly contribute to reevaluating the impact of technology on the process of natural evolution and exploring how technology can better serve human beings, while fostering harmonious coexistence between humans and the natural world.

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    The impact of resource type on green consumption: Is time or money more important?
    SUN Jin, CHEN Chen
    Advances in Psychological Science    2024, 32 (1): 39-57.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00039
    Abstract1421)   HTML93)    PDF(pc) (650KB)(1967)       Save

    Environmental issues are related to human growth in the long term, and people are becoming increasingly aware of the necessity of green consumption. Time and money are two important resource types. Individuals’ green consumption behavior is inevitably affected by these two resources in cognitive thinking and decision-making. However, the underlying mechanism of how resource type affects green consumption is still unclear. In order to further explore the impact of resource type on green consumption, the present study introduces time and money into the field of green consumption and builds a theoretical framework. First of all, Study 1 reveals that time resources promote green consumption and that money resources decrease green consumption (Experiment 1). Then, based on construal level theory and human value, Study 2 investigates the underlying mechanism of the impact of time and money resources on green consumption. Specifically, time resources activate high-level construal and self-transcendence, which can promote the intention of green consumption. On the contrary, money resources stimulate low-level construal and self-enhancement, which will reduce the intention of green consumption (Experiment 2). Study 3 examines the boundary condition through individual factors: when green consumption emphasizes the interests of the whole society or others, time resources are more likely to promote consumers’ willingness to purchase green products, however, when green consumption emphasizes the interests of themselves or families, money resources are more likely to promote consumers’ willingness to purchase green products, and the emotional response level plays a mediating role in this effect (Experiment 3). Study 4 aims to explore the impact of nudge, which often encourages consumers to engage in green consumption. Time resources are more likely to promote consumers’ willingness to explicitly ask for switching to a green mode, while money resources are more likely to promote consumers’ willingness to accept a green mode as the default, and environmental self-responsibility plays an intermediary role in this effect (Experiment 4). Study 5 and Study 6 explore the moderating effects of product innovation and typicality, respectively. Time resources will lead to a higher preference for central innovative green products or typically green products, while money resources will lead to a higher preference for peripheral innovative green products or atypically green products, and product effectiveness perception plays an intermediary role in these effects (Experiments 5 and 6). The above studies not only explore the positive role of time and money resources in promoting green consumption, but also provide new ideas for companies to use resource type to guide green consumption.

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    Dancing with AI: AI-employee collaboration in the systemic view
    YIN Meng, NIU Xiongying
    Advances in Psychological Science    2024, 32 (1): 162-176.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00162
    Abstract1411)   HTML78)    PDF(pc) (679KB)(2040)       Save

    AI-employee collaboration is an interactive system composed of “AI-human-organization” with the goal of completing tasks efficiently. Promoting AI-employee collaboration is crucial for driving the deep integration of AI and the real economy, as well as the mental health and career development of employees in the digital era. However, the conceptual connotation of AI and AI-employee collaboration has not yet been systematically elaborated in the literature, which has led to ambiguity in the meaning of AI in organizations as well as confusion between concepts of different AI application. In addition, the research of AI-employee collaboration is fragmented and complex across disciplines, and the academic community lacks a comprehensive understanding of the current status and future direction of AI-employee collaboration research. Based on the above limitations, we conducted a comprehensive search of the literature related to AI-employee collaboration, coded the publication information, theoretical basis, core research conclusions and other contents of the literature, and organized the content of the paper based on a systemic review after reading the literature in depth. We first clarify the concept and dimensions of AI in the workplace, and then discuss the systemic view of AI-employee collaboration, and further clarify the conceptual connotation of AI-employee collaboration from the systemic view. This helps to unify the academic dialogue and lay the foundation for subsequent research on AI-employee collaboration. Then, based on the systemic view of AI-employee collaboration, the paper constructs a research framework of AI-employee collaboration using I-P-O paradigm, and describes AI-employee collaboration as input, process and output of a system in detail. At the input of the system, AI, employees, and organizations work together to drive the design, implementation, and use of AI. At the AI level, we review from three dimensions: physical attributes, mental attributes and ethical attributes. At the employee level, we review from four aspects: attitude, KSAs, personalities and demographic characteristics. At the organizational level, we review from three perspectives: organizational readiness, organizational support, organizational climate and culture. In the process of the system, actors operate around work tasks, and they influence the output by performing the tasks. Therefore, the process is a task configuration, including two aspects: task goal and interaction approaches. We further propose that optimizing AI-employee collaboration requires attention to the dynamic matching of interaction approaches and task goal. At the output of the system, we summarize the outcomes of three actors: employees, AI and organization. The research framework explicitly describes the components and internal mechanisms of AI-employee collaboration system, and provides a basic theoretical framework guide for further more in-depth research. Finally, based on the limitations of the research framework, we propose future research prospects from five perspectives. (1) Future research should emphasize the ethical issues in AI-employee collaboration system, providing more empirical and experimental evidence for the impact of ethical attributes on AI-employee collaboration. (2) Future research should develop objective measurements of the organizational consequences of AI-employee collaboration. (3) Future research should explore more individual factors that may influence AI-employee collaboration, such as prompt ability, cultural values, etc. (4) Future research should further elaborate the task configuration of AI-employee collaboration and examine the efficiency and effectiveness of AI-employee collaboration with different task configurations. (5) Future research should expand the research framework based on the new developments of I-P-O paradigm, such as feedback loops.

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