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    How does culture affect morality? The perspectives of between-culture variations, within-culture variations, and multiculturalism
    HU Xiaomeng, YU Feng, PENG Kaiping
    Advances in Psychological Science    2018, 26 (11): 2081-2090.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02081
    Abstract24211)   HTML675)    PDF(pc) (514KB)(4563)       Save

    Moral judgments and behaviors are highly sensitive to culture. The understanding and construction of the exact same moral issues can vary substantially across individuals who come from different cultural backgrounds or possess different levels of multicultural experiences. Social psychologists are increasingly interested in closely looking at human morality through the lens of culture, partly driven by a renaissance of cultural psychology in the 1980s and the broadening and deepening of globalization. Based upon the perspective of cultural psychology, we briefly summarize how particular cultural factors (e.g. geography, ecology, social class) influence individuals’ moral judgments and behaviors from three facets: between-culture variations, within-culture variations, and multiculturalism. Together, it is our hope that this review article will inspire future research to better understand how Chinese people’s moral patterns and value systems have changed and are changing in the context of rapid and deep cultural change in China.

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    Analyses of Mediating Effects: The Development of Methods and Models
    WEN Zhonglin;YE Baojuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2014, 22 (5): 731-745.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2014.00731
    Abstract14484)      PDF(pc) (348KB)(41857)       Save

    Mediation models are frequently used in the research of psychology and other social science disciplines. Mediation indicates that the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable is transmitted through a third variable, which is called mediator. In most applied research, Baron and Kenny’s (1986) causal steps approach has been used to test mediating effect. In recent years, however, many methodological researchers questioned the rationality of the causal steps approach, and some of them even attempted to stop its use. Firstly, we clarify the queries on the causal steps approach one by one. Secondly, we propose a new procedure to analyze mediating effects. The new procedure is better than any single method that constitutes the procedure in terms of Type I error rate and power. The proposed procedure can be conducted by using observed variables and/or latent variables. Mplus programs are supplied for the procedure with observed variables and/or latent variables. Finally, this article introduces the development of mediation models, such as mediation model of ordinal variables, multilevel mediation, multiple mediation, moderated mediation, and mediated moderation.

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    Cited: Baidu(342)
    Gender Differences of Empathy
    CHEN Wuying; LU Jiamei; LIU Lianqi; LIN Wenyi
    Advances in Psychological Science    2014, 22 (9): 1423-1434.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2014.01423
    Abstract11656)      PDF(pc) (356KB)(10409)       Save

    This review provides a brief introduction to the research of empathy, focusing on the differences of genders and the reason why there are such differences. Empathy is defined as the propensity of “share and understand other’s feelings during interpersonal interaction”, which includes cognitive empathy and emotional empathy. Empathy has no gender differences in the preschool stage. During the stage of primary and secondary school, gender differences can be found. The gender differences of empathy are related to two main factors. One factor is the degree of physiological maturity. As we grow older, hormone are different between female and male. Female have more oxytocin, which is positive to emotional empathy. While male have more testosterone, which is negative related to cognitive empathy. Consequently, gender differences of empathy begin to appear. The other factor is the gender role. The orientation of woman’s gender role is focusing on others, which is directly related to empathy. However, the orientation of man’s gender role is focusing on justice and equity, which has no relation to empathy. After acquiring the gender role, man and woman have differences in empathy and especially in emotional empathy. Although much progress has been made in the field of differences of empathy development, much work should be done in the future. On the theory construction, we can try to distinguish empathy by the dimension of capacity and disposition. On the visual angle, we can study gender differences of empathy through the interaction of age, culture and gender. Lastly, we should empathize the influencing factors of empathy in our research.

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    Cited: Baidu(18)
    Consumption as Psychological Compensation: A Review of Compensatory Consumption
    ZHENG Xiaoying; PENG Siqing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2014, 22 (9): 1513-1520.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2014.01513
    Abstract10269)      PDF(pc) (298KB)(10968)       Save

    Compensatory consumption refers to the consumption behavior which aims at coping with psychological deficit or threat. A core theme of consumer behavior research is that people consume product or service not only for its functionality, but also for its signaling value. As an important self concept management strategy, consumption is often used to address self threat symbolically. Compensatory mechanism can help in understanding various irrational consumer behaviors. Self esteem threat, lack of control and lack of belong are the three major motivating forces which drive compensatory consumption. Future research can further address the following questions: 1) distinguish different types of compensatory consumption behavior, 2) evaluate the effectiveness of consumption as self repair tool, 3) explore alternative compensation means other than consumption, and investigate the relation between consumption compensation and other compensations, 4) look into the characteristics and mechanism of compensatory consumption within Chinese socio-cultural context.

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    Statistical Remedies for Common Method Biases
    Zhou Hao,Long Lirong
       2004, 12 (6): 942-942~950.  
    Abstract8364)      PDF(pc) (723KB)(17718)       Save
    The problem of common method biases has being given more and more attention in the field of psychology, but there is little research about it in China, and the effects of common method bias are not well controlled. Generally, there are two ways of controlling common method biases, procedural remedies and statistical remedies. In this paper, statistical remedies for common method biases are provided, such as factor analysis, partial correlation, latent method factor, structural equation model, and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed separately. Finally, suggestions of how to choose these remedies are given.
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    A bite of “masochism”: The psychological issues of eating spicy food
    FU Yuling, DENG Fumin, YANG Shuai, XU Jiuping
    Advances in Psychological Science    2018, 26 (9): 1651-1660.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01651
    Abstract8168)   HTML164)    PDF(pc) (475KB)(4189)       Save

    Ingestion of spicy food causes a burning sensation, which is innately aversive, but has been considered a hedonistic behavior. The pleasure of eating spicy food may derive, merely, from the exposure effect, and it could be considered as “benign masochism”, due to the perception of taking a “minimal risk”. Post-intake effect, social pressure, and genetic factors could also lead to the consumption of spicy foods. The spicy taste has been related to multiple personality traits, and to psychological states, including sensation seeking; risk taking; and sensitivity to reward, aggression, and anger, and could thus produce relevant consequential behaviors. The burning sensation is caused by the activation of the capsaicin receptor (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 [TrpV1]), which functions both as a thermoreceptor and as a nociceptor. Concerning the brain processing of spicy taste, the anterior short gyrus (ASG) causes an increase in body temperature through the hypothalamus. Moreover, the neural coordination between the middle and posterior short gyri, and the ASG may also be implicated in autonomic responses, as in body temperature increase. According to the embodied metaphor theory, the psychological effects of spicy taste might be represented in the body, since there are shared physiological sensations, such as heat. Future studies should explore the motives leading to spicy food consumption, with regards to gender and cultural differences. Meanwhile, the embodied metaphor mechanism of the effects of spicy taste and the brain mechanisms, induced by eating spicy food, should be further examined. Furthermore, psychology research on spicy food intake could have applications in marketing, especially in sensory marketing, and in the promotion of diet cultures that incorporate spicy tastes.

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    Zeitgeist and Contemporary Psychology
    Jing Qicheng, Zhang Hang
       2005, 13 (2): 129-138.  
    Abstract8042)      PDF(pc) (386KB)(5960)       Save
    Zeitgeist is the dominant ideology of a historical era, reflecting the main trend of social, philosophical, and scientific thoughts of that period in time. Zeitgeist has an impact on the course of scientific thinking, its influence on the development of psychology is evident. The paper describes how the Zeitgeist affected the development of psychology in the 20th century. At the beginning of the century Behaviorism originated and flourished in the atmosphere of American pragmatism. In the second half of the century, the advent of knowledge-based economy gave birth to cognitive psychology. While in the beginning of the 21st century the world is undergoing a globalization process, and brings with it extended exchanges in psychology-the internationalization of psychology. The paper commented on some current and future salient features of psychological science.
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    Wisdom in old age
    CHEN Haobin, WANG Fengyan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (5): 885-893.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00885
    Abstract7949)   HTML150)    PDF(pc) (570KB)(3075)       Save

    In the past 40 years, researchers have explored and constructed diverse definitions and components of wisdom. They have gradually reached a consensus that wisdom is the application of meta-cognition to reason and solve problems based on the morality. Wisdom is also closely related to individual life experience, personal growth and even physical maturity. Therefore, wisdom can be defined as a psychological quality that integrates intelligence with morality.
    Among the measurements of wisdom applied in old age, the self-reported scales mainly include the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS), self-assessed wisdom scale (SAWS), and the adult self-transcendence inventory (ASTI), the performance-based methods mainly include the Berlin wisdom paradigm and the wisdom reasoning. According to the results, wisdom in old age is relatively well, but there may not be a linear relationship between the aging and the increasing of wisdom in the middle and late adulthood, the cognitive or knowledge components of wisdom reach a peak at a certain age (such as 50 to 55 years old), and after that they begin to decline, and the reflective and emotional components of wisdom will not decline, due to the growth of psychosocial development and perspective-taking ability, emotional regulation, and empathy or compassionate for others, they will even increase with age. Therefore, aging may not be a necessary or sufficient condition for wisdom.
    Studies have shown that micro-factors such as the challenges in life experience, critical life events, and social changes encountered in the life course of individual are external factors that may promote the development of wisdom in the old age; psychological resources such as sense of control, personal growth, emotional regulation, openness to experience and exploratory self-reflection that contribute to the development of individual meta-cognition are internal factors that may promote the development of wisdom in the old age; meanwhile, the orientation of pro-social moral value, the subjective motivation of pursuing the growth of wisdom or the meaning in life may be the important intermediary mechanism for learning wisdom from life experience.
    Wisdom can significantly and positively predict the quality of life in the old, and can help the old people obtain life goals and sense of control, which having more important impact on their well-being. Wisdom can also act as a mediating or moderating role to buffer or reduce the negative impact of negative factors on the life satisfaction and well-being of the old, thereby relieving the solitude and oppression, alleviating the feelings of loneliness, depression, and social alienation in the old age.
    There are still some limitations in the psychological research on the wisdom in old age: First, whether wisdom increases, declines or remains stable in the later stages of adulthood, the conclusions still rely on the definition, conceptualization and measurement of wisdom; secondly, the researches on the antecedents of the wisdom in the old age fail to reveal the internal mechanism of the relevant resources in the development of wisdom; thirdly, the researches on the consequences of the wisdom in the old age fail to reveal the interventional roles of wisdom or different components of wisdom; finally, there are still lack of specific and operable interventions and cultivation methods for promoting wisdom. In the future, it is necessary to develop the measurement tools that integrate various sources based on self-reporting and behavioral performance measurement, and balance the content of natural wisdom and humanistic wisdom; examine the development trajectory of individual wisdom and its psychological mechanism in the life course; conduct the longitudinal researches and experimental researches to in-depth research on the causal relationship between wisdom and well-being and the positive functions of wisdom; continue to explore the interventional conditions and promoting measures for the wisdom of the old in the practice of old care services in community, thus inspire the wisdom of the old people and promote their successful aging.

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    Do positive stereotypes have a negative impact?
    WANG Zhen, GUAN Jian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1657-1668.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01657
    Abstract6996)   HTML406)    PDF(pc) (456KB)(6018)       Save

    Positive stereotypes are defined as positive traits describing social groups. Previous research on stereotypes has mainly focused on negative stereotypes while overlooking positive stereotypes, especially their negative effects. Here, we will discuss positive and negative effects of positive stereotypes from racial, gender and aging stereotypes and conditions for their emergence and further future research.

    The positive effects of positive stereotypes are mainly evinced through the stereotype boost. For example, activation of positive racial stereotypes, positive gender stereotypes and positive aging stereotypes has a positive effect on targets’ minds and behaviors. The negative effects of positive stereotypes on targets’ behaviors and cognition are caused by the choking under pressure effect and compensation effect of social cognition, respectively. For example, targets with positive racial stereotypes have negative attitudes and evaluations towards the stereotyper. Targets are prone to underperform in stereotyped domains in positive gender stereotypes situation. As for positive aging stereotypes, the mental and psychical health of targets can be adversely affected. Generally, positive stereotypes still induce negative effect similar to negative stereotypes in certain conditions, although having the positive side.

    The effects (positive or negative) of positive stereotypes depend on the following four moderators: (1) Activation of positive stereotypes. Compared with the subtle activation of positive stereotypes, blatantly activating positive stereotypes easily cause the “choking under pressure” of targets and their sense of being depersonalized, finally resulting in a negative impact. (2) Accuracy of expressing positive stereotypes. Compared with accurately expressing positive stereotypes, the one who states positive stereotypes in an extreme way tends to generate the feeling of untruth, resulting in conflicted response of targets. (3) Individuals who state positive stereotypes. Compared with an ingroup member, positive stereotypes stated by an outgroup member easily cause the prejudice by targets, which then result in targets’ negative attitudes and evaluations towards the stereotyper. (4) Culture context of positive stereotypes. Compared with collectivistic culture, positive stereotypes in individualistic culture are prone to have a sense of being depersonalized and be thread.

    Further research on positive stereotypes can be discussed from the following aspects: (1) Exploration of effects of positive stereotypes in collectivistic culture. For example, China is the representative country of collectivistic cultures which emphasize “fundamental connectedness of human beings to each other”, and positive stereotypes as positive beliefs about members of social groups based on the category membership. Therefore, the Chinese feel less depersonalized when the stereotyper describe them in ways related positive stereotypes. (2) Exploration of positive stereotypes from research fields and targets, such as fields of sexual orientation and academic discipline. Academic discipline stereotypes deem that science students are superior to arts students in science, and arts students are superior to science students in arts. As a result, male science students may underperform on the science test and female arts students may underperform on the arts test when priming their major and gender identities simultaneously, due to the feeling of untruth present when activating two positive stereotypes. In addition, researchers can explore positive stereotypes of children as there are no stereotype awareness of children under 7 ages. That is one of the prerequisites for positive stereotypes having influence on targets. (3) Exploration of interventions of negative effects reduced by positive stereotypes. By far there is no research on the interventions of negative effects of positive stereotypes. However, it is not hard to assume that would be difficult to reduce the negative effects of positive stereotypes because of the complimentary nature of positive stereotypes. (4) Exploration of positive effects of negative stereotypes. Based on our knowledge, only two studies have found that negative stereotypes have positive consequences. Once more empirical evidence to support the findings can be confirmed, this would play a significant role in the domain of stereotype research, especially for the interventions of negative effects of stereotypes.

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    A Reliability Meta-Analysis for 44 Items Big Five Inventory: Based on the Reliability Generalization Methodology
    LI Hongyan; XU Jianping; CHEN Jiyue; FAN Yexin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2015, 23 (5): 755-765.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.00755
    Abstract6882)      PDF(pc) (361KB)(7730)       Save

    Based on Reliability Generalization (RG) approach, this meta-analysis study focused on 85 English papers chosen from 782 papers (in both English and Chinese) about 44-Item Big Five Inventory (BFI-44) published in the past 24 years (1991~2014). This study analyzed the amount of variability in Cronbach's coefficient alpha of every dimension in BFI-44 and examined predictor variables, including sample size, subjects’ nationality, test language, average age and gender ratio, which were used for further investigation of their impact on the reliability of BFI-44 by using regression analysis. The study results showed that the Cronbach's coefficient alpha of each dimension reach nearly 0.8. The sample size, nationality and gender ratio variables influence BFI-44 dimensions on different levels. There are two suggestions for the use of the BFI-44. First, researchers should report the Cronbach's coefficient alpha of his/her own samples to avoid the reliability induction error; secondly, researchers should pay attention to the effect of sample size, nationality and gender ratio on Cronbach's coefficient alpha.

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    The Appropriate Effect Sizes and Their Calculations in Psychological Research
    ZHENG Hao-Min;WEN Zhong-Lin;WU Yan
       2011, 19 (12): 1868-1878.  
    Abstract6858)      PDF(pc) (325KB)(19337)       Save
    Effect sizes are important supplement of the null hypothesis significance testing. More and more academic journals request authors provide the effect sizes of their researches. Our purpose is to provide a guideline on how to compute the appropriate effect sizes of different researches and data types. We classified the effect sizes into three types, including difference-type, correlation-type and group-overlap. For each type of the effect sizes, there are different approaches of calculations and applications under different research designs (e.g., single-factor/multifactor between-subjects, single-factor/multifactor within-subjects) and data conditions (e.g., small sample size, heterogeneity of variance). Many effect sizes, however, can be transformed from one type to another. We summarized a table that may help readers to choose appropriate effect sizes for their researches based on the research purposes and research designs.
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    The influence of emotion on eating behavior
    ZHOU Aibao, XIE Pei, TIAN Zhe, PAN Chaochao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (11): 2013-2023.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02013
    Abstract6612)   HTML552)    PDF(pc) (439KB)(7120)       Save

    Eating behavior is not only regulated by the biological needs of people, but is also affected by emotional states, motivations, diseases, and more. There is a complex relationship between emotion and eating behavior. Consuming food can influence people's emotion. On the other hand, food attention, subjective appetite, and food intake can be influenced by emotion. Many studies have focused on emotional eating due to negative emotions. However, fewer studies focus on the effect that positive emotion has on eating behavior. The relationship between positive emotion and eating behavior is still controversial, as the relationship is underrepresented in research. The present study analyzed the eating behavior of clinical and non-clinical individuals who were affected by negative or positive emotions, and further explored the neurophysiology of eating behaviors and the various theories of the effect that emotions have on eating behaviors. The results showed that negative emotion increased attentional bias and intake for food and subjective appetite in the general population. This process was also affected by other factors; for example, modest women may restrict their food intake while experiencing negative emotions, so they may regain a sense of control which would offset the unpleasant feelings they were experiencing. In this study, there were two results regarding the effect that positive emotion has on eating behaviors. One theory was that positive emotions broaden momentary thought-action repertoires of people, which in turn builds their endurance. This leads us to believe that people resist food intake after positive emotion is induced. However, contrarily, positive emotion could increase hedonistic behavior in people, thus increasing food intake to maintain the experience of pleasure. Negative emotion increased both attention bias for food cues and subsequent intake in people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders. Negative emotion causes decreased food intake in people suffering from anorexia nervosa. Positive emotion decreased binge eating in people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders and relieved restrictive eating behaviors in people with anorexia nervosa. According to the reward theory, negative emotion can enhance reward sensitivity toward food. Following increased food intake, this process may show a synergy effect in the amygdala, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Negative emotion ruins the inhibitory control of individuals, meaning that they may begin to overeat, in association with the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. According to self-related theory, negative emotion induces negative self-awareness. People can show attention bias due to immediate environmental stimulus, as overeating is meant to help people escape from their own negative self-awareness. Placing their attention on binge eating allows people with bulimia or other binge eating disorders to avoid dealing with information or environmental stimulus that may be hurtful. From the perspective of social culture, most eating behaviors with positive emotion have some special or celebratory meaning which increases the hedonic-oriented eating behavior of the individual. In general, the association between emotion and eating behavior has a certain regularity to follow. In the study, during a negative emotion, an individual’s eating behavior manifested in an extreme, unhealthy pattern, whether that meant an increased or decreased food intake. This study found a direct association between emotion and eating behavior; However, social culture, symbolism and connotation of certain foods, and an individual’s default eating styles (disinhibited and restrained eating) should be considered alongside the influence that emotion has on eating behaviors. In addition, most past studies self-reported food intake and subjective appetite as recorded by the individuals as the measurement. Future studies should adopt neuro-physiological methods to explore the effect of emotion on eating behavior and study a small set of neurons in the hypothalamus which regulates appetite, for example.

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    The relationship between self-esteem and social anxiety: A meta-analysis with Chinese students
    ZHANG Yali, LI Sen, YU Guoliang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (6): 1005-1018.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01005
    Abstract6581)   HTML457)    PDF(pc) (1071KB)(8752)       Save

    Social anxiety has become a serious public health concern in our society. It is imperative to examine risk factors for this problem. Among these predictive variables, self-esteem has been one of the most examined risk factors for social anxiety. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between self-esteem and social anxiety among Chinese students. However, these results are far from consistency. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the relation between self-esteem and social anxiety among Chinese students, and investigate the moderating effects of measurement tools of social anxiety, participant types, and gender. Through literature retrieval, 58 independent effect sizes together with 32181 participants which met the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis were selected. Heterogeneity test indicated that random effects model was appropriate for the meta-analysis. The results of funnel plot and Egger’s intercept illustrated no publication bias. Main-effect test indicated a significant negative correlation between self-esteem and social anxiety (r = -0.35, 95%CI = [-0.39, -0.31]). Further moderation analyses revealed that the association between self-esteem and social anxiety was moderated by measurement tools of social anxiety, but not by the type of participants and gender. The results supported the fear management theories of self-esteem and the cognitive models of social anxiety. Longitudinal or experimental studies are needed in the future to reveal the causal relationship between self-esteem and social anxiety.

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    I am gifted! Perceived overqualification and its influence on employees
    LI Pengbo, CHEN Limei, CHU Fulei, SUN Yuqing, ZHOU Ying
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (7): 1313-1330.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01313
    Abstract6316)   HTML181)    PDF(pc) (941KB)(3145)       Save

    Perceived overqualification refers to one’s perception of possessing more education, experience, knowledge, skills, and abilities than the required job qualifications. Overqualification is a common phenomenon in organizations and has gradually become a hot topic in the research of organizational behavior. After years of development and accumulation, existing research has conducted in-depth discussions on the connotation, measurement, effects and situational factors of employees’ perceived qualification, and formed a relatively complete knowledge map; however, in terms of the construct itself and the effects of perceived overqualification, existing research still holds different views and inconsistent conclusions, and needs to be improved in future studies.

    What is perceived overqualification? How to measure it? What kinds of negative effects does it have on employees? What are the situational factors of these negative effects? Does it only have negative effects? What are the theoretical mechanisms behind these effects? Based on these questions, this paper systematically sorts out and deeply analyzes the existing studies, and the results show that: (1) perceived overqualification reflects employees’ subjective perception of overqualification, and existing research has not yet achieved consensus on its dimensions and all measurements are developed based on western context; (2) perceived overqualification can negatively influence employees’ work attitudes, behavior and performance, as well as their physical and mental health, through affecting their cognitive feelings and emotional experience. Furthermore, these negative effects can be enhanced, weakened or even eliminated under the influence of different employees’ personal traits (e.g., personality, need orientation, values, cognitive evaluation, etc.) and different situations (e.g., organizational practice, team relationship, leadership style, work-related characteristics, etc.); (3) in addition to the negative effects, perceived qualification also has a positive effect, U-shaped effect or inverted U-shaped effect on some positive outcomes, such as employees’ proactive behavior, in-role performance, creative performance and so forth. (4) human capital theory, person-job fit theory, relative deprivation theory, equity theory, psychological contract theory, and conservation of resource theory are the main theories to explain the negative influences of perceived overqualification, whereas self-categorization theory, self-verification theory, and self-regulation theory are the ones to explain its positive influences.

    On the basis of the above research findings, this paper proposes the following four important research directions for future research on perceived overqualification: (1) future research can conduct more extensive and in-depth surveys on Chinese employees and take its root in Chinese context to clarify the connotation and structure of perceived overqualification, explore and develop a more clearly structured scale of perceived overqualification with higher reliability and validity that can reflect Chinese context; (2) future research can overcome the limitation of existing research that focuses on the individual level, and pay more attention to perceived overqualification on the team level, optimizing its measurement and examining its multi-level effects on the team-level and individual-level outcomes; (3) future research can explore the influence of perceived overqualification on employees and its mechanisms from a more integrated perspective. In particular, future research can build a parallel mediation model to compare the mechanism and intensity of negative and positive effects of perceived overqualification, and to explore the boundary conditions of these two different effects; (4) future research can examine the changing process and influencing factors of perceived overqualification from a more dynamic perspective. Besides, future research can take into consideration other important factors, such as external uncertainty, and explore the effect based on a longer time frame to capture its long-term trend.

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    Social Identity Theory and It’s Development
    Zhang Yingrui,  Zuo Bin
       2006, 14 (3): 475-480.  
    Abstract6157)      PDF(pc) (760KB)(20884)       Save
    Social identity theory, developed by Tajfel and Turner et al.,which made new explanations to the group behavior, has become the most influential theory in the field of intergroup relation. The social identity theory developed from the explanations for intergroup behavior, it proposed that group identity is the fundamental cause of intergroup behavior. Recent research provides much evidence for the theory, The social identity theory is important achievement of European psychology localization and has important contributions to the social psychology. At the same time it also waits for further consummates
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    Is catharsis beneficial or harmful? The psychological intervention effect and potential harm of catharsis
    ZHAN Jun, XU Hongfei, REN Jun, LUO Jing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (1): 22-32.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00022
    Abstract5971)   HTML245)    PDF(pc) (721KB)(5631)       Save

    The theory of catharsis believes that venting can effectively alleviate anger and aggressive impulses. However, a large number of experimental studies about the effects of direct catharsis, indirect catharsis and target catharsis on aggression have revealed the potential harm of catharsis on aggression and its functional mechanism, the catharsis can’t reduce anger but increase aggression through factors such as cognitive processing. Even so, the public still favors this seemingly convenient way of regulating emotion, for example catharsis equipment has become the standard equipment of psychological counseling institutions. This not only suggests people's unilateral cognition of psychological catharsis, but also reflects the lack of scientific and standardized construction of our social psychological service system. Future research should focused on the potential problems and its possible solutions in the current widespread application of catharsis equipment that used as a mean of modern psychological intervention.

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    Emoji image symbol’s social function and application
    JIN Yuchang, DENG Chenglong, WU Ping, LIN Xi, ZHENG Peixuan, AN Junxiu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 1062-1077.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01062
    Abstract5903)   HTML227)    PDF(pc) (662KB)(4280)       Save

    Nowadays, with the rapid development of the Internet, online communication has become increasingly popular and popular. However, due to the lack of nonverbal cues in face-to-face communication, it is difficult for people to detect the emotional state of each other, which hinders normal communication. Emoji, which compensate for nonverbal cues in online communication, have been introduced into cyberspace to compensate for the absence of gestures and facial attributes in online communication, and have been developing constantly. The development of Emojis has gone through Emoticon composed of ASCII characters, Emoji of pictographic icons and now emerging more vivid and interesting stickers. This paper will mainly comb, analyze and summarize the functions, influencing factors and interaction mechanisms of Emoji in network communication, as well as the current application of Emoji in different fields, and put forward the future research direction of Emoji based on the current research status of Emoji.
    At the beginning, Emoji is borrowed from Japanese animation symbols, and gradually developed into a widely used image symbol system. Since the creation of Emoji by Shigetaka Kurita in 1999, it has been enriched and developed continuously At present, Emoji has become a tool commonly used around the world to replace non-verbal cues such as body gestures and facial expressions in digital communication. In the process of continuous use in Internet communication, Emoji has been equipped with many functions, including expressing emotions, enhancing expression, changing tone, maintaining or enhancing interpersonal relationship, etc. At the same time, the use of Emoji is also affected by many factors, including age, gender, culture, context and platform. In addition, we also explore the interactive mechanism of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of symbol interaction theory, so as to clearly reveal the specific interaction process of people in online communication through Emoji.
    At present, with the continuous development and widespread use of Emoji, its application scope has been extended to many other fields besides Internet communication. In the field of sentiment analysis, Emoji has become an important object of sentiment analysis due to its rich emotions. In psychometrics, Emoji has been developed into a nonverbal tool for evaluating personality and depression which has the same reliability and validity as text items. In the field of commercial marketing, Emoji has begun to play a role in advertising marketing and attracting consumers, and can measure consumers' food-related emotions in the form of questionnaires. In the field of legal judgment, Emoji has gradually become a powerful evidence in judicial trials due to its widespread use. Through the above analysis and summary, we put forward the future research direction of Emoji from the following aspects: (1) explore the application and future development trend of Emoji in online communication; (2) study on the application of Emoji in other fields; (3) further explore the neurophysiological mechanism of Emoji; (4) discuss the positive effect of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of cognitive processing.

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    The replication crisis in psychological research
    HU Chuanpeng; WANG Fei; GUO Jichengsi; SONG Mengdi; SUI Jie; PENG Kaiping
    Advances in Psychological Science    2016, 24 (9): 1504-1518.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2016.01504
    Abstract5789)      PDF(pc) (1245KB)(4776)       Save

    The recent replication crisis in psychology has raised increasing concerns. Given that it is important for psychologists to understand the replication crisis and the consequent changes in the field, the present review aimed at providing an overview of the relevant events and highlighting the methodological reforms in psychology. First, we briefly recapitulated the events that raised doubt about reliability of psychological research. Then, we focused on a recent large-scale replication study (Reproducible Project: Psychology) and the following debates. In addition, three underlying causes of the replication crisis were examined: 1) the overabundance of false positive results, which is mainly caused by the prevalence of questionable research practices, 2) publication bias, and 3) the over-reliance on Null-Hypothesis Significant Testing (NHST) and misunderstanding of p-values, which was confirmed by our survey among Chinese psychology students and academics. More importantly, the proposed solutions provided in the literature were also reviewed, e.g., shifting from NHST to alternative statistical methods and adopting new ways to enhance research integrity (i.e., pre-registration, full disclosure, and open data and materials of studies). Finally, we call for joint efforts by policy makers, researchers and educators to solve the replication crisis.

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    Less is more: A theoretical interpretation of minimalism in consumption
    CHEN Siyun, WEI Haiying, XIONG Jiwei, RAN Yaxuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (11): 2043-2061.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02043
    Abstract5765)   HTML349)    PDF(pc) (859KB)(3944)       Save

    Minimalism refers to a lifestyle that seeks satisfaction in a non-material world by reducing consumption. Given the increasing popularity of minimalistic consumption (i.e., voluntary simplicity), it is necessary to understand minimalism more comprehensively. First, we provide a categorization scheme related voluntary simplicity, including its conception, dimensions, and measurements. Characterized by a minimal, simple, and responsible lifestyle, minimalism can be defined as the degree to which consumers select a lifestyle to minimalize their consumption and to take control of their life. The practice of simplified living typically entails minimizing possessions, consuming less, and valuing personal growth.
    Then, factors that influence minimalistic consumption are presented. The reasons for individuals to adopt simplifying behaviors are manifold. That is, motivations for engaging minimalistic consumption are multifaceted and complicated, including both internal (i.e., personal, financial, lifestyle) and external (i.e., economic, social, environmental) motivations. In addition to consumers who curtail their consumption due to financial restraints, there are consumers who consciously consume, although they are financially well off. The rejection of the concept that one’s success is determined by his/her material goods (i.e., materialism) has prompted interest in minimalistic consumption. In addition, some simplifiers (i.e., minimalistic consumers) are driven by motives of environmental sustainability. That is, when consumers give greater consideration to the natural environment and ecological system, they may engage in voluntary simplicity to live both well and sustainably. Furthermore, people can lead an independent and self-determined life through minimalistic consumption; therefore, a desire to achieve an autonomous life is an important antecedent of minimalistic consumption. Moreover, philosophical motivation (i.e., religious belief) is another factor driving minimalism in consumption.
    Moving forward, the potential impacts of minimalistic behavior are shown. Minimalism has a positive influence on individual, societal and environmental wellbeing. Adopting low consumption helps expand mental space, resulting in a feeling of lightness, relaxation, and clarity. A minimalistic lifestyle facilitates individuals’ positive emotions while reducing their negative emotions such as depression. Consumers can also reduce their dependence on the market offerings by curtailing the overall consumption, in search of a simpler but happier life. Additionally, minimalistic practices offer several wellbeing benefits such as meaning and happiness. In addition, a minimalistic lifestyle can improve harmony in communities, as it can help build more connections with others in society. By sharing skills, donating to charities or giving back to the community, simplifiers can experience a sense of community and closeness to others, thus enhancing communal well-being. More importantly, most literature notes that this lifestyle is positively associated with environmental and ecological wellbeing. With a strong ecological awareness, consumers tend to protect the environment through a variety of practices, such as decreasing carbon emissions, avoiding excess packaging, and preserving resources and habitats. Collectively, we categorize antecedents of minimalistic consumption into four types (i.e., demographic, psychological, situational, religious factors). We also summarize the effects of minimalistic consumption in the previous research, such as enhancing happiness and sense of meaning.
    In order to understand voluntary simplicity, four theories (i.e., theory of basic values, self-determination theory; hierarchical theory of needs; self-regulation theory) were introduced. By combining these theories, we shed a novel light on understanding the forming process of minimalistic consumption. Specifically, in self-observation stages, individuals generate self-directed values. Based on these values, consumers make judgments whether their needs are satisfied. Lastly, in the self-reaction phase, consumers adopt the results of these judgments, and they evaluate achieve autonomy, competence and relevance from the self-determination theory. Given the important role of minimalistic consumption in the contemporary marketplace, it is essential for both marketers and scholars to know more details in simplifying practices. Several directions (e.g., developing valid measurements, taking cultural differences into account, identifying boundary conditions) for future research are discussed.

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     Fear of missing out: What have I missed again?
    CHAI Huan You, NIU Geng Feng, CHU Xiao Wei, WEI Qi, SONG Yu Hong, SUN Xiao Jun
    Advances in Psychological Science    2018, 26 (3): 527-537.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00527
    Abstract5688)      PDF(pc) (443KB)(7837)       Save
     Fear of missing out (FoMO) refers to the pervasive apprehension resulting from worries that others might be experiencing fantastic stories or positive events from which one is absent. FoMO is determined by various factors such as personality traits, psychological needs, social media usage and age. FoMO would exert great impacts on social media usage and psychosocial adaptation. Meanwhile, FoMO can act as a mediator through which some factors influence social media usage and psychological adaption. The key issues of future studies on FoMO are the discrimination of contiguous concept, improvement of measurement and research method, as well as investigation of influencing factors and aftereffects.
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