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    Autism: Is It An Extreme Form of the “Male Brain”?
    CAO Shuqin; CAO Yanyan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2015, 23 (10): 1775-1788.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.01775
    Abstract3652)      PDF(pc) (809KB)(111334)       Save

    In 2002, "Extreme Male Brain Theory of Autism" was proposed by Professor Baron-Cohen at the University of Cambridge. In his theory, autism is thought to be an extreme form of the typical male cognitive style. The female mentality, characterized by empathy, is usually deficient in autism, while male mentality, characterized by systematism, is greatly developed. This theory was established on the basis of the empathizing-systemizing theory, and then developed into the hyper-sensitizing theory. Although facing some challenges, the theory has gained support in many disciplines: psychological, neurological, biological, etc. In particular, a high intrauterine testosterone level was found in the fetus with autism, as demonstrated by digit ratio, handedness, play behavior, parental occupation, as well as islets of ability, etc. This theory provides us with a new perspective for understanding autism.

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    Family Rearing Environment and Children’s Development: The Differential Susceptibility Hypothesis
    MA Yuanyuan; ZHOU Quan; XING Shufen
    Advances in Psychological Science    2015, 23 (11): 1931-1941.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.01931
    Abstract2008)      PDF(pc) (450KB)(68154)       Save

    The differential susceptibility hypothesis maintains that children have differential susceptibility to rearing environments’ influence. Some children are not only more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of adversity, but also disproportionately susceptible to the beneficial effects of supportive and enriching rearing environment. Firstly, this article elaborated the basic theoretical perspectives of differential susceptibility theory and the statistical criteria for establishing differential susceptibility. Secondly, empirical research evidence consistent with differential susceptibility model in recent years was reviewed from behavioral, endophenotypic and genetic factors, namely, how these factors moderated the effects of rearing environments on the children’s development as moderators. Finally, the limitations of previous studies and the directions of future researches were summarized.

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    The Effects of Interword Spacing in Chinese Text Reading: A Meta-analysis Based on Eye Movements Research
    YU Xianglian; REN Zhihong; YE Yiduo
    Advances in Psychological Science    2015, 23 (11): 1894-1909.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.01894
    Abstract971)      PDF(pc) (471KB)(64067)       Save

    Meta-analysis was used to investigate the effects of interword space in Chinese text reading. In the present study, 18 retrieved literatures were used, including 186 pairs of data which met the meta-analysis standard (n = 756). The results indicated that: (1) the overall effect of interword space on mean fixation duration, total fixation count of the whole sentence, first fixation duration, gaze duration, total reading time of target word, and fixation count of target word was 0.65, -0.12, 0.26, 0.58, 0.67 and 0.64 respectively. (2) Significant differences were revealed in the subgroups analysis: the effect of foreign students group was strikingly higher than Chinese students group on mean fixation duration, first fixation duration, gaze duration, total reading time of target word, and fixation count of target word. The spaced group was remarkably higher than the highlighted group on mean fixation duration. The lower level group was significantly higher than the higher level group on gaze duration, total reading time of target word, and fixation count of target word. The true word group was dramatically higher than the pseudo-word group on gaze duration, total reading time of target word, and fixation count of target word. The primary school students group was significantly higher than the college school students group on the total reading time of the target word.

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       1998, 6 (3): 63-656.  
    Abstract2092)            Save
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    Analyses of Mediating Effects: The Development of Methods and Models
    WEN Zhonglin;YE Baojuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2014, 22 (5): 731-745.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2014.00731
    Abstract12848)      PDF(pc) (348KB)(39047)       Save

    Mediation models are frequently used in the research of psychology and other social science disciplines. Mediation indicates that the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable is transmitted through a third variable, which is called mediator. In most applied research, Baron and Kenny’s (1986) causal steps approach has been used to test mediating effect. In recent years, however, many methodological researchers questioned the rationality of the causal steps approach, and some of them even attempted to stop its use. Firstly, we clarify the queries on the causal steps approach one by one. Secondly, we propose a new procedure to analyze mediating effects. The new procedure is better than any single method that constitutes the procedure in terms of Type I error rate and power. The proposed procedure can be conducted by using observed variables and/or latent variables. Mplus programs are supplied for the procedure with observed variables and/or latent variables. Finally, this article introduces the development of mediation models, such as mediation model of ordinal variables, multilevel mediation, multiple mediation, moderated mediation, and mediated moderation.

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    Cited: Baidu(342)
    Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control
    Li Li; Rongrong Chen; Jing Chen
    Advances in Psychological Science    2016, 24 (Suppl.): 71-.  
    Abstract1065)            Save

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non–action gamers. We then trained nongamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or ?rst-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved signi?cantly. In contrast, nongamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The ?ndings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be bene?cial training tools for driving.

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    Game-based assessment on visuospatial ability in a large population of human participants: an Internet-based big-data approach
    Shan Xu; Xiang-Zhen Kong; Yiying Song; Jia Liua
    Advances in Psychological Science    2016, 24 (Suppl.): 14-.  
    Abstract810)            Save

    PURPOSE: Mental rotation of complex 3D structure is an important visuospatial ability. To examine the plasticity of this ability, traditional laboratory approaches rely on laborious data collection involving multiple training sessions, and thus are normally limited to small sample size and sometimes insuffcient training. Our study presented an innovative approach combining the advantages of game-based assessment and Internet-based data collection, and demonstrated the potential of this approach in providing new insights on the plasticity of visuospatial ability.
    METHODS: In each session of a game-like assessment, participants were presented with a mental rotation problem in each trial, and the difficulty of each trial increased gradually. The number of successfully completed trials in a session was recorded as a score indexing the participants’ visuospatial ability. This game was distributed in a social-networking mobile application (i.e., WeChat), and a large sample (N = 119,662) of participants voluntarily played the game more than once. The changes in scores between sessions were used to illustrate the learning effeciency, or the plasticity, of the visuospatial ability. We asked how the plasticity of the visuospatial ability changed as a function of age.
    RESULTS: The performance in visuospatial ability peaked at the age of 26-30, whereas the improvement of the performance was observed over repetitive participation in all ages, which peaked at the age of 15-20 and dramatically reduced over 50s. In short, the present study demonstrated that the visuospatial ability can be improved by training, and its plasticity varied across ages.
    CONCLUSIONS: The present study was a ?rst attempt of using game-based assessment and large-scale internet-based data collection in cognitive plasticity, and illustrated the potential of this approach in large-scale data collection, especially in research fields requiring large sample size and repetitive participation.

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    Far from the “madding crowd”: The positive effects of nature, theories and applications
    CHEN Xiao; WANG Bo; ZHANG Bao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2016, 24 (2): 270-281.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2016.00270
    Abstract1869)      PDF(pc) (455KB)(33740)       Save

    Most of the history of human evolution took place in natural environment. Nature played an important role on human physical and psychological health, cognitive function, and other aspects. Three theories explained the underlying mechanism behind: Biophilia Hypothesis stated that the tendency for interaction with nature was hereditary and promoted human health and happiness; The Attention Restoration Theory stated that the involuntary attention used in natural settings could replenished the voluntary attention fatigue; The Stress Recovery Theory stated that exposure to nature invoked positive emotion, which might resulted in psycho-physiological stress recovery. Practical applications included Horticultural Therapy and Natural Environments Therapy. In the future, other psychological theories could be used to explain the effects of nature. Future research could investigate the differential effects between real nature interaction and virtual nature interaction. Research could also investigate the effects exposure to nature through other sensory channels beyond vision. Research in cognitive neuroscience could provide a better understanding of the neural mechanisms behind human nature interaction.

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    Integration of the Functional Researches of Reminiscence, Narrative, and Autobiographical Memory
    LI Ming; DU Jianzheng
    Advances in Psychological Science    2015, 23 (10): 1732-1745.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.01732
    Abstract1549)      PDF(pc) (451KB)(29662)       Save

    The functional researches of autobiographical memory have been developed mainly in clinical, personality, and cognitive psychology. These researches are different from each other in their research subjects, terminology, methodology, and results. The clinical researchers concern and abstract many special functions of reminiscence of the elderly via clinical observation and administrations of Reminiscence Functions Scale. The personality psychology concerns the role of narrative in personality growth, especially the role of which in identity development, with the Coherence as an important indicator measured by various measures. Cognitive psychology emphasizes the basic functional categories and fundamental processing mechanisms of autobiographical memory. With its theoretical framework and cognitive models, researches of autobiographical memory may give us some deeper enlightenment for integration of autobiographical memory functional researches from different domains. Prospects on the experimental approach, ecological validity, life-span and cross-cultural perspective, measurement, and integration approaches are also provided.

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    Neural Mechanism of Creative Cognitive Process Influenced by Emotion
    HU Weiping; WANG Botao; DUAN Haijun; CHENG Lifang; ZHOU Huan; LI Jingjing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2015, 23 (11): 1869-1878.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.01869
    Abstract1544)      PDF(pc) (512KB)(26421)       Save

    It is known that emotion greatly affects creative generation. Most related studies on the relationship between emotion and creativity are based on individuals’ behavior performance. However, they have not reached a consistent conclusion. This program systematically examines the cognitive process of creativity under the influence of emotion. According to the notion that creative generation is a progressive low-high cognitive process, the generating process of creativity is divided into primary process and secondary process. Cognitive neuroscience technology and several improved experimental paradigms including novelty judgment task, remote association test and Chinese logogriph task are employed to investigate the time course and spatial pattern of the active cerebral region of creativity in this program.

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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    On Laughter of Human Beings: From the Perspectives of Evolution and Social Interaction
    LIU Chao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2015, 23 (11): 2020-2028.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.02020
    Abstract1450)      PDF(pc) (483KB)(26134)       Save

    Laughter is an important communicative signal in human society. Researches on laughter focused on the fields of evolution and social interaction. From the viewpoint of evolution, laughter can help infant survive and improve adults’ sexual attraction. Meanwhile, it contributes to one’s physical and psychological health. From the perspective of social interaction, laughter can help human beings control aggression, enhance cooperation and promote favorable interpersonal relationship. Future studies should effectively distinguish laughter from humor, concentrate more on the cerebral mechanism of laughter, explore cross-cultural consistency and differences on laughter, and look into applied research and interdisciplinary cooperation.

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    Advances in Psychological Science    2017, 25 (suppl.): 5-5.  
    Abstract754)            Save
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    Application of The Chinese PTSD Inventory (CPI) to College Students
    LV Yaodi; WU Kaijun; ZHANG Yuqing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2015, 23 (8): 1324-1330.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.01324
    Abstract1210)      PDF(pc) (389KB)(23937)       Save

    Until now, the most commonly used instruments assessing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in China were based on Western populations and culture which is very different from that of Eastern populations like Chinese. This study used an indigenous Chinese PTSD self-rating scale—the Chinese PTSD Inventory (CPI), to conduct a survey among the 1057 college students from Lushan earthquake area as samples. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that factors such as gender, severity of subjective fear and type D personality further influence the occurrence of PTSD. It demonstrated high internal consistency. The result of confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit for the five-factor model, and it could be applied in assessing the severity of PTSD symptoms in China.

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    Social Identity Theory and It’s Development
    Zhang Yingrui,  Zuo Bin
       2006, 14 (3): 475-480.  
    Abstract5962)      PDF(pc) (760KB)(18899)       Save
    Social identity theory, developed by Tajfel and Turner et al.,which made new explanations to the group behavior, has become the most influential theory in the field of intergroup relation. The social identity theory developed from the explanations for intergroup behavior, it proposed that group identity is the fundamental cause of intergroup behavior. Recent research provides much evidence for the theory, The social identity theory is important achievement of European psychology localization and has important contributions to the social psychology. At the same time it also waits for further consummates
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    The Appropriate Effect Sizes and Their Calculations in Psychological Research
    ZHENG Hao-Min;WEN Zhong-Lin;WU Yan
       2011, 19 (12): 1868-1878.  
    Abstract6593)      PDF(pc) (325KB)(18571)       Save
    Effect sizes are important supplement of the null hypothesis significance testing. More and more academic journals request authors provide the effect sizes of their researches. Our purpose is to provide a guideline on how to compute the appropriate effect sizes of different researches and data types. We classified the effect sizes into three types, including difference-type, correlation-type and group-overlap. For each type of the effect sizes, there are different approaches of calculations and applications under different research designs (e.g., single-factor/multifactor between-subjects, single-factor/multifactor within-subjects) and data conditions (e.g., small sample size, heterogeneity of variance). Many effect sizes, however, can be transformed from one type to another. We summarized a table that may help readers to choose appropriate effect sizes for their researches based on the research purposes and research designs.
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    Cited: Baidu(34)
    The Neural Mechanism of Values: Another Perspective
    LI Lin;HUANG Xiting
    Advances in Psychological Science    2013, 21 (8): 1400-1407.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01400
    Abstract918)      PDF(pc) (213KB)(18462)       Save
    The analysis of neural mechanism provides a novel perspective for researches on values. The machinery of homeostasis and natural modes of biological response including emotions already embody human values. Social cognitive neuroscience tries to find neural and physical evidences for the values, which did some researches about specific values, value orientation and the construction of values, and analyzed the neural activities during valuation and value–based decisions. It found tentatively that the personal values is related to the mode of neural activities, involving numerous brain structures in frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. The future study can focus on the static structure and dynamic process of values, integrate and improve the existing separate neural evidences, to understand the values systematically.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Advances in Psychological Science    2017, 25 (suppl.): 2-2.  
    Abstract919)            Save
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    A Summary of Parenting Style And Children’s Development in China
    Wang Li, Fu Jinzhi
       2005, 13 (3): 298-304.  
    Abstract4563)      PDF(pc) (547KB)(17385)       Save
    In recent years, the psychologist and educational researchers in China proved that parenting style has considerable influence on children’s cognitive development, social emotion, character and explored the influential factors to guide and improve the parenting style. On the other hand, they also achieved some different effects from the west under the Chinese cultural background.
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    Statistical Remedies for Common Method Biases
    Zhou Hao,Long Lirong
       2004, 12 (6): 942-942~950.  
    Abstract8028)      PDF(pc) (723KB)(16374)       Save
    The problem of common method biases has being given more and more attention in the field of psychology, but there is little research about it in China, and the effects of common method bias are not well controlled. Generally, there are two ways of controlling common method biases, procedural remedies and statistical remedies. In this paper, statistical remedies for common method biases are provided, such as factor analysis, partial correlation, latent method factor, structural equation model, and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed separately. Finally, suggestions of how to choose these remedies are given.
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    Cited: Baidu(562)
    Categorical Perception of Facial Expression and Its Individual Differences
    QIU Fanghui; LUO Yuejia; JIA Shiwei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2015, 23 (6): 946-958.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.00946
    Abstract1637)      PDF(pc) (325KB)(16178)       Save

    Categorical perception (CP) effect of facial expression is that facial expressions varying continuously are perceived in human brain as belonging to qualitatively discrete categories, with a clear categorical boundary between different emotional expressions. In this paper, the behavior and ERP experiment paradigms and the fundamental research were introduced, and the influence on CP effect of facial expression of aggression, depression, schizophrenia as well as social anxiety disorder and the developmental research of CP were summarized. The review indicates that CP research could reveal the categorical boundary and its deviation of emotional perception among different individuals, which contributes to the explanation of their corresponding social behaviors. Future research should pay more attention to the individual difference and neural mechanism underlying CP effect of facial expression.

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