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    The effects of gender nonconformity on adolescent peer evaluation and related dynamics
    WEN Fangfang, KE Wenlin, FANG Zeming, WANG Yang, LEI Yatian, ZUO Bin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (8): 1331-1341.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01331
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    Inherent gender is an important dimension of self-identity and social categorization, and has a huge impact on individual psychology, interpersonal relationships, intergroup behaviors and social development. Gender stereotypes, gender socialization and gender attitudes have been stable themes in disciplines, such as social psychology, developmental and educational psychology and sociology. Gender is the core component of the self-concept and an important dimension of social categorization. Gender Nonconformity is a psychological phenomenon in which individuals display gender norms that do not correspond or are inconsistent with their birth sex. In recent years, the phenomenon of Gender Nonconformity has become increasingly prominent among adolescents, and previous studies have shown that Gender Nonconformity adolescents face challenges in social adjustment such as peer relationships. Although some research paradigms and theoretical findings have been accumulated in the area of Gender Nonconformity and related areas, there are still limitations. Although some research paradigms and theoretical findings have been accumulated in the area of Gender Nonconformity and related areas, there are still limitations. Firstly, previous studies have mainly adopted the traditional binary approach of gender conformity and non-conformity; secondly, there is a lack of cognitive-motivational pathways to examine the prototypical matching and avoidance intentions of Gender Nonconformity in influencing adolescents' peer evaluations; thirdly, previous studies have mainly adopted a static perspective on gender-biased peer evaluations, ignoring the dynamic processes of gender-biased generation and evolution. To address these limitations, this study will break through the gender binary category and explain the psychological mechanisms of static effects and dynamic changes of Gender Nonconformity on peer evaluation from the perspective of the relationship between basic attributes and gender attributes, and provide possible interventions to change the negative peer evaluation of Gender Nonconformity individuals. The specific aims of the study include: firstly, to develop and provide neurophysiological evidence for the basic attributes of Gender Nonconformity; secondly, to reveal the cognitive-motivational dual-path mechanism of prototype matching and avoidance intention in the process of Gender Nonconformity influencing peer evaluation; and thirdly, to explore the dynamic evolutionary mechanism of Gender Nonconformity influencing peer evaluation.

    Focusing on the above three research aims, this study systematically examines the influence of Gender Nonconformity on peer evaluation and its evolutionary psychological mechanisms according to a progressive research hierarchy of "realization layer - algorithmic layer - computational layer". The study includes three aspects. (1) A polymorphic refinement examines the effects of Gender Nonconformity on peer evaluation, constructs a view of the underlying attributes of Gender Nonconformity and provides behavioral and neurophysiological evidence of the layers of realization. (2) A dual cognitive-motivational pathway mechanism for Gender Nonconformity to influence peer evaluation is revealed at the algorithmic level. The social cognitive paradigm is used to explore the cognitive activation of "prototype matching" and the motivational activation of "intention to avoid" in the process of Gender Nonconformity influencing peer evaluation through questionnaires, behavioral experiments and situational experiments. (3) Exploring the dynamic evolutionary mechanisms of Gender Nonconformity in peer evaluation from the abstract computational level. Using reinforcement learning paradigms, computational modelling, implicit measurement, contextual experiments and live experiments, the prototype formation process of Gender Nonconformity peer evaluations is simulated using reinforcement learning models based on a dual pathway of cognition and motivation to explore the dynamic evolutionary mechanisms of gender-biased peer evaluations and possible intervention pathways for negative peer evaluations of gender-biased individuals. The findings of this study can provide some managerial and educational insights into the effective promotion of youth gender development, peer relationships and mental health based on a gender perspective.

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    The big data analysis in cultural psychology
    WU Michael Shengtao, MAO Yunyun, WU Shuhan, FENG Jianren, ZHANG Qingpeng, XIE Tian, CHEN Hao, ZHU Tingshao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (3): 317-329.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00317
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    With the further development of computers and big data technology, human society and its cultural forms are undergoing profound changes. The production and interaction of cultural symbols have become increasingly complex, and cultural members and their social networks have left numerous texts and behavior footprints, which makes it necessary to describe, predict, and even change the culture, so that computable cultural symbols and their interaction process have gradually become the research object of cultural psychology. In this vein, Computational Cultural Psychology (CCP), which employs big data and computation tools to understand cultural symbols and their interaction processes, has emerges rapidly, making large-scale or even full sample cultural analysis possible. The key variables of CCP are mainly about individualism and collectivism, and the analysis technologies include feature dictionaries, machine learning, social networks analysis, and simulation.
    New research avenues of CCP involve the cultural change effect from the temporal perspective and cultural geography effect from the spatial perspective. For the former, Google Ngram Viewer, Google News, Google Search, name archives, pop songs, and micro-blogs were used to analyze the cultural changes after the long-term historical development and the short-term economic transformation. For the latter, both social media (e.g., Twitter, Facebook, and Weibo) and large-scale survey were used to analyze the cultural differences of various countries or regions in different geographic spaces, as well as the relationship between culture and environment, such as cultural diversity along the "Belt and Road", person - environment fit and cultural value mismatch across different regions in a country or all over the world.
    It should be noted that there are several limitations in CCP, including decoding distortion, sample bias, semasiological variation, and privacy risk, although new methods and paradigms are provided. In future directions, theoretical interpretation of variables, cultural dynamics, interdisciplinary integration, and ecological validity should be seriously concerned. In particular, accurate definition and theoretical interpretation of big data measurement are needed; a variety of big data corpus (e.g., historical archives) should be used for the evolutionary analysis of dynamic cultures; deep integration, but not conflict, should be encouraged between culture psychology and the sciences of computer, communication, and history; and the "scenarios" of big data should be considered in promoting the ecological validity of cultural psychology.
    Taken together, a review of the emergence of CCP, as well as the empirical research on the big data analysis of cultural change and cultural geography, is helpful in understanding the advantages, limitations, and future direction of this new field, which sheds light on theoretical and methodological innovation of cultural psychology.

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    Conceptualization of time poverty and its impact on well-being: From the perspective of scarcity theory
    SUN Xiaomin, YANG Shuting, KONG Xiaoshan, LIU Zhenzhen, MA Rongzi, YUAN Yue, ZHANG Nan, JIANG Xinying, CAO Peiling, BAO Ruiji, LIN Yiqin, LI Ning, LI Zhihang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2024, 32 (1): 27-38.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00027
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    In today’s fast-paced world, increasing numbers of individuals are facing time poverty, i.e., having too much to do and not enough time. It can impact people's cognitive processes and behaviors by affecting their attention. However, the extant literature provides only a limited understanding of the influence of time poverty and its effects on individual multi-faceted well-being. Therefore, a comprehensive investigation of the concept of time poverty and its impact on well-being is of great importance theoretically and practically. The current study intends to present a three-dimensional theoretical model for the construct of time poverty from an integrated perspective, aiming to explore its effects on multi-faceted subjective well-being and investigate the potential mechanisms by which time poverty reduces well-being based on scarcity theory.

    Specifically, the current study proposes a three-dimensional structure for the concept of time poverty, which includes length, intensity, and quality. Most researchers agree that spending an excessive amount of time on paid work or unpaid domestic work and having an insufficient amount of free time leads to time poverty. Moreover, the number of tasks to be completed per unit of time may be an independent source of pressure resulting in the perception of time poverty. The stressful pace caused by over-rapid task completion and too short intervals could increase the sense of time poverty. Lastly, the quality dimension of time poverty comprises time integrity, time autonomy, and time synchronization. Low time quality could worsen the perception of time poverty. Based on the three-dimensional model of time poverty, the current study aims to develop a time poverty scale and construct a large-scale Chinese time poverty database. This database is designed to collect demographic information as well as the level of time poverty of representative samples, aiming to explore the dominant type of time poverty for different demographic groups and trace the dynamic changes in time poverty over time.

    Furthermore, the current study proposes that time poverty can have a significant impact on people’s well-being. Time poverty can develop a scarcity mindset, leading people to focus on the scarcity of time. Consequently, they overemphasize productivity, resulting in a strong inclination of completing more tasks in a shorter amount of time. Such a mindset shifts people’s attention from the activity’s process to its results, reducing intrinsic motivation and, as a result, ruining people’s well-being. An excessive focus on productivity can also harm interpersonal and family well-being by underestimating the importance of investing time and energy in nurturing relationships, thereby lowering the quality of relationship-oriented interactions. Therefore, we argue that by promoting the over-productivity orientation, time poverty can adversely affect individual, interpersonal, and family well-being. Furthermore, time poverty in one spouse's workplace produces an over-productivity tendency which then spills over to the family environment and is conveyed to the other spouse in their daily interactions. Such processes are likely to negatively influence both parties’ well-being.

    Overall, the current project develops a three-dimensional time poverty theoretical model, based on which a time poverty scale will be developed. With the new scale, a large-scale database will be constructed. The project will explore the experiences of different groups of people with distinct characteristics in Chinese society, and how such experiences influence personal, interpersonal, and family well-being. The results of the current project are of great importance for not only the successful coping of time poverty for individuals but also for societies aiming to improve the well-being of their people.

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    Can learning by non-interactive teaching promote learning?
    CHENG Meixia, KUANG Ziyi, LENG Xiaoxue, ZHANG Yang, WANG Fuxing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (5): 769-782.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00769
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    As a generative learning activity, learning by non-interactive teaching refers to learners play the role of teachers and teach what they have learned to others, and the activity is designed to help learners actively engage in knowledge building and improve their academic performance. For example, learners face a video camera to explain the learning material to imaginary, non-present peers in their minds (i.e., recording an instructional video). Given the vastly different ways in which learning by non-interactive teaching was implemented (e.g., video, audio, and text), the effectiveness of learning by non-interactive teaching in facilitating learning might be different. By summarizing the relevant studies, it was found that learning by non-interactive teaching in oral form with a tutor figure (e.g. video) was more effective in improving learner’s performance (d immediate comprehension = 0.56, d delayed comprehension = 0.63, d immediate transfer = 0.35, and d delayed transfer = 0.76) compared with simple learning activities such as restudy and retrieval practice, which was probably a better implementation. Learning by non-interactive teaching in oral form (e.g. audio only, d immediate comprehension = 0.09 and d immediate transfer = 0.02) or written form (e.g. text, d immediate comprehension = -0.16, d delayed comprehension = 0.39, d immediate transfer = 0.08, and d delayed transfer = 0.19) without a tutor figure had a smaller positive effect on learning outcomes. Learners with non-interactive teaching also experienced higher motivation (d = 0.44) and enjoyment (d = 0.76) and were willing to invest more mental effort (d = 0.47). The retrieval practice hypothesis and the generative learning hypothesis focused on different subcomponents of cognitive processing (e.g., retrieval, generation, or monitoring) to explain the positive effects of learning by non-interactive teaching on learning, respectively. The social presence hypothesis emphasized that social presence might facilitate whole cognitive processing and thus improved learning. Our results supported these three hypotheses to some extent. In addition, the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML) may provide a supplementary explanation for differences in the effectiveness of different implementations of learning by non-interactive teaching. On the one hand, learning by non-interactive teaching (e.g., video) might successfully create teaching situation that stimulated a moderate sense of social presence and leaded learners to be more engaged and think more deeply about the material, i.e., increased their essential processing and generative processing, and thus facilitated learning. On the other hand, learning by non-interactive teaching (e.g., text) might distract learners from focusing too much on the typos, the standardization and rigorousness of written language, i.e., increased their extraneous processing. Due to the inherently high demands for processing capacity in generative activities, too much extraneous processing might cause learners' limited processing capacity being insufficient for adequate essential processing and generative processing, which in turn impaired learning. While learning by non-interactive teaching in the audio-only format might neither successfully facilitate learning with essential processing and generative processing because of the weaker teaching situation created, nor hinder learning with extraneous processing because of the automated spoken language. Research is needed to test and integrate theories, identify boundary conditions, and enhance the effectiveness of learning by non-interactive teaching in the future.

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    The effect of sleep on fear learning and its cognitive neural mechanisms
    ZHANG Jie, ZHANG Huoyin, LI Hong, LEI Yi
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (4): 631-640.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00631
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    Sleep problems may induce fear-related mood disorders such as anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and phobias, among others. Studying the cognitive cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in the relationship between sleep problems and fear learning can help enhance the prediction, diagnosis, and treatment of fear-related mood disorders. Previous studies have shown that sleep deprivation affects fear acquisition mainly by inhibiting the activity of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and blocking its functional connections with the amygdala, resulting in impaired safe learning that fails to inhibit fear of threatening stimuli, thus enhancing fear acquisition. In contrast, sleep deprivation during the fear memory consolidation phase impairs the activity of the amygdala and hippocampus, thereby impairing fear memory. On the other hand, sleep deprivation during the extinction learning phase results in delayed activation of brain regions associated with extinction learning, which in turn impairs fear extinction memory. Further studies have reported that different stages of sleep have distinct effects on brain regions associated with fear learning; in particular, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (insufficient) and complete sleep deprivation have similar effects on the cognitive and neural mechanisms of fear learning. Deprivation of REM sleep suppresses vmPFC activity, enhances amygdala activation, and thus enhances fear acquisition. In addition, reduced functional connectivity in the limbic cortex disrupts fear memory consolidation. Deprivation of REM sleep after extinction learning phase increases amygdala, insula, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity and diminishes mPFC, thereby impairing extinction memory. Therefore, after clinical treatment, quality of sleep, particularly REM sleep, should be ensured at night. In addition to reinforcing recently acquired memories, REM sleep is involved in integrating new information into existing knowledge structures, reorganizing these structures, and generalizing recently acquired memories; therefore, improving REM sleep can promote fading retention and generalization. In contrast, the slow-wave sleep (SWS) stage facilitates fear extinction learning through target memory reactivation, which allows the hippocampus to re-code threatening stimuli and accelerate the consolidation of new safety information in the amygdala. During the SWS stage, participants are not conscious and therefore do not have to directly face the threatening stimulus, thus avoiding some of the drawbacks of traditional extinction therapy applied during wakefulness for patients with fear-related mood disorders, such as anxiety disorders and (PTSD). Clinically relevant studies have found that individuals with insomnia also exhibit delayed activation of the fear extinction brain regions, with related activation occurring only during extinction recall. At the same time, individuals with insomnia have stronger learned fear which causes their insomnia and can easily develop into pathological anxiety or PTSD. Furthermore, sleep immediately following exposure therapy can optimize the therapeutic effect and may even promote extinction generalization; therefore, sleep should be used in combination with traditional exposure therapy. Future research should be conducted to further the study of the neural mechanisms by which sleep affects fear generalization and the effect of circadian rhythm disruption on fear extinction, as well as clarifying the problems in the translation of animal sleep studies to human sleep studies.

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    A meta-analysis of the relationship between perceived social support and student academic achievement: The mediating role of student engagement
    WU Jiahui, FU Hailun, ZHANG Yuhuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (4): 552-569.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00552
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    Academic achievement can be considered as a measure of student's knowledge level and adaptation to school. As a valid indicator for quantitatively assessing the effectiveness of national education, academic achievement has become a key concern for students, parents, schools, and society. While intrinsic motivation is important in the process of increasing academic achievement goals, extrinsic support is equally essential for students. In recent years, empirical studies based on social cognitive theory have analyzed the relationship between social support and academic achievement, revealing that perceived social support is more predictive and functional. With continuing advances in developmental psychology, current research is increasingly focusing on the mediating mechanisms between perceived social support and academic achievement. Student engagement is a specific indicator of student involvement in the learning process and an important measure of learning competence; thus, it can positively and significantly predict academic achievement. However, there are no uniform findings on how perceived social support and its sub-indicators affect academic achievement, and the extent to which both are influenced by student engagement factors has not thus far been definitively addressed. In addition, the current meta-analysis failed to comprehensively validate the correlation between perceived social support and academic achievement, exploring only the relationship between the three indicators of perceived social support and academic achievement, and the study tended to focus on a single dimension such as autonomy support. Moreover, current meta-analyses have not yet comprehensively revealed the mediating role of student engagement, with most studies focusing on integrating effect sizes and exploring possible moderating variables, using samples that do not involve mediating variables or the studies have devoted themselves to exploring the effects of multiple factors (e.g., individuals' cognitive and non-cognitive factors) and their chained relationships on academic achievement, with inclusion samples covering multiple mediating variables. In light of this, the current study classified perceived social support based on the microsystems that most directly influence student development in ecological systems theory and used meta-analysis to obtain reliable estimates of effect sizes, mediating effects of student engagement, and a range of moderating effects in conjunction with self-system processes theory. A total of 41 empirical research and 78 studies were included through literature retrieval. The results were as follows: (1) There was a significant positive correlation between perceived social support and its sub-indicators and academic achievement; however, because the effect values were small, a weak correlation was indicated, with perceived social support as a whole having the strongest correlation, followed by perceived teacher support, perceived parental support, and perceived peer support. In addition, perceived social support and its sub-indicators were found to be positively related to student engagement. The effect of perceived social support and its sub-indicators on student engagement was higher than academic achievement. (2) Student grade moderated the relationship between perceived teacher support and academic achievement only. Academic achievement indicators moderated the link between perceived social support and its sub-indicators and academic achievement, while the moderating effects of economic level and cultural background on the relationship between perceived social support and its sub-indicators and academic achievement were not significant. (3) The direct effect pathway between perceived social support and its sub-indicators and academic achievement showed a significant positive correlation. Student engagement partially mediated the effect of perceived social support and its sub-indicators on academic achievement. In addition, the partial mediating effect of student engagement was only significant for students in the junior high school group and not for the senior high school group.

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    The influence mechanism of emotion on intuitive and analytical processing
    YE Shuqi, YIN Junting, LI Zhaoxian, LUO Junlong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (5): 736-746.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00736
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    Dual process generally refers to intuitive processing and analytical processing. Given the progress in transformation and collaboration mechanisms of dual process, emotion has gradually become the key variable for influencing the dual process. It is clearly pointed out that emotion is closely related to intuitive processing (Type 1) in dual process theory, which does not need cognitive efforts, but many empirical findings have shown that emotion also has a significant impact on analytical processing (Type 2). However, how emotions affect intuitive and analytical processing remains controversial in related studies. Relevant researches mainly focus on the influence of emotion on the single pathway of Type 1 processing or Type 2 processing, while the comprehensive influences of emotion on dual processes are rarely studied, these researches only are carried out at the superficial level, less dig deep into the differences of cognitive processing mechanism. In addition, different perspectives have resulted in the obscurity of emotions' function. Therefore, it is important to clarify the mechanism of emotion influencing on dual-processing from the perspectives of emotional valence and emotional arousal. The results show that positive emotions and emotions with high arousal tend to promote intuitive processing, while negative emotions with low arousal prefer to adopt analytical processing, but it will be affected by knowledge and experience, surface information, task characteristics and processing conditions. Consequently, emotions with different valence and arousal also have different impacts on processing. Positive emotions or negative emotions with high arousal can promote Type 1 processing, while negative emotions with low arousal will lead to Type 2 processing. In addition, a dual processing model which helps us make clear of thread about emotion influences, is used to explain the mechanism of emotional influence on dual processing. Type 1 and Type 2 are regarded as two relatively independent and successive processing stages in this model. In the startup phase of cognitive processing, positive emotions will broaden one’s attention, which means an increase in available information cues and enable individuals to retrieve information faster, thus facilitates Type 1 processing, individuals in high affective arousal will be directed attention by highly relevant information and reduce the attention to irrelevant information, thus tend to choose Type 1 processing, while negative emotions will narrow attention, which let the individuals pay more attention to the detailed information instead of the main information and let them consume more cognitive resources in Type 2 processing. In the Type 2 processing intervention stage, on the one hand, motivation is the individuals' subjective condition of whether to enter the Type 2 processing stage. The motivation to maintain positive emotions will trigger Type 1 processing that takes less cognitive effort, while the motivation to improve negative emotions will make the individual invest more cognitive resources in Type 2 processing. The individuals will choose the appropriate arousal level for the motivation of maintaining the current positive emotion and repairing negative emotion. On the other hand, cognitive resources are the individuals' objective condition of Type 2 processing, which are needed in Type 2 processing. Cognitive resources are also the core part of cognitive load theory, which includes intrinsic cognitive load, extraneous cognitive load and germane cognitive load. Emotions can be used as the three kinds of load to directly allocate cognitive resources and determine whether Type 2 processing can be involved. It is worth doing future exploration on verifying the effect of emotion on specific dual processing models by cognitive neuroscience techniques, the association between emotional arousal and dual processing, recent developments in emotion theory, and the strategies for optimizing dual processing under emotional load.

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    The cognitive neural model of procrastination and related interventions
    FENG Tingyong, ZHANG Biying
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (3): 350-359.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00350
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    Procrastination is defined as a voluntary but irrational delay of an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. The previous studies have indicated that chronic procrastination exists in different cultural backgrounds, which 15% to 20% adults are chronically procrastinators, and more than 70% students admit to academic procrastination, with approximately 16% of them experiencing severe procrastination problem. Procrastination not only impacts people's study, work performance, but also impairs physical and mental health. However, procrastination has complex psychological process, including at least three stages, such as evaluation, decision-making and execution. To date, the cognitive neural mechanism of procrastination behavior was still unclear with a lack of causal evidence. Therefore, based on the time decision model of procrastination and the triple neural structure network model, this project intended to build a cognitive neural model of procrastination, then using cognitive interventions and neural regulation techniques to test it. According to the cognitive neural model of procrastination, this project tried to develop precise intervention plans for procrastination.
    This project was divided into three parts: (1) From the perspective of recording and association research, cognitive behavioral experiments, multimodal neuroimaging methods, such as task state, resting state, structural state, and cognitive neural computational modeling was used to construct a cognitive neural model of procrastination. In the process of building the model, we systematically investigated the corresponding cognitive components and characteristics of neural circuits in the evaluation, decision and execution stages of procrastination. (2) From the perspective of causal/quasi-causal studies, this project manipulated core competencies including episodic prospection, self-control and emotion regulation, in which to investigated the changes before and after the intervention, such as the functional connectivity of the brain network of episodic prospection, and network efficiency. This part intended to further examine and develop the cognitive neural model of procrastination behavior. (3) From the perspective of clinical application, this project developed a screening-diagnosis system for patients with clinical procrastination behavior disorder according to the psychiatric symptom diagnosis system and the criteria of psychosocial impairment. This system would be applied to distinguish patients with mild, moderate and severe procrastination. Based on this, effective intervention programs with distant migration effect for procrastination behavior disorder patients were developed, including cognitive intervention and neuroregulatory treatment strategies.
    To sum up, this project has built a cognitive neural model of procrastination from the perspective of the dynamic psychological process of procrastination, and improved it through the causal manipulation of cognitive intervention and neural regulation. This study not only reaped important theoretical contribution to the exploration of the core cognitive neural mechanisms of procrastination, but also obtained practical implications for the effective prevention and precise treatments of procrastination.

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    Does classical music make you smarter? A meta-analysis based on generalized Mozart effect
    CHEN Lijun, HUANG Meilin, JIANG Xiaoliu, WANG Xinjian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (12): 2232-2262.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02232
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    Since the last century, scholars have increasingly focused on examining how Mozart’s music affects people’s cognitive performance, leading to rapid growth in the empirical literature on the Mozart effect. However, the effect size reported in empirical studies has been inconsistent. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis based on a systematic and comprehensive review of studies on the impact of classical music, seeking to determine its influence on cognitive performance and the underlying mechanisms at work. We also investigated whether the characteristics of research participants (e.g., age group, gender, cultural context) and elements of experimental design (e.g., type of experimental design, types of control music, the order of music, cognitive task and cerebral hemisphere) moderate the magnitude of the Mozart effect.

    We identified studies by searching Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest, WanFang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from 1993 to 2022 using the following terms: (“Mozart effect” OR “Mozart music” OR “music effect” OR “classical music”) AND (cognit* OR intellig* OR spati*). Our selection criteria were as follows: (1) the study reported original empirical findings; (2) at least two out of three possible treatments (listening to Mozart's Sonata KV 448, other classical music, or silence/other sounds) were administered to the groups; (3) the study involved the generalized Mozart effect and cognitive performance; (4) participants were the general public, excluding clinical or animal samples; (5) the study was written in either Chinese or English (the languages spoken by the authors).

    Ninety-one studies (with a total of 172 independent effect sizes and 7,159 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. Given that effect size could be influenced by participant characteristics (e.g., age, gender, cultural context), we applied a random-effects model. After coding the data, the “metafor” package (version 3.4.0) in R software was used to evaluate the total effect size of classical music and to analyze the publication bias test and moderating effects.

    The results showed that classical music improved cognitive task performance with a small effect (g = 0.36, 95% CI [0.24, 0.49]). The impact of publication bias was minimal, and the major findings remained valid. Additionally, the moderation analyses revealed that the strength of the relationship was moderated by age group, cultural context, type of experimental design, and dominant hemisphere of the brain. Specifically, the effect size of Chinese subjects was significantly larger than that of foreign subjects (g: 0.64 > 0.27, p = 0.018), and the effect size of preoperational stage children (3~6 years) was the largest (g= 1.10). Compared with the within-subject design, the between-subject effect was significantly greater (g: 0.48 > 0.22, p = 0.037). The right hemisphere also performed much better than the left (g: 0.44 > 0.08, p = 0.019). Moreover, gender interacted with age group, cultural context and cerebral hemisphere. The direct priming hypothesis received more robust support from this meta-analysis (g: 1.29 > 0.34, p = 0.045).

    To summarize, this study makes several important theoretical advances. First, this study systematically assessed the effects of listening to classical music on cognitive performance basing on a broad definition of Mozart effect, covering a wider range of musical genres and cognitive task types. It bridged the limitations of existing meta-analyses, clarified the debate on the reliability and scientific validity of the Mozart effect, and laid the groundwork for in-depth discussions. More importantly, this paper was the first to compare the effect sizes based on the "Direct Priming Hypothesis" and the "Arousal-mood Hypothesis", indicating the former to be more adept at explaining the Mozart effect. This provided a clearer theoretical guide for future researches. Finally, by examining the moderation effects of several factors, this paper explained why previous literature on the Mozart effect has reported inconsistent findings and provided more targeted design guidance for future studies. Beyond its theoretical advancements, the current paper’s results also have practical implications, such as the implications of age group differences and their interactions for children's cognitive development. The results can also aid in utilizing music education more effectively to boost cognitive performance. Future researches are encouraged to examine the long-term facilitative effect of classical music on cognitive performance, to explore the role of music preference in cognitive facilitation, and to explore more underlying moderators for the intervention effect size, such as subjects' personality traits, familiarity with music, and difficulty of the cognitive task.

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    Behavioral intervention strategies to nudge smoking cessation
    ZHANG Ning, WANG Anran
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (4): 684-696.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00684
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    Smoking is one of the major public health challenges around the world. Traditional tobacco control strategies, which include health education, taxes on tobacco products, and restrictions on smoking in public spaces, have greatly contributed to the reduction of smoking behavior around the world. However, these strategies are not always effective in helping smokers successfully quit smoking. As the traditional strategies do not consider the “irrational characteristics” of smoking behavior and its underlying mechanisms, their effects are usually discounted in real-world contexts. Recent advances in applied behavioral sciences during the past several decades provide new approaches for nudging smokers to quit smoking, which could be used to develop more effective tobacco control strategies at both the individual and population level. This article systematically reviews recent empirical research on behavioral intervention strategies to nudge smoking cessation according to the framework developed by Duckworth and colleagues for improving self-control. Specifically, behavioral nudge interventions for promoting smoking cessation could be classified by the people or organization implementing the intervention (e.g., smokers versus governments and public health agencies) and their underlying mechanisms (e.g., cognitively oriented versus context oriented). Context oriented interventions implemented by governments and public health agencies include reducing the accessibility of tobacco retail outlets in residence areas, restricting the display of tobacco products in stores and supermarkets, so as to reduce exposure of tobacco products, offering smaller size of cigarette products, and establishing separate smoking areas and removing tobacco-related irritants from the environment; cognitively oriented interventions implemented by governments and public health agencies include printing prominent warning pictures on cigarette packets, removing marketing information from cigarette packs, and increasing the usage of smoking cessation services; context oriented interventions implemented by smokers include making a public commitment to stop smoking and inviting important others to monitor one’s smoking behavior, using loss aversion to motivate quitting behavior among smokers; cognitively oriented interventions implemented by smokers include making specific, actionable smoking cessation programs, promoting a future-oriented time perspective, and cultivating incremental theories of smoking behavior. This framework makes it easier for governments and smokers to select appropriate behavioral nudge interventions. It also has implications for informing the development of culturally sensitive and adaptive behavioral intervention strategies for promoting smoking cessation in China, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions, and contributing to the achievement of the “Tobacco Control Initiatives” of the “Healthy China 2030 Initiatives”. Although there is progress in developing effective behavioral nudge interventions for smoking cessation, future research is warranted to comprehensively evaluate the effects of these interventions, including both positive and negative effects, short-term and long-term effects, especially in real-world contexts. Future research is also needed to adopt behavioral change strategies in the development of stop-smoking APPs and digital smoking cessation services. By fully understanding the irrational characteristics of smoking behavior and its underlying mechanisms, we can develop tailored, targeted, context adaptable, and applicable smoking cessation intervention strategies. These types of interventions can greatly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of smoking cessation services. Future research is also needed to preclude the negative impacts of e-cigarettes and prevent the misuse of these behavior nudge strategies, especially among young children and adolescents who are vulnerable to the attraction of e-cigarettes. We believe that behavior science-informed interventions, if successfully implemented with the collaboration of governments, public health agencies, and smokers, can greatly contribute to safeguarding the health of both smokers and the general public.

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    Effect of attachment-relevant episodic simulation on adult attachment security
    CAO Xiancai, WANG Dahua, BAI Xuejun
    Advances in Psychological Science    2024, 32 (1): 14-26.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00014
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    Considering the positive effect of secure attachment on relationships and well-being, the plasticity of attachment is an important research topic in the field of adult attachment. To explore the plasticity of attachment, we first need to understand how individuals attain attachment security. The control-system model of attachment posits that the way for individuals to attain security is to access the internal representation of attachment. Previous research only concentrated on accessing the secure-base script, which is a kind of internal representation including a series of procedural knowledge that summarizes the basic features of receiving support from an attachment figure, to attain attachment security. However, the function of attachment-relevant episodic simulation is overlooked during this process. Attachment-relevant episodic simulation refers to mentally simulating a series of future episodes regarding successfully support seeking and receiving support during distressful situations. Inspired by the research on episodic simulation, our previous research proposed and confirmed that attachment-relevant episodic simulation could also act as a way to attain security in the control-system model of attachment. However several research questions remain unsolved. What’s the uniqueness of the attachment-relevant episodic simulation when acting as a way to attain attachment security? What’s the mechanism of this effect? And how to conduct attachment intervention inspired by this new route. This research proposal will solve these questions through three studies.

    First, Study 1 will investigate the effect of attachment-relevant episodic simulation on adult attachment security and its uniqueness. We will compare the attachment-relevant episodic simulation with other ways of attaining security in their frequency of use, effect, and to what extent affected by attachment orientations during daily life. Besides, study 1 also wants to explore in which situation individuals will depend more on attachment-relevant episodic simulation to attain attachment security.

    Second, Study 2 will investigate the mechanism of this effect from the content and the cognitive process of attachment-relevant episodic simulation. Four experiments will be conducted to compare the effect of attachment-relevant episodic simulation with attachment-relevant semantic thinking, attachment-irrelevant episodic simulation, positive emotion induction, and attachment-relevant episodic simulation of unrelated situations. Another two experiments will use the episodic specificity induction and episodic coherence induction to manipulate the specificity of episodic retrieval and the coherence of episodic construction of attachment-relevant episodic simulation, then find their effect on attachment security.

    Third, based on the results of Study 2, Study 3 will use the natural language processing technique to develop several classifiers to classify the attachment-relevant episodic simulation. We developed a training procedure by using these classifiers. Firstly, we will ask participants to provide their daily distressful events and simulate attachment-relevant episodes one by one. After each simulation, the classifiers will be used to identify whether this simulation could help individuals to attain security or not, if not, then judge whether the invalid simulations derived from their content, specificity of episodic retrieval, or the coherence of episodic construction. After that, the feedback and training will be given to participants accordingly. With this training procedure, study 3 also wants to compare the short-term and long-term effect of this procedure with the repeated attachment priming method on trait attachment security.

    All in all, the current research project will provide a supplement for the attachment control-system model. Specifically, in addition to the secure base script, we proposed that attachment-relevant episodic simulation also could act as a way to attain attachment security. The results of the current project will investigate this proposition repeatedly and could learn the uniqueness and mechanism of this new path to attain security. This new path could provide an explanation for the situational flexibility of the attachment system on the one hand, and benefit for learning the plasticity of attachment and promoting trait attachment security on the other hand.

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    Tainted or elegant? Sexy effect on marketing
    XIE Zhipeng, QIN Huanyu, WANG Ziye, WANG Jingyuan, HE Yi
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (11): 2200-2218.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02200
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    Sexiness refers to an individual’s outward sexual charm or inner sexual attractiveness that is able to attract attention and induce sexual thoughts in others. As one of the most important forms of advertising, sexual advertisements trigger consumers’ sexual associations, emotions, or impulses by incorporating sexual content to promote brands and products. With the development of technology and the economy, the construct of sexual advertisements has become more complicated. New market trends such as “de-sexualization”, “sexual innuendo” and “over-sexualization” have emerged. However, existing theories regarding sexual advertisements cannot meet the needs of the rapidly growing market. Scholars have not yet reached a consensus on the classification of sexual advertisement. In addition, there are many contradictions in the theory and practice of the sexy effect in marketing, accompanied by a fragmented distribution of research fields. Drawing on studies from psychology, sociology, management, and other fields, this paper reviews the categories, effects, mechanisms and boundaries of sexual advertisements. This paper comprehensively and systematically studies sexual advertisements to provide a reference for both scholars and practitioners alike.

    First, this paper classifies sexual advertisements based on three aspects: direct representation, indirect representation, and social relationship representation. We found that sexual advertisements with direct representation may be perceived as immoral by consumers. And indirect representation may be difficult to perceive. Besides, sexual advertisements of social relationship representation can signal social connection and emotion, which can be utilized by the brands. Compared to direct and indirect represented sexual advertisements, the form of social relationship representation is more easily accepted by consumers. That’s why sexual advertisements of social relationship representation are becoming more and more common in recent years.

    Second, sexual advertisements are a powerful tool in marketing, but it is also a double-edged sword. On the one hand, sexual advertisements meet consumers’ compensatory needs by attracting their attention, enhancing their positive attitudes, and promoting manufacturers to realize their marketing goals. On the other hand, advertisements that are focused excessively on sexual content may result in attention loss for the brand. In this case, sexual content may be counterproductive to the brand’s long-term image. Direct sexual arousing advertisements and excessive sexual innuendo are easily perceived by consumers as lacking morality, and more importantly, carry certain legal risks.

    Finally, sexual advertisements influence consumers’ perceptions in different ways. The explanatory mechanism of sexual advertisement has shifted from consumer cognition and physiological impulses to social benefits. This paper specifically explores the mediating mechanism of the effect of sexual advertisements from four aspects, including consumer cognition, physiological motivation, sexual self-schema and social presence. The study shows that sexual advertisements can evoke consumers’ sexual thoughts and change their attitudes toward the advertised brands. However, these effects vary in different contexts. Accordingly, different product types, advertising contexts and individual traits also have an impact on the boundaries of the effects of sexual advertisements.

    As a whole, the concept of sexiness has gone through dramatic changes in recent years. Specifically, consumers are more open towards sexiness due to the changes in social trends and regulations, and the rising social status of women. In addition, the introduction of sub-cultural elements such as anime and manga has enriched the definition of sexiness. In the future, we can focus on these newly-emerged types of sexual advertisements. Moreover, the psychological and social mechanism and moderating effect of sexual advertisements can also be explored in future research. For example, future researchers may pay attention to the perceptual differences in sexiness under different cultural contexts. They may also focus on other interaction effects that could arouse sexual impulses, for example, specific colors and color saturation in advertisements. Also, future research can also explore new channels of sexy content, including AR and VR, etc.

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    The influence of social identity on depression and its theoretical explanation
    YAN Lei, YUAN Yiren, WANG Juan, ZHANG Yanhong, YANG Linchuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (4): 657-668.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00657
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    In recent years, researchers have begun to study the causes of depression from the perspective of social identity (The Social Identity Approach). These studies suggested two broad categories: single-multiple and static-dynamic. Single-multiple refers to whether researchers focus on the degree of individual identification with a particular group or the number of groups that individuals identify with when examining social identity. Static-dynamic focuses on an individual’s identity at a specific time or an identity change before and after life transitions (such as further education, immigration, and others). Therefore, the investigation of social identity can be divided into four situations: static single (identity degree), dynamic single (identity importance), static multiple (identity group number), and dynamic multiple (identity change). They had a positive effect on depression overall. However, the importance of identity in stigmatized groups and its loss in changes worsen depression. Regarding mediating mechanisms, researchers believe that social identity can alleviate depression by satisfying needs. Furthermore, it can reduce it by changing individuals' cognition and behavior. These mediating factors can be divided into three aspects: need, cognition, and behavior.
    Regarding theoretical explanation, Haslam et al. (2009) were the first to propose using the social identity perspective to explain mental health phenomena explicitly. They regarded this field as an important research trend. Four theories have been proposed to explain the relationship between social identity and depression. First, the Social Cure proposes that the psychological resources associated with group identity have a protective effect on individual mental health. Second, the Social Identity Model of Depression is the first to define it from a social identity perspective, proposing four key psychological resources (meaning, social influence, social support, and belonging) for depression. Third, the Social Identity Model of Identity Change shifts to a dynamic perspective, arguing that social identity continuity and gain pathway plays an essential role in life change. Finally, the hierarchical interaction model emphasizes that social identity has different levels, and these have various underlying psychological mechanisms.
    Future research should be carried out from three aspects. (1) In the deep influence mechanism of social identity on depression, we should examine whether it increases an individual's interpersonal support and sense of belonging. However, more importantly, we should examine whether the meaning (target, significance, and values) and influence (such as group norms) are beneficial to physical and mental health. When the group’s meaning and influence are detrimental to an individual's physical and mental health, social support and a sense of belonging can increase this detrimental effect, leading to increased depression. (2) Use empirical research to test the moderating factors proposed by previous theoretical explanations from three aspects: individual, group, and intergroup. Examples include group type (category/interaction group), normative content (positive/negative), identity compatibility, and the role of group performance. (3) Construct an agency-communion model of social identity affecting depression. This model could simultaneously explain the four pathways of social identity’s influence on depression, simplifying psychological resources into agency (meaning and social influence) and communion (social support and sense of belonging). Their mediating effects correspond one-to-one with the four situations of social identity. The model proposes the moderating role of the content of agency psychological resources, such as the meaning and social influence are detrimental to individual physical and mental health, the performance of group "failures," and the conflict of multiple identities.

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    The influence of loneliness on consumption behavior and its theoretical explanations
    LI Ting, KONG Xiangbo, WANG Fenghua
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (6): 1078-1093.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01078
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    Loneliness has become an increasingly common social phenomenon that is widespread at all ages and has an impact on people's daily lives in modern societies. Loneliness is a painful emotional experience that individuals subjectively perceive when the quality of intimate or social relationships does not meet ideal expectations or when they cannot satisfy their need to belong. Recent research findings regarding the impact of loneliness on consumption behavior have contributed greatly to the field of consumer behavior. However, the results of existing research are inconsistent and it is still unclear how loneliness affects consumption behavior. As a consequence, the field of consumer behavior is rather constrained in terms of research development and marketing strategy. In light of the importance of loneliness in the field of consumer behavior, this article systematically reviews the research findings of the influence of loneliness on consumption behavior in order to solve the above problems.
    First of all, this article summarizes and generalizes the widely used manipulation methods (including the feedback-evoked method, recall-evoked method, imagination-evoked method, and cue-evoked method) and measurement tools (i.e., the UCLA loneliness scale) for loneliness. Secondly, this article summarizes the effects of loneliness on consumption behavior from four aspects, including compensatory consumption behavior, avoidance consumption behavior, irrational consumption behavior, and uniqueness consumption behavior, respectively. Thirdly, this article analyzes and sorts out the triggering mechanisms and situational factors of loneliness-induced consumption behaviors, respectively. According to the Evolutionary Theory of Loneliness, this article contends that, the psychological needs (e.g., seeking social connection, restoring a sense of control, and seeking a sense of meaning in life) activated by transiently lonely consumers, who are influenced by the approach motive for restoring self-difference, will induce compensatory consumption behaviors. The social avoidance tendency activated by chronically lonely consumers, who are influenced by the avoidance motive for self-preservation in the short term, will induce avoidance consumption behaviors. At the same time, constant vigilance for social threats and the negative emotions it produces (e.g., anxiety) due to social avoidance may deplete lonely consumers’ self-regulatory resources, which will induce irrational consumption behaviors. The need for uniqueness activated by chronically lonely consumers, who are influenced by the avoidance motive for self-preservation in the long term, will induce uniqueness consumption behavior. In addition, loneliness motivates consumers to induce these above consumption behaviors will be influenced by factors such as consumers' intimacy status, marketing strategies, product attributes, and consumption contexts. Finally, the article explains the influence mechanisms of loneliness on various types of consumption behaviors based on different perspectives such as social surrogacy theory, sense of control theory, compensatory consumption behavior theory, self-regulation theory, and personality trait theory.
    Although many valuable results have been obtained from existing research on the effects of loneliness on consumer behavior, there are still some key issues that need to be addressed by future research. This article proposes that future research shall pay more attention to the impact of loneliness on altruistic consumption behavior (e.g., examining the effects of loneliness on pro-social consumption behavior or sustainable consumption behavior), the differential effects of type and degree of loneliness on consumption behavior (e.g., examining the differential effects of transient and chronic loneliness on consumption behavior), the potential moderators of loneliness-induced consumption behavior (e.g., exploring the boundary variables of loneliness-induced consumption behavior in terms of consumers' physiological activities, personality traits, and social characteristics), the internal mechanisms of loneliness-induced consumption behavior (e.g., attempting to explore the internal mechanisms of loneliness-induced consumption behavior from the cognitive-emotional dual processing path), as well as the reverse impact of consumption behavior on loneliness (e.g., clarifying the differential effects of consumption behavior on individual loneliness in the short and long term).

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    Using word embeddings to investigate human psychology: Methods and applications
    BAO Han-Wu-Shuang, WANG Zi-Xi, CHENG Xi, SU Zhan, YANG Ying, ZHANG Guang-Yao, WANG Bo, CAI Hua-Jian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (6): 887-904.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00887
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    As a fundamental technique in natural language processing (NLP), word embedding quantifies a word as a low-dimensional, dense, and continuous numeric vector (i.e., word vector). This process is based on machine learning algorithms such as neural networks, through which semantic features of a word can be extracted automatically. There are two types of word embeddings: static and dynamic. Static word embeddings aggregate all contextual information of a word in an entire corpus into a fixed vectorized representation. The static word embeddings can be obtained by predicting the surrounding words given a word or vice versa (Word2Vec and FastText) or by predicting the probability of co-occurrence of multiple words (GloVe) in large-scale text corpora. Dynamic or contextualized word embeddings, in contrast, derive a word vector based on a specific context, which can be generated through pre-trained language models such as ELMo, GPT, and BERT. Theoretically, the dimensions of a word vector reflect the pattern of how the word can be predicted in contexts; however, they also connote substantial semantic information of the word. Therefore, word embeddings can be used to analyze semantic meanings of text.
    In recent years, word embeddings have been increasingly applied to study human psychology. In doing this, word embeddings have been used in various ways, including the raw vectors of word embeddings, vector sums or differences, absolute or relative semantic similarity and distance. So far, the Word Embedding Association Test (WEAT) has received the most attention. Based on word embeddings, psychologists have explored a wide range of topics, including human semantic processing, cognitive judgment, divergent thinking, social biases and stereotypes, and sociocultural changes at the societal or population level. Particularly, the WEAT has been widely used to investigate attitudes, stereotypes, social biases, the relationship between culture and psychology, as well as their origin, development, and cross-temporal changes.
    As a novel methodology, word embeddings offer several unique advantages over traditional approaches in psychology, including lower research costs, higher sample representativeness, stronger objectivity of analysis, and more replicable results. Nonetheless, word embeddings also have limitations, such as their inability to capture deeper psychological processes, limited generalizability of conclusions, and dubious reliability and validity. Future research using word embeddings should address these limitations by (1) distinguishing between implicit and explicit components of social cognition, (2) training fine-grained word vectors in terms of time and region to facilitate cross-temporal and cross-cultural research, and (3) applying contextualized word embeddings and large pre-trained language models such as GPT and BERT. To enhance the application of word embeddings in psychological research, we have developed the R package “PsychWordVec”, an integrated word embedding toolkit for researchers to study human psychology in natural language.

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    Lonely at the top? Exploring the multi-level double-edged sword effect of leader workplace loneliness
    GUO Li, JIA Suosuo, LI Guiquan, LI Manlin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (4): 582-596.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00582
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    In organizations, it is often difficult for leaders to obtain intimate interpersonal relationships due to factors such as power and status differences; thus, workplace loneliness becomes a common experience for leaders. In fact, leader workplace loneliness not only exerts influence on leaders themselves, but also has a unique social function that subsequently impacts his on her team and followers. However, by systematically reviewing and summarizing relevant literature, we found that the extant research has primarily focused on employees’ workplace loneliness, leaving leader workplace loneliness unvisited. More importantly, prior studies have predominantly focused on the negative effects of loneliness yet provided limited insights on the positive side of workplace loneliness from a leader’s perspective. To address the above issues and advance the study of workplace loneliness, this paper adopts a multi-level, multi-theory, and multi-method approach to unravel the beneficial and detrimental effects of leader workplace loneliness on various outcomes, as well as the underlying mediating and moderating mechanisms across three studies. Specifically, based on self-regulation theory, Study 1 aims to dissect how leaders adopt emotion regulation strategies to cope with their daily workplace loneliness. We further identify the critical role of emotional intelligence in the leaders’ self-regulation processes. Because leaders have frequent interactions with their subordinates on a daily basis, such leader-subordinate interactions significantly affect the loneliness that leaders experience during the workday, which influences other attitudes and behaviors of leaders. Hence, Study 1 adopts the experience sampling method to investigate the short-term effects of leader daily workplace loneliness on key events (i.e., leader daily task-oriented focus and leader daily relationship-oriented focus) and key outcomes (i.e., leader daily task performance and leader daily contextual performance). Inspired by the emotions as social information model, Study 2 explores how leader workplace loneliness affects team climates (i.e., team individualism climate and team collectivism climate) and the effects of such team climates on team creativity. We also theorize team task complexity as one of the most important boundary conditions, which either facilitate or hinder the process of team creativity formation. Therefore, Study 2 takes a step forward to investigate how team task complexity plays a moderating role in the mediated leader workplace loneliness-team creativity relationship. We propose that the positive effect of leader workplace loneliness on team creativity through team individualism climate would be weaker when the team task complexity is higher vs. lower. In contrast, the negative effect of leader workplace loneliness with team creativity via team collectivism climate would be stronger when team task complexity is higher vs. lower. Study 3 sets out from a follower-centric perspective and explores how subordinates evaluate a lonely leader. Specifically, Study 3 utilizes the leadership distance theory to propose the inverted U-shaped relationship between leader accessibility as perceived by subordinates and subordinates rated leadership effectiveness. We then theorize the mediating role that leader accessibility plays between leader workplace loneliness and leadership effectiveness. In addition, Study 3 focuses on the individual differences among subordinates and further theorizes that subordinates’ power distance orientation can influence the evaluation process of subordinates on their lonely leaders. In this paper, we argue that the indirect effect of leader workplace loneliness on leadership effectiveness would be weaker when subordinates’ power distance orientation is higher vs. lower. In light of the above discussion, this paper not only advances the theoretical development of leader workplace loneliness, but also helps organizations cope with leader workplace loneliness with theory-based guidance and intervention. Last but not least, we admit that we still lack understanding of workplace loneliness, and thus encourage future research to conduct follow-up studies on the following topics, such as exploring the differences in the loneliness experiences of leaders at different positions, identifying the antecedents of loneliness in the context of the new economy era, and so on.

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    Warm reading: Clarifying the mechanisms of empathy in text reading
    TONG Yuguang, LI Ying, CHEN Jie
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (11): 2025-2039.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02025
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    The Social Processes and Content Entrained by Narrative (SPaCEN) model was proposed in recent years. This model marked a significant shift in the focus of text reading research away from coherent representations and toward the principles and goals of social functions. One of the key social cognitive skills is empathy, which can provide a valuable lens through which to examine how text reading serves a social purpose. Understanding the social role of empathy in text reading necessitates having a thorough understanding of the whole life cycle of empathy in text, including the process of its initiation, its action and the operation of its subsequent influence.

    Empathy during reading can be induced through the linguistic features of the text, textual elements, and self-simulation processes. Specifically, the linguistic features of the text coordinate attentional resources and balance aesthetic experiences by manipulating vocabulary, phonetics and rhetorical techniques to obtain an enhanced empathic experience; the textual elements induce empathic experiences by constructing scenes with different content features; and the self-simulation process emphasizes the reader's awareness and evaluation process of the textual information. The empathy induced by different pathways all include three components of empathy, narrative involvement, emotion and evaluation in different degrees.

    Various writing styles, reader attributes, and text qualities all influence how readers act on their empathic experiences. Specifically, authors may choose writing strategies that aim to evoke empathic experiences of certain readers for specific groups, depending on the intended audience group, including bounded narrative empathy acting on in-groups, ambassadorial narrative empathy acting on out-groups, and broadcast narrative empathy acting on objects of general interest. Readers' internal (e.g., experiences, personality traits) and external characteristics (e.g., reading style, reading medium, reading environment) can also contribute to differences in empathic experiences. Different genre types and text features may induce or enhance readers' empathic experiences through different paths such as arousing attention, activating familiar features, and reducing defensiveness. The arrangement of textual content can also facilitate readers' integration into the storyline from a character's perspective by easing readers' inferences about the psychological theory of textual roles through emotional valence, perspective markers, and protagonist characteristics.

    The distributed elementary processing model of text reading and empathy offers a new view on how empathy in text reading processes from a multidimensional perspective. According to this model, the author, the reader and the text work together to produce empathy. The author's writing strategy, the type and content of the text, and the characteristics of the reader all influence the empathic experience of the reader. With the superposition of the elements in each component, a slow activation of empathy from scratch is gradually achieved. The model further assumes that the empathic experience activated by text reading is reflected at the neural level, the cognitive-emotional level, and the behavioral level. Along with memory, encoding, and retrieval-related brain regions (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex associated with intertemporal and cross-modal processing), as well as motivational and reasoning-related brain regions (e.g., ventral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, temporoparietal junction) being active during reading, explicitly empathy-related brain regions such as the inferior frontal gyrus also exhibit sustained or fluctuating activation.

    In conclusion, reading with empathy not only improves readers' comprehension of others' thoughts and feelings and their ability to draw inferences about the theory of mind underlying texts, but it also serves to dispel prejudices and encourage actions that assist animals and the environment. Future research should concentrate on how to maximize the effectiveness of text reading in triggering empathy, creating a strong spiritual motivation for readers, and promoting the development and improvement of their healthy personalities at the application level, in addition to identifying which idiosyncratic text elements can effectively trigger empathy at the basic processing level.

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    Conceptualization of voice-taking and its effect on work behaviors: From the perspective of regulatory focus theory
    XIAO Sufang, XU Zhengli
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (5): 697-708.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00697
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    Voice-taking is originated from the ancient time and it’s crucial for the growth and success of an organization. This paper dealt with a detailed review on the concept, antecedents and outcomes of voice-taking. It found that existing studies paid less attention to the connotation of voice-taking and focused on discussing the antecedents of voice-taking, which were not conducive to in-depth understanding of the connotation and effects of voice-taking. Voice-taking is a deliberate cognitive process. Meanwhile, as a conscious behavior, it’s also a goal-directed behavior driven by motivation. From the perspective of motivation of voice-taking, this paper systematically explores the connotation of voice-taking and its effect mechanisms based on the regulatory focus theory. Specifically, according to motivation perspective and regulatory focus theory, voice-taking may include two sub-dimensions: promotive voice-taking and preventive voice-taking. At the individual level, promotive voice-taking and preventive voice-taking have different effect mechanisms on promotive voice and prohibitive voice. Promotive voice-taking has a positive effect on employees’ promotive voice by stimulating their felt responsibility for constructive change, while preventive voice-taking has a positive effect on employees’ prohibitive voice by enhancing their psychological safety. Meanwhile, according to regulatory fit theory, employees’ regulatory focus trait is an important factor that affects the relationship between promotive voice-taking and felt responsibility for constructive change, and the relationship between preventive voice-taking and psychological safety. When employees’ promotion focus trait matches the promotive voice-taking environment, their felt responsibility for constructive change will be strengthened and consequently more promotive voice behavior will be performed. When employees’ prevention focus trait matches the preventive voice-taking environment, their psychological safety will be enhanced, thereby more prohibitive voice behavior will be performed. At the team level, the effect mechanisms of promotive voice-taking and preventive voice-taking on team innovation are different. Promotive voice-taking is conductive to the formation of collective promotion focus, thus facilitating team exploration orientation. The flexible way of thinking and willingness to take risks for team exploration orientation are benefit to team innovation. Preventive voice-taking is conductive to the formation of collective prevention focus, then promotes team reflexivity, thus helping to team innovation. Although both promotive voice-taking and preventive voice-taking can promote team innovation through different effect paths, promotive voice-taking has a stronger effect on team innovation through the chain mediating effect of collective promotion focus and team exploration orientation.
    Moreover, according to regulatory fit theory, regulatory focus organizational context is an important factor that affects the relationship between promotive voice-taking and collective promotion focus, and the relationship between preventive voice-taking and collective prevention focus. When organizational context emphasizes development opportunities and growth (i.e., promotion-focused organizational context), employees will have a sense of matching between leader promotive voice-taking and promotion-focused organizational context. Then they can perceive correctness and effectiveness of leader promotive voice-taking in the organizational context, thus strengthening collective promotion focus. When organizational context emphasizes avoiding losses, mistakes and risks (i.e., prevention-focused organizational context), employees will have a sense of matching between leader preventive voice-taking and prevention-focused organizational context. Then they can perceive correctness and effectiveness of leader preventive voice-taking in the organizational context, thus strengthening collective prevention focus. The present study expands the research perspective and theoretical basis of leader voice-taking and provides a new direction for future study of leader voice-taking.

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    The occurrence mechanism of short video indulgence from the perspective of human-computer interaction
    DONG Wanghao, WANG Weijun, WANG Xingchao, LI Wenqing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (12): 2337-2349.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.02337
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    Short video indulgence refers to an individual’s compulsive and uncontrollable consumption of short videos, leading to significant behavioral or attention impairments, and subsequently causing difficulties in interpersonal relationships, learning, and/or work adaptation. With the continuous expansion of the short video user base and the trend towards younger groups, threats of short video indulgence to users’ physical and mental health have aroused extensive attention. From a human-computer interaction perspective, we synthesized and delineated the relevant factors contributing to the occurrence of short video indulgence. The objective is to formulate a comprehensive framework delineating the intricate mechanism that underpins the phenomenon of short video indulgence, thereby shedding light on the intricacies involved in its developmental process.

    At first, in order to explore the delineation between short video usage and indulgence, we categorized short video usage into “instrumental” and “ritualistic” forms. Instrumental usage refers to user behavior driven by specific goals or needs, where short videos serve as tools or means to achieve particular objectives. Ritualistic usage refers to user behavior without a specific objective, where short videos become habitual behaviors associated with particular contexts, times, or situations. The transition from conventional utilization of short videos to the state of short video indulgence appears to encompass a notable shift in usage behavior, evolving from a utilitarian “instrumental” function to a more “ritualistic” engagement.

    After that, the present work formulates a conceptual framework delineating the mechanisms underlying the onset of short video indulgence, delving into the domains of human-computer interaction and susceptibility traits. The first section encompasses four facets: information technology, content provision, human-computer interaction, and user experience. Their salient characteristics encompass technological advancement, content richness, interactive efficiency, and user immersion. Furthermore, propelled by recommendation algorithms, users’ engagement with short videos becomes increasingly fortified. The second section systematically expounds the susceptibility factors contributing to short video indulgence. The four categories of unique susceptibility traits align with the four stages of interactive mechanisms, while the categories represented by common susceptibility traits have an inducing effect on general addictive behaviors. Considering the analogous nature of short video indulgence to general online indulgence, the unique and common susceptibility traits exhibit mutual intersection and overlap. Overall, the role of interactive mechanisms lies in arousing susceptibility traits, rendering individuals more susceptible to allure and ensnarement in a cycle of addictive behaviors. Simultaneously, susceptibility traits amplify users’ responsiveness and vulnerability to inducing factors. The multifaceted components within the realm of human-computer interaction, propelled by recommendation algorithms, intricately intertwine with users’ susceptibility traits, driving the transformation of users’ engagement with short videos from an “instrumental” to a “ritualistic” approach, ultimately leading to the emergence of short video indulgence. This framework seeks to illuminate the genesis and progression of short video indulgence, offering researchers in this domain a comprehensive conceptual structure to foster the scientific governance of short video indulgence.

    Subsequently, in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind short video indulgence, we offered theoretical interpretations of short video indulgence from cognitive, emotional, motivational, and social perspectives. The dual process theory, opponent process theory, uses and gratifications theory and social shaping of technology theory were employed to elucidate the process of short video indulgence formation.

    Finally, this study concludes by summarizing the existing shortcomings in the current field of research. The points are concluded as follows: 1) The research methods are limited, there should be a diversification of research perspectives; 2) Insufficient attention to technology emphasizes the need to emphasize improvements in technology that contribute to addiction; 3) The mechanism of formation is unclear, there should be a deepening of the research into the mechanisms of occurrence; 4) Inadequate research on user characteristics highlights the need to focus on susceptibility factor studies.

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    The cognitive mechanism and neural substrates enabling self-control to reduce the decision to procrastinate
    ZHANG Shunmin, LI Keqian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2023, 31 (9): 1560-1568.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01560
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    Procrastination often prevents individuals, businesses, and governments from completing set tasks on time, hindering people's work, studies, and disease prevention and treatment. Self-control is the main ability to autonomously reduce procrastination, but it is a relatively limited cognitive resource. Uncovering how self-control works can help reduce procrastination more effectively. This project intends to investigate the mechanism and neural basis of self-control based on the decision mechanism of “do it now or do it later” in the temporal decision model. The temporal decision model holds that decision to procrastinate depends on the individual's trade-off between the process utility and outcome utility of task. When considering implementing a task immediately, the present-self will feel a high negative process utility but a low positive outcome utility. Therefore, the present-self is unwilling to execute it immediately. When anticipating to do a task in the future, the present self expects that the future self has a higher outcome utility, forming a feeling of “I will definitely do it in the future”. According to the temporal decision model and the mode of action of self-control, there may be three ways for self-control to reduce procrastination in decision-making. First, regulate negative emotions and thus reduce procrastination by reducing the utility of negative processes. Second, focus on task’s positive outcome and reduce procrastination by enhancing positive outcome utility. Third, regulate the allocation of attention, and reduce procrastination by paying less attention to negative processes or more attention to positive outcomes when making decisions. Based on the three ways, Study 1a will construct the corresponding three types of models, and compare the goodness of fit of these models to determine the efficient mode of self-control. Subsequently, Study 1b will use the experience sampling method to track the procrastination-reducing effect of different self-control ways, so as to test the stability of its effect. Study 2a will develop a brain imaging experimental paradigm capable of ecologically modeling task evaluation (process utility and outcome utility) and decisions to procrastinate, based on the temporal decision model. Specifically, the study will set up difficult target tasks with monetary rewards, and easy distractor tasks without monetary rewards. When the subjects choose the target task, it can be considered that they have chosen “execute immediately”; when they choose the interference task, it can be considered that they have chosen to delay the target task. Study 2b will use neurostimulation technology to enhance the excitability of neurons in the self-control brain area on the basis of study 2a, and investigate the effect and mechanism. In general, this project will systematically investigate “how self-control reduces procrastination” from two aspects of cognitive mechanism and neural basis based on the decision-making mechanism of “do now or later” in the temporal decision model. In terms of theory, this project was able to incorporate the failure of self-control to explain procrastination behavior into the theoretical framework of the temporal decision model. On the practical side, this project can provide theoretical and practical guidance for designing new procrastination intervention programs. Among them, the research results of cognitive mechanisms can help design behavior training programs based on self-control strategies, while the research results of neural foundations can provide more precise and personalized targets for interventions such as neural stimulation and neurofeedback training.

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