ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
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    Wisdom in old age
    CHEN Haobin, WANG Fengyan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (5): 885-893.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00885
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    In the past 40 years, researchers have explored and constructed diverse definitions and components of wisdom. They have gradually reached a consensus that wisdom is the application of meta-cognition to reason and solve problems based on the morality. Wisdom is also closely related to individual life experience, personal growth and even physical maturity. Therefore, wisdom can be defined as a psychological quality that integrates intelligence with morality.
    Among the measurements of wisdom applied in old age, the self-reported scales mainly include the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS), self-assessed wisdom scale (SAWS), and the adult self-transcendence inventory (ASTI), the performance-based methods mainly include the Berlin wisdom paradigm and the wisdom reasoning. According to the results, wisdom in old age is relatively well, but there may not be a linear relationship between the aging and the increasing of wisdom in the middle and late adulthood, the cognitive or knowledge components of wisdom reach a peak at a certain age (such as 50 to 55 years old), and after that they begin to decline, and the reflective and emotional components of wisdom will not decline, due to the growth of psychosocial development and perspective-taking ability, emotional regulation, and empathy or compassionate for others, they will even increase with age. Therefore, aging may not be a necessary or sufficient condition for wisdom.
    Studies have shown that micro-factors such as the challenges in life experience, critical life events, and social changes encountered in the life course of individual are external factors that may promote the development of wisdom in the old age; psychological resources such as sense of control, personal growth, emotional regulation, openness to experience and exploratory self-reflection that contribute to the development of individual meta-cognition are internal factors that may promote the development of wisdom in the old age; meanwhile, the orientation of pro-social moral value, the subjective motivation of pursuing the growth of wisdom or the meaning in life may be the important intermediary mechanism for learning wisdom from life experience.
    Wisdom can significantly and positively predict the quality of life in the old, and can help the old people obtain life goals and sense of control, which having more important impact on their well-being. Wisdom can also act as a mediating or moderating role to buffer or reduce the negative impact of negative factors on the life satisfaction and well-being of the old, thereby relieving the solitude and oppression, alleviating the feelings of loneliness, depression, and social alienation in the old age.
    There are still some limitations in the psychological research on the wisdom in old age: First, whether wisdom increases, declines or remains stable in the later stages of adulthood, the conclusions still rely on the definition, conceptualization and measurement of wisdom; secondly, the researches on the antecedents of the wisdom in the old age fail to reveal the internal mechanism of the relevant resources in the development of wisdom; thirdly, the researches on the consequences of the wisdom in the old age fail to reveal the interventional roles of wisdom or different components of wisdom; finally, there are still lack of specific and operable interventions and cultivation methods for promoting wisdom. In the future, it is necessary to develop the measurement tools that integrate various sources based on self-reporting and behavioral performance measurement, and balance the content of natural wisdom and humanistic wisdom; examine the development trajectory of individual wisdom and its psychological mechanism in the life course; conduct the longitudinal researches and experimental researches to in-depth research on the causal relationship between wisdom and well-being and the positive functions of wisdom; continue to explore the interventional conditions and promoting measures for the wisdom of the old in the practice of old care services in community, thus inspire the wisdom of the old people and promote their successful aging.

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    The influence of emotion on eating behavior
    ZHOU Aibao, XIE Pei, TIAN Zhe, PAN Chaochao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (11): 2013-2023.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02013
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    Eating behavior is not only regulated by the biological needs of people, but is also affected by emotional states, motivations, diseases, and more. There is a complex relationship between emotion and eating behavior. Consuming food can influence people's emotion. On the other hand, food attention, subjective appetite, and food intake can be influenced by emotion. Many studies have focused on emotional eating due to negative emotions. However, fewer studies focus on the effect that positive emotion has on eating behavior. The relationship between positive emotion and eating behavior is still controversial, as the relationship is underrepresented in research. The present study analyzed the eating behavior of clinical and non-clinical individuals who were affected by negative or positive emotions, and further explored the neurophysiology of eating behaviors and the various theories of the effect that emotions have on eating behaviors. The results showed that negative emotion increased attentional bias and intake for food and subjective appetite in the general population. This process was also affected by other factors; for example, modest women may restrict their food intake while experiencing negative emotions, so they may regain a sense of control which would offset the unpleasant feelings they were experiencing. In this study, there were two results regarding the effect that positive emotion has on eating behaviors. One theory was that positive emotions broaden momentary thought-action repertoires of people, which in turn builds their endurance. This leads us to believe that people resist food intake after positive emotion is induced. However, contrarily, positive emotion could increase hedonistic behavior in people, thus increasing food intake to maintain the experience of pleasure. Negative emotion increased both attention bias for food cues and subsequent intake in people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders. Negative emotion causes decreased food intake in people suffering from anorexia nervosa. Positive emotion decreased binge eating in people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders and relieved restrictive eating behaviors in people with anorexia nervosa. According to the reward theory, negative emotion can enhance reward sensitivity toward food. Following increased food intake, this process may show a synergy effect in the amygdala, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Negative emotion ruins the inhibitory control of individuals, meaning that they may begin to overeat, in association with the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. According to self-related theory, negative emotion induces negative self-awareness. People can show attention bias due to immediate environmental stimulus, as overeating is meant to help people escape from their own negative self-awareness. Placing their attention on binge eating allows people with bulimia or other binge eating disorders to avoid dealing with information or environmental stimulus that may be hurtful. From the perspective of social culture, most eating behaviors with positive emotion have some special or celebratory meaning which increases the hedonic-oriented eating behavior of the individual. In general, the association between emotion and eating behavior has a certain regularity to follow. In the study, during a negative emotion, an individual’s eating behavior manifested in an extreme, unhealthy pattern, whether that meant an increased or decreased food intake. This study found a direct association between emotion and eating behavior; However, social culture, symbolism and connotation of certain foods, and an individual’s default eating styles (disinhibited and restrained eating) should be considered alongside the influence that emotion has on eating behaviors. In addition, most past studies self-reported food intake and subjective appetite as recorded by the individuals as the measurement. Future studies should adopt neuro-physiological methods to explore the effect of emotion on eating behavior and study a small set of neurons in the hypothalamus which regulates appetite, for example.

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    I am gifted! Perceived overqualification and its influence on employees
    LI Pengbo, CHEN Limei, CHU Fulei, SUN Yuqing, ZHOU Ying
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (7): 1313-1330.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01313
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    Perceived overqualification refers to one’s perception of possessing more education, experience, knowledge, skills, and abilities than the required job qualifications. Overqualification is a common phenomenon in organizations and has gradually become a hot topic in the research of organizational behavior. After years of development and accumulation, existing research has conducted in-depth discussions on the connotation, measurement, effects and situational factors of employees’ perceived qualification, and formed a relatively complete knowledge map; however, in terms of the construct itself and the effects of perceived overqualification, existing research still holds different views and inconsistent conclusions, and needs to be improved in future studies.

    What is perceived overqualification? How to measure it? What kinds of negative effects does it have on employees? What are the situational factors of these negative effects? Does it only have negative effects? What are the theoretical mechanisms behind these effects? Based on these questions, this paper systematically sorts out and deeply analyzes the existing studies, and the results show that: (1) perceived overqualification reflects employees’ subjective perception of overqualification, and existing research has not yet achieved consensus on its dimensions and all measurements are developed based on western context; (2) perceived overqualification can negatively influence employees’ work attitudes, behavior and performance, as well as their physical and mental health, through affecting their cognitive feelings and emotional experience. Furthermore, these negative effects can be enhanced, weakened or even eliminated under the influence of different employees’ personal traits (e.g., personality, need orientation, values, cognitive evaluation, etc.) and different situations (e.g., organizational practice, team relationship, leadership style, work-related characteristics, etc.); (3) in addition to the negative effects, perceived qualification also has a positive effect, U-shaped effect or inverted U-shaped effect on some positive outcomes, such as employees’ proactive behavior, in-role performance, creative performance and so forth. (4) human capital theory, person-job fit theory, relative deprivation theory, equity theory, psychological contract theory, and conservation of resource theory are the main theories to explain the negative influences of perceived overqualification, whereas self-categorization theory, self-verification theory, and self-regulation theory are the ones to explain its positive influences.

    On the basis of the above research findings, this paper proposes the following four important research directions for future research on perceived overqualification: (1) future research can conduct more extensive and in-depth surveys on Chinese employees and take its root in Chinese context to clarify the connotation and structure of perceived overqualification, explore and develop a more clearly structured scale of perceived overqualification with higher reliability and validity that can reflect Chinese context; (2) future research can overcome the limitation of existing research that focuses on the individual level, and pay more attention to perceived overqualification on the team level, optimizing its measurement and examining its multi-level effects on the team-level and individual-level outcomes; (3) future research can explore the influence of perceived overqualification on employees and its mechanisms from a more integrated perspective. In particular, future research can build a parallel mediation model to compare the mechanism and intensity of negative and positive effects of perceived overqualification, and to explore the boundary conditions of these two different effects; (4) future research can examine the changing process and influencing factors of perceived overqualification from a more dynamic perspective. Besides, future research can take into consideration other important factors, such as external uncertainty, and explore the effect based on a longer time frame to capture its long-term trend.

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    Emoji image symbol’s social function and application
    JIN Yuchang, DENG Chenglong, WU Ping, LIN Xi, ZHENG Peixuan, AN Junxiu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 1062-1077.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01062
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    Nowadays, with the rapid development of the Internet, online communication has become increasingly popular and popular. However, due to the lack of nonverbal cues in face-to-face communication, it is difficult for people to detect the emotional state of each other, which hinders normal communication. Emoji, which compensate for nonverbal cues in online communication, have been introduced into cyberspace to compensate for the absence of gestures and facial attributes in online communication, and have been developing constantly. The development of Emojis has gone through Emoticon composed of ASCII characters, Emoji of pictographic icons and now emerging more vivid and interesting stickers. This paper will mainly comb, analyze and summarize the functions, influencing factors and interaction mechanisms of Emoji in network communication, as well as the current application of Emoji in different fields, and put forward the future research direction of Emoji based on the current research status of Emoji.
    At the beginning, Emoji is borrowed from Japanese animation symbols, and gradually developed into a widely used image symbol system. Since the creation of Emoji by Shigetaka Kurita in 1999, it has been enriched and developed continuously At present, Emoji has become a tool commonly used around the world to replace non-verbal cues such as body gestures and facial expressions in digital communication. In the process of continuous use in Internet communication, Emoji has been equipped with many functions, including expressing emotions, enhancing expression, changing tone, maintaining or enhancing interpersonal relationship, etc. At the same time, the use of Emoji is also affected by many factors, including age, gender, culture, context and platform. In addition, we also explore the interactive mechanism of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of symbol interaction theory, so as to clearly reveal the specific interaction process of people in online communication through Emoji.
    At present, with the continuous development and widespread use of Emoji, its application scope has been extended to many other fields besides Internet communication. In the field of sentiment analysis, Emoji has become an important object of sentiment analysis due to its rich emotions. In psychometrics, Emoji has been developed into a nonverbal tool for evaluating personality and depression which has the same reliability and validity as text items. In the field of commercial marketing, Emoji has begun to play a role in advertising marketing and attracting consumers, and can measure consumers' food-related emotions in the form of questionnaires. In the field of legal judgment, Emoji has gradually become a powerful evidence in judicial trials due to its widespread use. Through the above analysis and summary, we put forward the future research direction of Emoji from the following aspects: (1) explore the application and future development trend of Emoji in online communication; (2) study on the application of Emoji in other fields; (3) further explore the neurophysiological mechanism of Emoji; (4) discuss the positive effect of Emoji in online communication from the perspective of cognitive processing.

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    Less is more: A theoretical interpretation of minimalism in consumption
    CHEN Siyun, WEI Haiying, XIONG Jiwei, RAN Yaxuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (11): 2043-2061.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02043
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    Minimalism refers to a lifestyle that seeks satisfaction in a non-material world by reducing consumption. Given the increasing popularity of minimalistic consumption (i.e., voluntary simplicity), it is necessary to understand minimalism more comprehensively. First, we provide a categorization scheme related voluntary simplicity, including its conception, dimensions, and measurements. Characterized by a minimal, simple, and responsible lifestyle, minimalism can be defined as the degree to which consumers select a lifestyle to minimalize their consumption and to take control of their life. The practice of simplified living typically entails minimizing possessions, consuming less, and valuing personal growth.
    Then, factors that influence minimalistic consumption are presented. The reasons for individuals to adopt simplifying behaviors are manifold. That is, motivations for engaging minimalistic consumption are multifaceted and complicated, including both internal (i.e., personal, financial, lifestyle) and external (i.e., economic, social, environmental) motivations. In addition to consumers who curtail their consumption due to financial restraints, there are consumers who consciously consume, although they are financially well off. The rejection of the concept that one’s success is determined by his/her material goods (i.e., materialism) has prompted interest in minimalistic consumption. In addition, some simplifiers (i.e., minimalistic consumers) are driven by motives of environmental sustainability. That is, when consumers give greater consideration to the natural environment and ecological system, they may engage in voluntary simplicity to live both well and sustainably. Furthermore, people can lead an independent and self-determined life through minimalistic consumption; therefore, a desire to achieve an autonomous life is an important antecedent of minimalistic consumption. Moreover, philosophical motivation (i.e., religious belief) is another factor driving minimalism in consumption.
    Moving forward, the potential impacts of minimalistic behavior are shown. Minimalism has a positive influence on individual, societal and environmental wellbeing. Adopting low consumption helps expand mental space, resulting in a feeling of lightness, relaxation, and clarity. A minimalistic lifestyle facilitates individuals’ positive emotions while reducing their negative emotions such as depression. Consumers can also reduce their dependence on the market offerings by curtailing the overall consumption, in search of a simpler but happier life. Additionally, minimalistic practices offer several wellbeing benefits such as meaning and happiness. In addition, a minimalistic lifestyle can improve harmony in communities, as it can help build more connections with others in society. By sharing skills, donating to charities or giving back to the community, simplifiers can experience a sense of community and closeness to others, thus enhancing communal well-being. More importantly, most literature notes that this lifestyle is positively associated with environmental and ecological wellbeing. With a strong ecological awareness, consumers tend to protect the environment through a variety of practices, such as decreasing carbon emissions, avoiding excess packaging, and preserving resources and habitats. Collectively, we categorize antecedents of minimalistic consumption into four types (i.e., demographic, psychological, situational, religious factors). We also summarize the effects of minimalistic consumption in the previous research, such as enhancing happiness and sense of meaning.
    In order to understand voluntary simplicity, four theories (i.e., theory of basic values, self-determination theory; hierarchical theory of needs; self-regulation theory) were introduced. By combining these theories, we shed a novel light on understanding the forming process of minimalistic consumption. Specifically, in self-observation stages, individuals generate self-directed values. Based on these values, consumers make judgments whether their needs are satisfied. Lastly, in the self-reaction phase, consumers adopt the results of these judgments, and they evaluate achieve autonomy, competence and relevance from the self-determination theory. Given the important role of minimalistic consumption in the contemporary marketplace, it is essential for both marketers and scholars to know more details in simplifying practices. Several directions (e.g., developing valid measurements, taking cultural differences into account, identifying boundary conditions) for future research are discussed.

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    Game-based psychological assessment
    XU Junyi, LI Zhongquan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (3): 394-403.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00394
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        The advent of the big data era has made it possible to use data to predict behavior. Game is an important part of human social behavior. The issue of how to use the rich data obtained from games to predict players' knowledge, skills, and traits has attracted increasing attention, resulting in game-based psychological assessment. Game-based psychological assessment (GBPA) refers to evaluating a person's ability, personality, and other psychological characteristics through games or gamified activities. In the early days, it was mainly used to evaluate the effectiveness of education and training, and later it was extended to assessing psychological characteristics. As a new technology, game-based assessment creates a more realistic situation to get more accurate data, which has advantages in form, process, and outcome.

        A paradigm based on evidence-centered design has been developed in game-based assessment to design instruments and conduct empirical studies. It consists of three core components: competence model, task model, and evidence model. Establishing a competency model refers to defining the structure of the target characteristics under a theoretical framework. Establishing an evidence model refers to determining the indicators and scoring rules. Specifically, selecting the indicators associated with the competence model, setting the scoring rules, and further establishing the predictive model. Establishing a task model refers to designing tasks to obtain indicators from them. The game is the assessment task itself in a game-based assessment. Researchers can refine predictive indicators based on existing games for evaluation or design new games according to the purpose of the study. Utilizing evidence-centered design to establish assessment tools provides necessary conditions for further data collection, processing, and reliability and validity testing.

    This paradigm has been applied to assessing individual differences in cognitive and non-cognitive abilities. For example, predicting reasoning ability and mathematics performance through Sokoban games, evaluating elderly people with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using “Kitchen and cooking” game, and assessing children's social emotional skills using a novel computer game called Zoo U. Non-cognitive ability reflecting social characteristics and personality traits is more difficult to measure than cognitive ability. Researchers have not reached a consensus about whether the game-based assessment is effective in predicting personality traits.

        However, this technique is still in its infancy. Future research can be further expanded in task design, data mining, and practical application. Non-linear game patterns and multi-player large-scale game designs expand the applicable scope. The attempts in corporate recruitment and clinical assessment and treatment also bring new value to this technique. Game-based assessment has great potential in the field of psychometrics.

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    Prevalence of mental health problems among senior high school students in mainland of China from 2010 to 2020: A meta-analysis
    YU Xiaoqi, ZHANG Yali, YU Guoliang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 978-990.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00978
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    High school is the key period of psychological development, and it is also the frequent period of a variety of psychological problems. The mental health problems of senior high school students not only come from adolescents themselves, but also should attract extensive attention from families, schools and society. In order to improve the mental health of senior high school students and ensure the effective development of follow-up mental health work, it is necessary to understand the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students in China, so as to master the basic situation of mental health of senior high school students. Although many previous studies have involved the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students, there is no consistent conclusion on the detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students in China in recent ten years. In order to clarify the detection rates and influencing factors of mental health problems of senior high school students in China in recent ten years, this study makes a comprehensive and systematic meta-analysis of the relevant detection rate articles of senior high school students (including higher vocational students) in recent ten years, so as to form a clearer understanding of the general situation of their mental health. Because there are too many indicators involved in mental health problems, this study focuses on the detection rate of two common problems in senior high school students: internalizing problems (including anxiety, depression, sleep problems, somatization, suicidal ideation, and suicide plan) and externalizing problems (including self injury and suicide attempt. In addition, this study also investigated the regulatory effects of publishing age, relevant factors of measurement tools (measurement tools, detection standards, detection time), and demographic variables (grade, region, gender, only child or not, birthplace) on the detection rate of mental health problems.
    By searching the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database and Web of Science core collection database from 2010 to 2020, 252 effective literatures were finally obtained, including 48 articles on anxiety, 99 articles on depression, 21 articles on sleep problems, 14 articles on somatization, 29 articles on self injury, and 41 articles on suicide. The results of meta-analysis showed that (1) The prevalence from high to low were depression (28.0%), anxiety (26.3%), sleep problems (23.0%), self-injury (22.8%), suicidal ideation (17.1%), somatization (9.8%), suicide plan (6.9%), and suicide attempt (2.9%); (2) In the past ten years, the mental health problems of senior high school students in China have deteriorated with the passage of time, especially anxiety; (3) The detection rate of mental health problems of senior high school students is affected by the relevant factors of measurement tools (measurement tools, detection standards and detection time); (4) The mental health problems of senior high school students increased with the increase of grade, especially sleep problems; (5) The mental health problems of senior high school students were affected by regions, especially in economically underdeveloped areas. It can be seen that the prevalence of mental health problems of senior high school students in China was affected by the year of publication, measurement tools, detection standards, detection time, grade and region. In the future, efforts should be made to prepare standardized evaluation tools, build a long-term mechanism of mental health education, and focus on the mental health problems of senior class and underdeveloped area senior high school students.

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    The effect of conformity tendency on prosocial behaviors
    WEI Zhenyu, DENG Xiangshu, ZHAO Zhiying
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (3): 531-539.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00531
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    Prosocial behaviors have a significant impact on social cohesion. Previous behavioral studies and fMRI studies found that prosocial behaviors can be influenced by conformity tendency, including altruistic behavior, trusting behavior, fairness, generosity and charity. People tend to be more prosocial when they observe the group members’ prosocial behaviors. This phenomenon can be defined as prosocial conformity effect. In the prosocial conformity experiments, participants need to cope with the conflict between social preference and conformity pressure. From this perspective, relative to the classical conformity experiments, participants would have stronger psychological conflict in the prosocial conformity context.

    People tend to imitate others’ behaviors and adopt the deeper goals and motives of group in social context. There are two motivations underlying prosocial conformity behaviors. From a narrow perspective, prosocial conformity could represent the imitation of other behaviors. On a broad account, prosocial conformity could be a consequence of adopting the group’s prosocial attitude. It is hard to distinguish these two motivations in the current studies. Both of them is motivated by the desire for maintain a positive self-concept. Previous neuroimaging studies found that prosocial conformity is related to brain regions involved in reward processing, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. People have a strong reward participation in the prosocial conformity context because prosocial behaviors are rewarded in the social group. Brain areas that were related to error processing also play a critical role in prosocial conformity. The error processing network is served as an error monitor system in the brain. Before changing, people need to be conscious of the difference in attitude and behaviors between group members and themselves. Previous studies also found that social conformity can be modulated by individuals’ preferences in interpersonal relationships. Prosocial conformity can be modulated by social value orientation, interpersonal trust and interpersonal sensitivity. Compared with pro-selfs, prosocial individuals have stronger tendency to conform with prosocial behaviors. People with high interpersonal trust were more likely to conform to group in an informational decision context, whereas individuals with low interpersonal trust were more likely to be involved in normative conformity pressure. In addition, interpersonal sensitivity can influence prosocial conformity behaviors. Individuals with high interpersonal sensitivity were more likely to follow with others’ prosocial behaviors.
    The direction for future research can focus on the following points. Firstly, researchers can study the stability of prosocial conformity. It can extend our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying prosocial conformity. Secondly, future study can explore the individual differences in prosocial conformity. For instance, we know nothing about whether the individual difference in personality can modulate the effect of conformity on prosocial behavior. Thirdly, in order to understand the law of development in prosocial conformity, we can study the prosocial conformity behaviors in children and adolescents. Fourthly, it is necessary to investigate how mental patients with impaired social function cope with prosocial conformity pressure. For example, we can examine that whether people with major depression disorder is insensitive to the prosocial conformity pressure. Lastly, we can focus on the effect of culture diversity on prosocial conformity. It would be necessary to investigate the difference between collectivism and individualism in prosocial conformity.

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    The mechanism and function of curiosity
    HUANG Qi, CHEN Chunping, LUO Yuejia, WU Haiyan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (4): 723-736.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00723
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    Curiosity has a long history of research and rich definitions and classifications as a common mental state and personality trait. The division and coordination of multiple brain regions enable individuals to form a cognitive process of generating and evaluating prediction error, triggering and mediating curiosity, and producing surprise and new prediction error, so as to reduce the prediction error and information gap between internal states and external environment, and eliminate uncertainty. Curiosity has a significant role in improving cognitive function and maintaining mental and physical health during development. Future research can be further considered from a cross-species, interdisciplinary, and multi-domain perspective to promote the deepening of research topics, the development of research methods, and the application of research results in curiosity.

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    The effect of attachment on the process of emotional regulation
    HUANG Yufei, SHI Pan, CHEN Xu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 77-84.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00077
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    Previous studies based on attachment theory have proved the influence of attachment on emotion regulation. These influences can be manifested in many aspects, such as the choice of emotion regulation strategies, the effect of emotion regulation, and some cognitive processing related to emotion regulation. However, these studies ignore the complexity and diversity of emotion regulation as a process, and therefore cannot answer how attachment can affect emotion regulation. The extended process model divides emotion regulation into three stages, and clearly describes the process of emotion regulation and the relationship between various factors in the process. Combining the extended process model and the attachment theory to look back to previous studies is helpful to find out the relationship among these studies and expand new research directions. From the perspective of the extended process model, it can be found that there are individual differences related to attachment in all the three stages of emotional regulation. Specifically, in the recognition stage, the influence of attachment on emotion regulation is mainly reflected in the cognitive processing related to emotions. Both higher attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are related to lower emotion recognition ability. At the same time, higher attachment avoidance is related to lower emotion recognition ability, and higher attachment anxiety is related to lower emotion regulation self-efficacy. In the selection stage, individuals with different attachment styles have different preferences for the choice of emotion regulation strategies. Most studies have found that individuals with secure attachment prefer to use highly adaptable and efficient strategies (such as cognitive reappraisal), and individuals with insecure attachment styles prefer to use strategies which are less adaptable and efficient(such as hypo-regulation or hyper-regulation). In the implementation stage, most studies have found that both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are significantly positively correlated with emotion regulation difficulties or disorders, but in some studies, high attachment avoidance individuals may not have problem with emotion regulation. In general, many factors are influenced by attachment in the process of emotion regulation, and the extended process model provides a theoretical framework for describing the sequence and causal relationship between these factors. However, there are still many key issues that have not yet been resolved. Future research can be expanded from the following aspects: The influence of attachment on emotional regulation should be explored while paying attention to the impact of environmental factors; New experimental paradigms need to be designed to confirm the continuity of the three stages and explore the reasons why attachment could affect emotional regulation. It is necessary to explore the influence of attachment on the emotion regulation flexibility. In addition, future intervention studies should design more targeted interventions to improve the emotion regulation of insecurely attached individuals.

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    Psychological and behavioral effects of personal names in real world: Evidence and theories
    BAO Han-Wu-Shuang, CAI Hua-Jian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (6): 1067-1085.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01067
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    Personal names not only can influence others' impression and evaluation, but also may affect individuals' own psychology and behavior in real world. Over the past century, psychologists have conducted numerous empirical studies in the domains of decision making, achievement, health, and personality to examine the actual impacts of surnames or given names on individuals. Various dimensions of names (e.g., name uniqueness, name gender, name valence, and name warmth-competence) could, more or less, predict human psychology and behavior (e.g., career/life/economic decisions, career/academic achievements, physical/mental health, criminal behavior, personality traits, psychological needs, and facial characteristics). However, existing evidence is mixed, and current theories are far from adequate. Future studies should examine multiple dimensions of names, deal with methodological problems (e.g., replicability, causality, mechanisms, and cross-cultural generalizability), and try best to develop more systematic and inclusive theories to explain the psychological and behavioral effects of names.

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    Effects of ambient light on mood and its mechanism
    LI Yun, RU Taotao, LI Siyu, CHEN Hanyu, XIE Shuya, ZHOU Guofu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 389-405.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00389
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    As an essential timing factor, ambient light plays a vital role in synchronizing internal biological rhythms with external lighting and dark environments. Meanwhile, ambient light is also a critical mood regulator; its non-image-forming (NIF) effects on mood are especially concerned by researchers. Previous studies have demonstrated that illuminance, correlated color temperature (CCT), and wavelength of ambient illuminance are key physical factors affecting mood. Moreover, unusual lighting patterns such as short lighting periods, artificial lighting during the night, and constant lighting/darkness have destructive effects on emotion and mood that may induce affective disorders such as depression and anxiety.

    To date, the conclusion that short-time light affects emotion is not quite consistent. Studies have found that the NIF effects of short-term light on mood was not only affected by the intensity and spectrum of light, but also modulated by exposure duration, timing, individual characteristics, subjective preferences, and gene types. In a period of time, the longer the subjects received bright light exposure and the earlier they received morning light exposure, the lower their depression score. However, in the short-term lighting experiment of simulating office lighting, prolonged exposure of bright light was not conducive to individuals’ subjective emotional experience; while the positive effect of CCT on emotion may depend on prolonged exposure. It is worth noting that receiving light exposure at different time in a day can advance or delay the circadian rhythms; thus, the timing could also regulate light’s emotional function. In addition, women were found to prefer higher illuminance and lower CCT than men; while young subjects were more sensitive to polychromatic light with shorter wavelength than older subjects. Compared with individuals with PER34/4 genotype, individuals with PER35/5 genotype were more sensitive to light exposure and had a higher risk of depression; the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was also proved to regulate the effect of light on the functional connectivity of the prefrontal cortex in healthy subjects. Lastly, the mechanisms by which light affects mood are shown from two aspects. On the one hand, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells may project light signals to the brain areas responsible for emotion regulation. On the other hand, ambient light may affect mood by altering circadian rhythms, regulating hormone secretion, neurotransmission, and sleep.

    Future research can employ neuroscience technology to simultaneously examine the changes of subjective emotional experience and objective neural activity under multi-levels of illuminance and CCT; and combine multimodal data such as subjective rating, behavioral measurement, physiological response, and neural activity to track the effects of ambient light on mood. Besides, except for the NIF of light, ambient light may convey specific emotional meanings via the visual system, thus leading to various visual experiences transmitted by illuminance or wavelength, or lighting mode (direct or indirect lighting). Therefore, whether the visual perception of light, dominated by rods and cones, also potentially contributes to light's emotional function and how to separate it from the non-visual effects could be a promising direction in future research.

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    Conservation of resources theory in the organizational behavior context: Theoretical evolution and challenges
    LIAO Huahua, HUANG Lei, HU Bin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 449-463.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00449
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    Over the past three decades, the conservation of resources theory (COR) has become one of the most widely applied theories in organizational behavior (OB).

    Hobfoll (1989) proposed COR as a new attempt at conceptualizing the stressor-strain relationship. It highlights that stress is not construed by individual perception but a reaction to objective stressful circumstances; coping in reaction to stress is a dynamic process of exchanging resources between individuals and the environment. Imprinted by Hobfoll’s background as a clinical psychologist studying stress disorder, COR is recognized as a resource-oriented stress model with environmental roots After several major revisions, COR has developed from a stressor-strain model into a motivational theory and built a theoretical framework with several extensions. The dynamic process regarding how people strive to acquire, protect, and build resources helps to explain individual behaviors in reactions to stressors across many organizational contexts. COR also shed light upon how organizations cope with stress.

    From 1989 to 2020, OB literature has accounted for most citations of the 1989 paper that initially introduced COR theory. A great number of empirical studies in the OB field, covering a variety of themes such as job stress, work engagement, creativity, and leadership, investigated the major propositions in COR. These propositions include resource loss and gain spirals, salience of resource gain in the process of resource loss, and more. As a result, COR has become one of the most influential theories for understanding employees’ psychological processes and behavioral motivation. However, OB scholars share concerns about COR that the concept of resource is fuzzily defined and therefore that nearly anything good can be considered a resource. We acknowledge the substantive value of COR in OB literature though it may not sound novel, but we also recommend OB scholars be conscious with its conceptualization while applying COR and not take the value of applying it by granted because of its high citations.

    Applying COR in OB research also faces challenges from other theoretical perspectives. For example, the stress-appraisal theory and the adaption theory provide some contrasting viewpoints on stress. Its origin in clinical psychology also invites problems for OB scholars that they tend to ignore the integrative perspective of COR regarding how the sources of stress and the structure of individual resources evolve in a dynamic process.

    We propose that OB researchers should avoid tailoring COR’s propositions to OB research questions, which often means neglecting its overarching perspective and purposely selecting isolated viewpoints to serve their own research questions, but try to seek balance between the integrative perspective in COR theory and the behavior-focused tradition in OB research in the future.

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    Developmental cognitive mechanism and neural basis of procrastination
    FENG Tingyong, WANG Xueke, SU Ti
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (4): 586-596.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00586
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    Procrastination, as Steel (2007) reviewed, is the phenomenon that individuals voluntarily delay to start or complete an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. The previous studies have indicated that chronic procrastination exists in different cultural backgrounds, with about 15% ~ 20% of adults troubled. Academically, more than 40% of students admit to academic procrastination, and some may even suffer from chronic tendencies. With the rapid development of modern society, the problem of procrastination is more serious and prominent. Obviously, putting off the task irrationally not only does harm to individuals’ study, work, emotion, but also endangers mental health. However, little is known about procrastination concerning the core mechanism of origin, the critical period of its formation, and its corresponding underlying neural substrates. To fill this gap, the current study investigates the core mechanism of procrastinated decision - making which rely on the Temporal Decision Model (TDM) we outlined, and explores the developmental cognitive neural mechanism of procrastination form a behavior - environment - brain perspective, and also sheds light on how to prevent or intervene the procrastination in these critical periods. First of all, the behavioral development measurement of the study aims to use a cross-sectional design to explore the occurrence and developmental characteristics of procrastination, the critical period (sensitive period) and the relevant influence factors (including various environmental and educational variables) of procrastination formation in children with three age groups (6 ~ 8 years, 10 ~ 12 years, and 12 ~ 15 years). And we also investigates the effects or underlying mechanisms of the cognitive abilities such as self-control, long-term value evaluation, time discounting, and emotion regulation on procrastination at each age stage. Meanwhile, the time decision model of procrastination is tested and refined in the study form a developmental perspective. Secondly, on the basis of neural level, procrastination is related to functional deficits in the frontal lobe, limbic system (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus) and other brain regions. Thus, the brain development measurement of the study aims to examine the development of brain structure and brain function in children aged 6 ~ 15 years using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) multimodal imaging techniques (including task, resting, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)), and functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) techniques. Based on the correlation analysis among brain structural data, functional data and behavior data, the study systematically investigates the developmental cognitive mechanisms of procrastination that are influenced by relevant influence factors, such as long-term value evaluation, delay discounting, self-control, emotion regulation and episodic future thinking. In addition, the study intends to build a behavioral - environmental - brain multilevel model for predicting the formation of procrastination in children. By integrating multimodal data on behavior, environment, and brain variables, the influence of environmental variables on procrastination through the malleability of brain structure and function is examined using the mediation analysis and structural equation model. What’s more, considering behavioral intervention for procrastination and malleability of the brain development, the study also sheds light on develop a clinical proposal for the prevention and intervention of procrastination at each critical periods according to the developmental characteristics of each age (including childhood, adolescence, and adult), mainly using intervention training methods, such as episodic future thinking, time management, and emotion regulation, and so on. To sum up, on the one hand, the current study can reap enormous scientific contributions to clarify the neurocognitive mechanism and the rules of development of procrastination; on the other hand, the study further obtain the practical significance for the prevention and intervention against procrastination behavior with exploring the effectiveness of intervention from the perspective of brain malleability.

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    Concepts and evaluation of saturation in qualitative research
    YANG Liping, QI Lidong, ZHANG Bo
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (3): 511-521.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00511
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    With the methodological changes in psychology, more and more researchers tend to accept qualitative research as an effective way to solve psychological problems and serve the public. In a qualitative study, sufficient sample is the guarantee of research validity, and saturation is an indicator used to assess the adequacy of research data. Saturation means that on the basis of the currently collected and analyzed data, further data collection will not help researchers develop a deeper understanding of the story or theory, so there is no need to continue to collect data. The concept of theoretical saturation was first proposed in grounded theory. Then with the development of qualitative research methods, researchers have further created more saturation concepts, including data saturation, code or thematic saturation, meaning saturation, etc. Due to the diversity of saturation and its judgment standards, the relationship between different kinds of saturation are complicated and ambiguous. In addition, previous studies lack operational description and practical guidance for the evaluation of saturation, which leads to the vagueness of the concept of saturation and many difficulties in evaluation. In order to solve these problems, this study clarified the concepts and evaluation methods of four levels of saturation, and provided suggestions for researchers' operations based on comparison and analysis. The four types of saturation occur at different stages of the research process, and each has its own specific connotations. Data saturation, code or thematic saturation focuses on the breadth of collected data, while meaning saturation and theoretical saturation focus on the depth of research data. In terms of evaluation methods and criteria, researchers usually judge data saturation based on the repeatability of initial data; code or thematic saturation is determined based on empirical research results, the emergence of new codes or themes, or saturation coefficients; the results of retrospective empirical analysis or tables of meaning unit are normally used to evaluate meaning saturation; while the assessment of theoretical saturation relies on a process called "continuous comparison" in grounded theory, which focuses on the continuous improvement of the theory. Some problems are discussed in this study. 1) The sample size standard for reaching saturation should be embedded in the specific research process instead of being uniformly set in advance. Because each study has its own uniqueness in terms of questions, purposes, methods, etc., which saturation is extremely sensitive to, the evaluation of saturation should be based on the characteristics of the current research to select an appropriate level of saturation. 2) Due to the logical uncertainty of saturation, a little oversampling would be helpful. The logical uncertainty here means that researchers can only predict the necessity of continuing data collection based on the information that has been collected, which relies on the subjective judgment of researchers, and its accuracy can never be further proved. Oversampling may be an effective way to solve this problem, which means that even if saturation has been achieved, the researcher is recommended to add 2 to 3 personal interviews or 1 to 2 focus group interviews to further confirm. 3) As an important index to evaluate the quality of qualitative research, saturation is not suitable for all qualitative research, such as psychobiography, narrative analysis, etc., which focus on single or a few cases and pay more attention to the integrity of individual stories. In the future, researchers should further focus on the evaluation and testing of saturation in different kinds of qualitative research.

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    Effect of parental marital conflict on child development and its mechanism
    WANG Xuesi, LI Jingya, WANG Meifang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (5): 875-884.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00875
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    Marital relationship is one of the core relationships in family. The conflict in marital relationship is recognized as a factor in accounting for adverse effect on child development. The primary objective of the current review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of parental marital conflict on child development and its mechanism. Furthermore, crucial future direction in this field was proposed based on the existing studies.
    Parental marital conflict had been established as a risk factor for child cognitive and socioemotional development in both theoretical and empirical studies. Specifically, parental marital conflict may lead to poor executive functioning and academic achievement. Moreover, children who experienced parental marital conflict were more likely to show more problem behavior (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problem behavior; the effect on internalizing problem behavior was larger than that on externalizing problem behavior) and social maladjustment (e.g., poor parent-child, sibling, peer, teacher-student, and even adulthood intimate relationship). It should be noted that parental marital conflict had a short-term and long-term effect on children’s cognitive and socioemotional development, and the increasing parental marital conflict may have a more significant effect.
    Guided by process-oriented approach, researchers began to focus on how parental marital conflict affected child development. Children’s cognitive and emotional process and family process were described to clarify the pathways by which parental marital conflict influenced child development. As for children’s cognitive and emotional process, cognitive-contextual framework emphasized the crucial role of children’s cognitive appraisal toward parental marital conflict. Children who viewed parental marital conflict as threatening to themselves or the well-being of family, felt that they were responsible for the conflict, and/or had inadequate skills for successfully coping with the conflict were likely to experience maladjustment. Emotional security theory posited that parental marital conflict undermined children’s emotional security and further development. As for family process, according to family systems theory, parental marital conflict was often accompanied by negative emotion and behavior, which may spillover into parent-child interactions, resulting in ineffective parenting, disagreement over child-rearing, and parent-child triangulation. These negative interactions may carry detrimental consequences for children.
    Moreover, child and environmental factors may moderate the association between parental marital conflict and child development. Specifically, child age and gender may play a moderating role in this association, but the evidence was somewhat mixed. Guided by the biopsychosocial model, the autonomic nervous system functioning in children also served as a moderator of the association between parental marital conflict and child development. Previous studies shed light on the joint action of the two branches of the autonomic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and revealed that opposing action of the PNS and SNS (i.e., coactivation and coinhibition) operated as a vulnerability factor for child development in the context of parental marital conflict, whereas reciprocal action of the PNS and SNS (i.e., reciprocal parasympathetic activation and reciprocal sympathetic activation) operated as a protective factor. As with child age and gender, the evidence for reciprocal parasympathetic activation was also mixed. In addition, the ecological systems theory emphasizes that environmental factors (e.g., family socioeconomic status, social support, and cultural values) may also moderate the effect of parental marital conflict on child development. A high level of family socioeconomic status and social support may buffer the negative effect of parental marital conflict on child development. However, culture value that emphasized family and social harmony may intensify the negative effect.
    Future studies should use individual-centered approaches to examine the effects of different types of parental marital conflict on child development in multiple aspects simultaneously and integrate the multi-mechanism of parental marital conflict on child development. Cross-cultural studies should be carried out to further examine the role of culture in the effect of marital conflict on child development. Additionally, future studies should further examine the cyclical bidirectional association between parental marital conflict and child development.
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    Prevalence of mental health problems among college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020: A meta-analysis
    CHEN Yumeng, ZHANG Yali, YU Guoliang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (5): 991-1004.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00991
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    College students are a huge part and an important member of the young people. Their physical and mental health not only directly affects their own long-term development, but also has a significant influence on the future of the nation. Therefore, the mental health of college students has become the focus of families, schools and even the whole society. In recent years, some studies have conducted meta-analyses on the prevalence of a certain mental health problem (such as depression and sleep problem) among college students in China, but such studies cannot reflect the mental health status of college students comprehensively. And some of the previous studies cannot reflect the current status of contemporary college students’ mental health. Furthermore, the selection of moderator variables was not comprehensive enough to reveal the key factors affecting the prevalence. Therefore, we employed a meta-analysis in this study to estimate the prevalence of typical mental health problems among college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020, and the moderating effects of publication year, measurement tools and detection standards, detection time, region, birthplace, only child or not were further analyzed. For the selection of indicators, mental health problems were divided into two categories: internalizing problems and externalizing problems. The indicators of internalizing problems include anxiety, depression, sleep problem, somatization, and suicidal ideation, while the indicators of externalizing problems include nonsuicidal self-injury and suicide attempt.
    Through the process of literature search and selection, 128 studies (136 effect sizes) of anxiety, 237 studies (244 effect sizes) of depression, 56 studies (58 effect sizes) of sleep problem, 49 studies (49 effect sizes) of somatization, 31 studies (31 effect sizes) of nonsuicidal self-injury, 51 studies (51 effect sizes) of suicide ideation, and 8 studies (8 effect sizes) of suicide attempt were included in this study. Homogeneity test indicated that random effects model was appropriate for the meta-analysis. The p-curve analysis illustrated no publication bias. Ultimately, the results of the main effect test showed that the prevalence rates of sleep problem, depression, nonsuicidal self-injury, anxiety, suicidal ideation, somatization, and suicide attempt were 23.5%, 20.8%, 16.2%, 13.7%, 10.8%, 4.5%, and 2.7%, respectively. The results indicate that internalizing problems, especially sleep problem and emotional problem, are more serious among Chinese college students compared to externalizing problems.
    The results of the moderating effect indicated that (1) The prevalence of anxiety, depression, sleep problem and suicide attempt among college students has increased significantly in the last decade, while the prevalence of self-harm has declined significantly; (2) The prevalence of anxiety, depression, sleep problem, and somatization varied significantly between measurement tools and detection standards, and the prevalence of suicidal ideation differed to a significant extent depending on the detection time. Therefore, the fluctuation of prevalence was accounted by measurement tools, detection standards and detection time. (3) There existed obvious regional differences in the prevalence of sleep problem and suicidal ideation, with the feature of the worst mental health among college students in western China and better mental health among college students in northeastern and central China. (4) The prevalence of mental health problems among demographical variables including gender, only child or not, and birthplace showed no significant difference, which indicated that gender, only child or not, urban or rural areas were not the critical factors influencing college students’ mental health.
    In summary, by employing the method of meta-analysis, this study is the first study to systematically investigate the prevalence of the typical mental health problems of college students in mainland China from 2010 to 2020. The results clarified the controversy over the inconsistent prevalence in previous studies and explored the main reasons for the inconsistent findings. Thus, this meta-analysis is conducive to promoting subsequent studies and educational practice.

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    The theory and application of the Emotions as Social Information (EASI) Model
    LIU Xiaoyu, FU Jingyu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 188-205.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00188
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    The Emotions as Social Information (EASI) model posits that emotional expressions exert interpersonal effects by triggering affective reactions and/or inferential processes in observers, depending on the observer’s information processing and the perceived appropriateness of the emotional expression. Since the EASI model was proposed, it has attracted extensive attention from researchers. Unfortunately, as a rising theory in recent ten years, the EASI model is still less studied in China. What are the unique theoretical contributions of the EASI model compared with other emotion theories? What progress has the EASI model made in recent ten years? What problems have been solved in various fields by using the EASI model? What other issues about the EASI model deserve further attention? To answer the above research questions, this paper discriminates the EASI model with other related theories, such as feelings-as-information theory, the dual-process model, the dual threshold model of anger, emotional contagion theory and affective event theory, to clarify the unique contributions of the EASI model in explaining emotion and related phenomena. Then, we searched and screened the empirical papers which clearly stated that they are based on the EASI model on Google Scholar, and found 63 papers in total. We review the application of the EASI model in the fields of leadership, team, customer service, negotiation and persuasion, and summarize the factors influencing the boundary conditions of the EASI model—the degree of information processing and perceived appropriateness based on the analysis of the 63 empirical papers using the EASI model. Overall, the inferential processes and affective reactions mechanism of the EASI model have been extensively verified in various fields. Among them, there are 33 studies in the field of leadership, 9 studies in the field of teamwork, 8 studies in the field of customer service, 8 studies in the field of negotiation, and 5 studies in the field of persuasion. There are mainly three factors influencing the degree of information processing: epistemic motivation (e.g., need for cognitive closure, personal need for structure, cognitive load), observer’s personality (e.g., implicit personality theory, conscientiousness, moral orientation, regulatory orientation, proactive personality) and employee’s efficiency. There are mainly four factors influencing perceived appropriateness: situational factors (e.g., emotional expression rules, culture, the relationship between the expressor and the observer), emotional expression content (e.g., intensity of the expression, authenticity of the expression, the target of the expression), expressor’s characteristics (e.g., leadership style, gender, race, power, status) and observer’s characteristics (e.g., agreeableness, regulatory orientation, power distance orientation, perceived leadership power). Based on the EASI model, we further integrate the existing research findings of the content structure, mediating mechanisms and boundary conditions of the social function of emotions into an integrated framework. Following our review, we identify avenues for future investigations. Future research should (1) strengthen the systematic verification of the EASI model, such as investigate both of the inferential processes and affective reactions as well as the observer’s information processing and perceived appropriateness at the same time, consider both of the reciprocal emotions and complementary emotions when investigate observer’s affective reactions; (2) enhance the integration of the EASI model with other theories (e.g., the dual threshold model of anger, emotion regulation theory, the adapted elaboration likelihood model); (3) extend the application context of the EASI model, specifically, future study can explore the mixed emotional expressions of one individual in multiple natural interaction situations, investigate the effect when the observer perceives different emotional expressions from different individuals at the same time, explore the possible effect when the observer perceives multiple emotional expressions changes of the same individual on related events at different time points, track the long-term social effect of emotional expressions, and explore the bystander effect of emotional expressions and the application of EASI in new organizational contexts; and (4) improve the measurement methods of inferential processes and affective reactions.

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    Identifying people based on physiognomy: Explanations from cognitive perspective
    ZHANG Chao, WEI Xuhua, LI Yingming
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 308-323.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00308
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    Physiognomy is an important factor in identifying and inferring the individual traits and behaviors. However, its internal mechanism still needs to be further explored. Physiognomy usually refers to individual facial features, mainly including partial features and overall features. The partial features of facial features include the size and shape of the five sense organs, and the thickness of hair, while the overall features of facial features include objective facial width-to-height ratio and subjective facial attractiveness. Based on general cognitive perspective and evolutionary cognitive perspective, then combined with the local and overall features of physiognomy, this paper expounds the process and effect of judging people by physiognomy.

    The general cognitive perspective emphasizes that people study the process of cognition from the perspective of information processing, which emphasizes the process of perception. The individual’s response to physiognomy is mainly a by-product of the brain’s processing of information, which is the processing mechanism for general information. Based on stereotypes, halo effects, status generalization theory, and social information processing theory, scholars use different cognitive processing systems to illustrate the process of getting to know people and their effects. Specifically, local features such as the size and shape of the five sense organs, the thickness of the hair, and overall features such as the facial width-to-height ratio and facial attractiveness can affect individual recognition of traits such as empathy, friendliness, extroversion, self-confidence, narcissism, aggression, dominance and criminological inheritance through different cognitive processing systems. Observers’ subsequent behaviors is based on the individual traits’ information recognized by the physiognomy. On the one hand, people will judge their income, ability, and social level based on the identified individual traits. On the other hand, these individual traits play an important role in the trust decision-making, the recruitment and promotion decision-making process. All in all, physiognomy affects the recognition of individual traits through various cognitive processing systems, and these traits play important roles in judgment (ability, income, social hierarchy) and decision-making (trust, recruitment, promotion).

    Compared with the general cognitive perspective, the evolutionary cognitive perspective emphasizes that in the process of processing information, people will identify which cues are related to health, survival, propagation and adaptation to the environment according to the evolutionary needs. Based on evolutionary theory, evolutionary intrasexual competition theory and the good genes theory, scholars have discussed how to know people and its effect through two different evolutionary selection mechanisms: natural selection and sexual selection. The observer uses the gene as the driving force to identify the observed physiognomy. Observers assessed marital satisfaction, life satisfaction and happiness based on the health and genetic status they identified. In order to meet the needs of evolution and survival, people will choose a mate according to the health and genetic status of the individual identified when observing facial features, combined with the evolutionary law of "survival of the fittest". In conclusion, physiognomy plays an important role in evaluating individual health and genetic status through various evolutionary selection mechanisms, and thus has an important influence on judgment (marriage satisfaction, happiness, life satisfaction) and mate selection decision.

    In addition, the effect of physiognomy on individual life depends on the situations and individual traits. The decision situation of the face viewer, the cultural context of the face owner, and the individual traits of the face viewer and the face owner all influence the effect of physiognomy’s identification. Future research should investigate the interaction among different physiognomy features, and explore the boundary conditions that influence the effect of facial recognition. Furthermore, it is necessary to improve the external validity of the research through big data analysis, and pay more attention to physiognomy features modified by epigenetics on individuals. It is also important to conduct research within the domestic context. In doing so, it will help enrich physiognomy-related research and build a more systematic physiognomy theory.

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    Tall trees catch much wind: Fear of positive evaluation in social anxiety
    YE Youcai, LIN Ronmao, YAN Youwei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (6): 1056-1066.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01056
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    Fear of positive evaluation (FPE) is a key trait to effectively distinguish social anxiety from depressive symptom. It is defined as an emotional response involving fear of and distress about positive evaluation from others. Its role of social anxiety manifests in that it leads individuals with social anxiety to deny the positive evaluation, avoid attention from others, and be in negative mood by themselves. Furthermore, it aggravates individual's cognitive bias, and suppress positive emotions through Disqualification of Positive Social Outcomes (DPSO) and the Interpretation Bias (IB), thereby maintaining and exacerbating the symptoms relating to social anxiety. Future research not only should more consider the application of FPE in education and consultation, but also should pay more attention to its special characters in Chinese modest culture background.

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