ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (7): 761-771.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00761

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

数字空间表征的在线建构:来自干扰情境中数字SNARC效应的证据

王强强1, 张琦1, 石文典2(), 王志伟1, 章鹏程3   

  1. 1湖州师范学院教师教育学院, 浙江 湖州 313000
    2上海师范大学教育学院, 上海 200030
    3浙江外国语学院教育学院, 杭州 310023
  • 收稿日期:2021-09-01 出版日期:2022-07-25 发布日期:2022-05-16
  • 通讯作者: 石文典 E-mail:swd_nx@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    浙江省教育科学规划课题(GH2022058);湖州师范学院人文社科预研究项目(2020SKYY02)

Online construction of spatial representation of numbers: Evidence from the SNARC effect in number processing in interferential situations

WANG Qiangqiang1, ZHANG Qi1, SHI Wendian2(), WANG Zhiwei1, ZHANG Pengcheng3   

  1. 1School of Teacher Education, Huzhou University, Huzhou 313000, China
    2School of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200030, China
    3School of Education, Zhejiang International Studies University, Hangzhou 310023, China
  • Received:2021-09-01 Online:2022-07-25 Published:2022-05-16
  • Contact: SHI Wendian E-mail:swd_nx@163.com

摘要:

尽管已有研究发现数字以空间方式表征在人类记忆系统, 但是人脑如何完成数字的空间表征尚存争议。本研究两个实验在不同比例的数字字母(实验1)和不同比例的数字汉字(实验2)混合情境中考察了数字空间表征特点及其机制, 对上述争议进行了深入研究。结果发现:(1)当数字字母比例为“1 : 1”时, 数字加工中不出现SNARC效应。当数字字母比例为“1 : 6”和“6 : 1”时, 数字加工中均出现SNARC效应。即数字字母比例与数字SNARC效应之间呈倒“U”型关系。(2)数字汉字混合情境中数字汉字比例与数字SNARC效应之间同样呈倒“U”型关系。结果说明:(1)干扰刺激与数字混合呈现会影响数字SNARC效应。(2)干扰刺激加工对数字SNARC效应的影响受到数字与干扰刺激比例的调节, 且具有跨干扰材料的稳定性。研究结果意味着数字的空间表征是人类通过统计学习在线建构的, 支持了工作记忆理论。

关键词: SNARC效应, 数字, 字母, 空间表征, 心理数字线, 工作记忆

Abstract:

When randomly and centrally presenting different numbers on the display and asking participants to classify the probe numbers by pressing specified key of keyboard according to numerical magnitude or parity or numerical other natures, participants invariably respond faster to small numbers with the left key pressing than the right key pressing. However, participants respond faster to large numbers with the right key pressing than the left key pressing. This phenomenon was the spatial-numerical association of the response code (SNARC) effect. Although previous studies believed that the SNARC effect was the product of the spatial representation of numbers in individuals’ brains, it is unclear whether the spatial representation of numbers takes place in individuals’ long-term memory or their working memory. The spatial representation of numbers in long-term memory was caused by individuals’ early cultural experience, especially their reading and writing direction, and even influenced by genetic factors; however, the spatial representation of numbers in working memory was influenced by situational factors such as the provisional order of numbers, cognition tasks, interferential stimuli and was constructed online. When randomly presenting the numbers and other symbols in one experiment and asking participants to classify the numbers and other symbols depending on specific natures, the spatial representation of numbers in long-term memory was not influenced by the randomly presented context. However, the spatial representation of numbers in working memory was influenced by it. Therefore, it can be inferred that the SNARC effect was induced by other spatial representations of numbers in long-term memory or the spatial representation of numbers in working memory in the numbers and symbols randomly presented context.

Therefore, this study randomly presented numbers and letters or Chinese characters and explored the rapid presentation stimulus classification paradigm, in which participants were asked to classify numbers depending on the numerical magnitude and classify letters depending on the letters’ sequence in the alphabet or classify Chinese characters depending on the Chinese characters’ composition among the two experiments to investigate the encoding mechanism of the SNARC effect in processing numbers in the numbers and letters or Chinese characters randomly presented context to reveal whether the SNARC effect was caused by either the spatial representation of numbers in the mental number line of long-term memory, or the spatial representation of numbers in working memory. In addition, both the ratio of numbers to letters and to Chinese characters were manipulated in this study to investigate whether the SNARC effect on processing numbers in interferential situations was moderated by either the ratio of numbers to letters or to Chinese characters. The results show that (1) when both the ratio of numbers to letters were equal, no SNARC effect was captured in the processing of numbers in interferential situations; however, when both the ratio of numbers to letters were “6 to 1” and “1 to 6, ” the SNARC effect appeared in the processing of numbers in interferential situations. That is, an inverted U-shaped relationship existed between the alphanumeric ratio and SNARC effect. (2) The inverted U-shaped relationship between the alphanumeric ratio and SNARC effect can also extend to the processing of numbers in mixed number and Chinese character situations.

In conclusion, these results show that (1) randomly presenting the interference stimulus and numbers in one experiment can influence the SNARC effect in processing numbers by task switching. (2) The SNARC effect in processing numbers was moderated by the ratio of numbers to interference stimuli in interferential situations, regardless of the interference stimulus used. These results imply that spatial representations of numbers are constructed online by humans through statistical learning, and the results support the working memory account for the SNARC effect.

Key words: SNARC effect, numbers, letters, spatial representation, mental number line, working memory

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