ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (3): 248-258.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00248

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

工作记忆负荷对反馈加工过程的影响: 来自脑电研究的证据

贾世伟, 齐丛丛, 陈乐乐, 任衍具()   

  1. 山东师范大学心理学院, 济南 250358
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-19 出版日期:2022-03-25 发布日期:2022-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 任衍具
  • 基金资助:

The effect of working memory load on feedback processing: Evidence from an event-related potentials (ERP) study

JIA Shiwei, QI Congcong, CHEN Lele, REN Yanju()   

  1. School of Psychology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China
  • Received:2021-04-19 Online:2022-03-25 Published:2022-01-25
  • Contact: REN Yanju


个体对行为后反馈结果的加工在学习和环境适应方面有重要意义, 工作记忆负荷(working memory load, WM load)如何影响反馈加工过程尚不清楚。采用双任务范式, 设置基线、低WM load、高WM load三种条件, 结合ERP技术对这一问题进行探究。发现RewP (reward positivity, 奖赏正波)对效价敏感, 而不受WM load条件影响; Theta震荡的正、负反馈差异波在高WM load条件下比在低WM load条件下小。结果支持等级强化学习-前扣带回理论(HRL-ACC, hierarchical reinforcement learning theory of anterior cingulate cortex)对于RewP和theta震荡的观点: RewP反映了反馈效价评估功能, theta震荡反映了认知控制功能, 并且WM load选择性影响了ACC的认知控制功能而不是反馈效价评估功能。

关键词: 工作记忆负荷(WM load), 反馈, 奖赏正波(RewP), theta震荡, 前扣带回


Feedback processing plays an important role in behavior modification and knowledge acquisition. Previous research has explored the neurophysiological basis and psychological functions of feedback processing and proposed corresponding theoretical models, but little is known about how working memory (WM) load affects feedback processing. Studies have reported electrophysiological indicators, such as the reward positivity (RewP) and the related theta and delta oscillations, the P3 and the late positive potential (LPP), during brain processing feedback. This study will further examine how WM load modulates these electrophysiological components and their corresponding cognitive functions.
In the present study, we used a dual-task paradigm to investigate feedback processing under different WM load conditions. This study included 25 healthy college students and used a 3 (WM load: baseline vs. low WM load vs. high WM load) by 2 (feedback valence: positive vs. negative) within-participant factorial design. During the experiment, participants were asked to perform a simple gambling task and a spatial memory task simultaneously, and the magnitude of the WM load included three conditions: baseline, low WM load and high WM load. The RewP generated in the early stage of feedback processing and the LPP generated in the late stage of feedback processing, as well as the delta and theta oscillations related to feedback evaluation, were analyzed.
The behavioral results showed that the accuracy of the low WM load condition was significantly higher than that of the high WM load condition. The electrophysiological results showed that the amplitudes of the RewP were sensitive to feedback valence, with positive feedback evoking larger RewP than negative feedback, but the RewP was not affected by the WM load. There was no difference in the P3 amplitude under the different WM load conditions. For the LPP, there was a significant interaction between the WM load and feedback valence. Further analysis revealed that, in the high WM load condition, the LPP amplitude was larger for positive feedback than for negative feedback. The theta power differences between negative feedback and positive feedback were larger in the low WM load condition than in the high WM load condition. For delta oscillation, the power was increased after positive feedback compared to after negative feedback, but there was no difference at different WM load levels.
The RewP results indicate that the participants process feedback valence information well under all three WM load conditions in the experiment. The LPP results suggest that the participants assigned additional emotional motivation to the feedback outcome as a result of their cognitive efforts under high WM load conditions. The ERP results for the time domain dimension showed that the effect of the WM load on feedback processing was most noticeable in the later stages of feedback processing. Moreover, these observations support the argument that the RewP and theta power reflect distinct cognitive phenomena; namely, the RewP reflects the processing of feedback valence in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), whereas theta oscillations reflect the role of the ACC in cognitive control. The WM load selectively modulates the cognitive control process in the ACC.

Key words: WM load, feedback, reward positivity (RewP), theta oscillation, anterior cingulate cortex