ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (10): 1212-1223.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01212

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


王元1, 李柯2, 盖笑松1(), 曹逸飞1   

  1. 1东北师范大学心理学院, 长春 130024
    2烟台文化旅游职业学院, 山东 烟台 264000
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-16 出版日期:2020-10-25 发布日期:2020-08-24
  • 通讯作者: 盖笑松
  • 基金资助:
    * 教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(17YJC190025);东北师范大学哲学社会科学校内青年基金青年团队项目(中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金)(18QT008)

Training and transfer effects of response inhibition training with online feedback on adolescents and adults’ executive function

WANG Yuan1, LI Ke2, GAI Xiaosong1(), CAO Yifei1   

  1. 1School of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
    2Yantai Vocational College of Culture and Tourism, Yantai 264000, China
  • Received:2019-08-16 Online:2020-10-25 Published:2020-08-24
  • Contact: GAI Xiaosong


本研究以基于即时反馈的Stop Signal范式为训练任务, 考察3周训练是否对青少年和成人的执行功能产生训练效应和迁移效应。发现青少年、成人实验组和积极控制组都出现了训练效应。两个实验组均产生了对反应抑制Go/No-go任务的迁移效应; 但只有青少年实验组出现了对干扰抑制Stroop任务的迁移效应。成人实验组和积极控制组都出现了对2-back任务的迁移效应; 但只有青少年实验组出现了在2-和3-back任务上的迁移效应。所有组别都未能出现对推理能力的迁移。研究证明从青春期到成年期, 基于即时反馈的反应抑制训练能够对执行功能产生训练和迁移效应, 但迁移仅限于抑制和工作记忆等基础成分, 无法改善推理能力。

关键词: 反应抑制训练, 执行功能, 青少年, 即时反馈


The plasticity of executive function (EF) has been discussed as a core topic in the recent cognitive development research. However, inhibition training research remains inadequate. According to dimensional overlap theory, inhibition has two types: interference and response. The neural networks of the brain that respond to conflicts do not mature until early adulthood. By conducting a comparison of the plasticity of response inhibition between adolescents and adults, the applicable age group for response inhibition training is explored. Introducing online feedback as reinforcement improves the training effects and helps individuals to balance further accuracy and speed. Therefore, we added online feedback in the training groups but used the original Stop Signal task in the active control groups to investigate the training and transfer effects of this task with online feedback.
This study included 194 participants (134 adults and 60 adolescents) that were divided into five groups: adult training group (N = 47), adult active control group (N = 45), adolescent training group (N = 30), adolescent active control group (N = 30), and passive control group (N = 42). The response inhibition training consisted of nine sessions, and it was held three times a week. In each training session of the adult and adolescent training groups, participants were guided to finish eight blocks (100 trials in each block) of the Stop Signal task with online feedback. In the adult and adolescent active control groups, participants completed the same amount of the Stop Signal task without online feedback. The passive control group received no training. The participants’ inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence were measured before and after training through six tasks (e.g., Inhibition: Stop Signal Task, Go/No-go Task, and Stroop Task; Working memory: 2-back Task and 3-back Task; and Fluid intelligence: Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices).
A 9 (all training sessions) × 2 (training group, active control group) × 2 (adult, adolescent) repeated measure ANOVA was used to test the training effects. Both age groups exhibited improved performances with the continuation of the training sessions. However, the adults performed significantly faster and more accurate than the adolescents. Next, four 2 (pretest, posttest) × 5 (all five groups) repeated measure ANOVA were conducted to test the transfer effects. The transfer effect results revealed that (1) on the Go/No-go task, both training groups showed significant improvement; (2) on the Stroop task, only the adolescent training group showed significant improvement; (3) on the 2-back task, both training groups and the adult active control group improved significantly; (4) on the 3-back task, only the adolescent training group gained significant transfer effects; and (5) on the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices, no group showed significant improvement.
To sum up, the results suggest that the Stop Signal training task with online feedback has produced training effects on both age groups, and the transfer effects are influenced by the age difference of cognitive plasticity and the nature of the task. Thus, adding online feedback to computerized training can effectively improve the training and the transfer effects. Finally, inhibition training has a more formative effect on the pre-adult age.

Key words: response inhibition training, executive function, adolescents, online feedback