ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (8): 917-930.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00917

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

学校资源与早期青少年心理社会适应的关系:一项潜在转变分析

侯晴晴, 郭明宇, 王玲晓, 吕辉, 常淑敏()   

  1. 山东师范大学心理学院, 济南 250358
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-23 出版日期:2022-08-25 发布日期:2022-06-23
  • 通讯作者: 常淑敏 E-mail:shuminchang102@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    全国教育科学“十二五”规划教育部重点课题(DBA140227)

The relationship between school assets and early adolescents’ psychosocial adaptation: A latent transition analysis

HOU Qingqing, GUO Mingyu, WANG Lingxiao, LV Hui, CHANG Shumin()   

  1. School of Psychology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China
  • Received:2021-02-23 Online:2022-08-25 Published:2022-06-23
  • Contact: CHANG Shumin E-mail:shuminchang102@163.com

摘要:

以1012名初一学生为被试进行3年的追踪研究, 采用潜在剖面分析与潜在转变分析考察了早期青少年心理社会适应的亚组分化与转变情况, 以及学校资源与性别在青少年发展适应中的作用。结果发现:(1)初一时青少年的心理社会适应分化成2个亚组:适应良好组与内化问题组, 初二与初三时青少年分化成4个适应亚组:适应良好组、内化问题组、外化问题组和同伴拒绝组; (2)从初二到初三, 适应良好组和内化问题组的青少年保持了较高的稳定性, 同伴拒绝组和外化问题组的青少年向适应良好组转变的概率最高; (3)拥有更多学校资源的青少年更可能处于或保留在适应良好组, 同时在初二时拥有更多学校资源的外化问题组和同伴拒绝组的青少年在初三时更可能向适应良好组转变; (4)初二时女生更大概率地进入内化问题组。研究结果有助于深化对早期青少年心理社会适应发展模式多样性的理解, 并提示教育人员有必要对青少年适应状况进行全面筛查和动态监测, 以便针对适应亚组和性别特点制定更为复杂的预防和干预方案。

关键词: 学校资源, 早期青少年, 心理社会适应, 潜在剖面分析, 潜在转变分析

Abstract:

Given a broad range of changes in cognitive, emotional, and social relationships, adolescence might mark the beginning of a period of significant fluctuations in psychosocial adaptation because it is a period of preparation for the future that requires special attention and protective measures. The developmental characteristics of different aspects of adolescents’ adaptation have been well studied. However, these previous studies, which have tended to explore various aspects of adolescents’ adaptation in isolation, have been unable to reflect the diversity of adolescents’ adaptation patterns and their variability over time. In addition, exploring and determining school situation-related predictors are essential for helping education professionals understand the relevant factors that affect various profiles and transition patterns of adolescents’ adaptation and, thus, formulate effective prevention and intervention programs to maintain and improve adolescents’ psychosocial adaptation. This study uses a person-centered approach to explore the profiles and transition patterns of early adolescents’ psychosocial adaptation and investigate gender differences and the protective role of school assets.
A sample of 1012 junior middle school students was selected as participants and measured three times. The adolescents completed loneliness, depression, happiness, school assets scales, and peer nomination forms during the three measurements. The head teacher assessed the students’ prosocial and externalized problem behaviors. The descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were analyzed by SPSS 21.0. The profiles and transition patterns of adolescents’ psychosocial adaptation and the predictive effects of school assets and gender were further analyzed using Mplus 7.4.
The results showed that adolescents’ psychosocial adaptation had two profiles at T1: a well-adapted profile and an internalizing problem profile. Adolescents at T2 and T3 were divided into four profiles: a well-adapted profile, an internalizing problem profile, an externalizing problem profile, and a peer rejection profile. From T2 to T3, adolescents in the well-adapted and internalizing problem profiles were more likely to remain in the original group, whereas the peer rejection and externalizing problem profiles showed a higher degree of transition. Adolescents in the peer rejection and externalizing problem profiles were more likely to transition to the well-adapted profile. In addition, school assets were a protective factor for adolescents’ psychosocial adaptation. As school assets increased, adolescents were more likely to be and remain in the well-adapted profile, whereas those in the externalizing problem and peer rejection profiles were more likely to transition to the well-adapted profile. The study also found gender differences in the profiles: at T2, girls were more likely to enter the internalizing problem profile.
This study adds to the understanding of the diversity of the psychosocial adaptation development patterns of early adolescents and suggests the need for comprehensive screening and dynamic monitoring of adolescent adaptation and more complex intervention programs tailored to the specific characteristics of the relevant groups and boys and girls. In addition, identifying the protective role of school assets can help mental health professionals understand the supporting factors in the development of individual health, thereby promoting the positive development of adolescents. Moreover, this study provides a reference for school context-based assessment and intervention strategies.

Key words: school assets, early adolescents, psychosocial adaptation, latent profile analysis, latent transition analysis

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