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心理学报
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学校心理环境对小学4~6年级学生学业表现的作用及条件
周翠敏1;陶沙1;刘红云2;王翠翠1;齐雪1;董奇1,3;中国儿童青少年心理发育特征调查全国项目组
(1北京师范大学认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室, 北京 100875)
(2北京师范大学心理学院, 北京 100875) (3中国基础教育质量监测协同创新中心, 北京 100875)
The role of collective perception of school psychological environment in grades 4~6 students’ academic achievement
ZHOU Cuimin1; TAO Sha1; LIU Hongyun2; WANG Cuicui1; QI Xue1; DONG Qi1,3;The Project Team of National Children’s Study of China
(1 State Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)
(2 School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)
(3 National Innovation Center for Assessment of Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)
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摘要 

本研究基于具有良好全国代表性的中国儿童青少年心理发育特征数据库, 使用多水平建模, 分析了来自全国100个区县421所学校的心理环境特征对10826名小学4~6年级学生学业表现的影响途径及其发挥作用的条件。研究结果表明:(1)小学4~6年级学生学习动机和态度及学业成绩中分别有10.0%和33.3%的变异来自学生个体以外的学校因素。(2)在控制学生年级、性别、家庭背景和学校所在地、师资、学校学生总体家庭社会经济地位(SES)等基本特征后, 学校总体和学生个体知觉两个层次的学校心理环境对学生学习动机和态度的影响均显著大于其对学生学业成绩的影响; 与个体知觉到的心理环境相比, 学校总体心理环境对学生学业成绩的作用相对较强。(3)学校总体心理环境对学生学业表现的影响受到学校所在地、学校师资水平、学校学生总体社会经济地位的显著调节。学校总体心理环境对处于师资水平较低、平均家庭年收入较低学校学生的学习动机和态度具有相对更强的保护作用; 对处于农村、师资水平较低、平均家长文化水平较低学校学生的学业成绩具有相对更强的保护性作用。上述结果表明, 学校总体心理环境对学生学业表现具有重要影响, 个体知觉到的心理环境仅部分中介其作用; 且学校总体心理环境对学生学业表现的作用强度受到学校所在地、师资水平和学校学生总体社会经济地位的调节。

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周翠敏
陶沙
刘红云
王翠翠
齐雪
董奇
中国儿童青少年心理发育特征调查全国项目组
关键词 学校总体心理环境小学生学业表现多水平分析    
Abstract
School psychological environment (i.e., school climate) has been well documented as an important predictor for student academic achievement and social-emotional adjustment. Most previous studies examined the roles of school psychological environment at individual student level, and there is a paucity of research on the roles of the school-level psychological environment. As a vital context for student learning and development, the school-level psychological environment may contribute to students’ academic achievement uniquely beyond individual student’s perception and constitute a unique indicator for school effectiveness. This study aimed to examine the unique roles of students’ collective perception of school psychological environment beyond individual student’s perception in elementary school students’ academic achievement, motivation and attitude. Moreover, this study extended the investigation on the protecting effects of school psychological environment from attenuating the gaps between family background to the gaps between school characteristics (i.e., location, teacher quality and student collective socio-economic status).
Based on the national representative data from the National Children’s Study of China, the collective perception of school psychological environment was measured on school safety and discipline, acceptance and support, equality and fairness, autonomy and cooperation among 12023 4th – 6th graders from 421 elementary schools, 100 counties across the 31 provinces. Other 10826 students from the same grades in the same schools completed a questionnaire about their perception of school psychological environment. Their academic achievement was measured by a questionnaire on academic motivation and attitude, as well as by the standardized tests on reading and mathematics.
Multi-level modeling showed that: (a) There were considerable variances between schools on student’s academic test scores (33.3%), motivation and attitude (10.0%) in grades 4~6. (b) The collective perception of psychological environment at school level significantly accounted for unique parts of variances of both academic test scores and motivation and attitude even controlling for students’ grade, gender, family background, school location, school teacher education level, school collective socioeconomic status and students’ perception of school psychological environment at individual level. The collective perception of school psychological environment accounted for much more variances of academic test scores than academic motivation and attitude. (c) The roles of students’ collective perception of school psychological environment in students’ academic achievement, motivation and attitude were partially mediated by individual student’s perception of school psychological environment (16.7%, and 54.2% respectively). (d) The collective perception of school psychological environment significantly attenuated the gaps in academic motivation and attitude from school teachers’ education level and school collective family income level, and the gaps in academic test scores from school location, school teachers’ education level and school collective family education level.

In conclusion, the collective perception of school psychological environment played important and direct roles in students’ academic achievement, especially for students from more disadvantaged schools. Findings from this study suggested that the collective perception of school psychological environment is an important indicator for assessing basic education quality.

Key wordscollective perception of school psychological environment    elementary school students    academic achievement    multilevel analysis
收稿日期: 2015-05-06      出版日期: 2016-02-25
基金资助:

中国基础教育质量监测协同创新中心专项课题(2013-01-030-BZK01)和国家科技基础性工作专项重点项目(2006FY110400)资助。

通讯作者: 陶沙, E-mail: taosha@bnu.edu.cn   
引用本文:   
周翠敏;陶沙;刘红云;王翠翠;齐雪;董奇;中国儿童青少年心理发育特征调查全国项目组. 学校心理环境对小学4~6年级学生学业表现的作用及条件[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00185.
ZHOU Cuimin; TAO Sha; LIU Hongyun; WANG Cuicui; QI Xue; DONG Qi;The Project Team of National Children’s Study of China. The role of collective perception of school psychological environment in grades 4~6 students’ academic achievement. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(2): 185-198.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00185      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2016/V48/I2/185
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