ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (2): 168-181.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00168

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

PTSD易感性人格特质、工作记忆能力和创伤期间认知加工对模拟创伤闪回的影响

王铭1, 孙启武2, 柳静3, 任志洪2(), 江光荣2()   

  1. 1武汉理工大学心理健康教育中心, 武汉 430070
    2青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 华中师范大学心理学院, 湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室, 武汉 430079
    3湖北中医药大学人文学院, 武汉 430065
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-24 出版日期:2022-02-25 发布日期:2021-12-24
  • 通讯作者: 任志洪,江光荣 E-mail:ren@mail.ccnu.edu.cn;grjiang@yeah.net
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(32171086);国家社科基金重大项目(16ZDA232);青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室(华中师范大学);湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室开放课题基金(20160103);湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室开放课题基金(2019B01)

Effects of vulnerable personality traits of PTSD, working memory abilities and peritraumatic cognitive processing on analogue traumatic flashbacks

WANG Ming1, SUN Qiwu2, LIU Jing3, REN Zhihong2(), JIANG Guangrong2()   

  1. 1Center for Mental Health Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
    2Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University; Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430079, China
    3School of Humanities, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430065, China
  • Received:2021-03-24 Online:2022-02-25 Published:2021-12-24
  • Contact: REN Zhihong,JIANG Guangrong E-mail:ren@mail.ccnu.edu.cn;grjiang@yeah.net

摘要:

基于模拟创伤研究范式, 采用道路交通事故影片对159名健康大学生进行模拟创伤, 考察PTSD易感性人格特质(特质焦虑、特质分离和神经质)、工作记忆能力(注意控制和工作记忆容量)和创伤期间认知加工(数据驱动加工和概念加工)对模拟创伤后不同时段闪回的影响。运用结构方程模型分析数据, 结果发现:(1)数据驱动加工正向预测不同时段闪回(即时闪回、一周闪回和触发闪回)的数量、生动性、痛苦度以及一周侵入频率; (2)神经质正向预测触发闪回痛苦度, 注意控制和工作记忆容量负向预测一周侵入频率; (3)概念加工在注意控制与即时闪回痛苦度之间起中介作用。研究结果提示:数据驱动加工是创伤后不同时段闪回的主要影响因素; 概念加工主要作用于早期急性应激反应, 注意控制是其保护因素; 神经质和工作记忆能力对闪回具有较长期的影响, 且工作记忆能力具有一定的保护作用。

关键词: 模拟创伤, 闪回(侵入性表象), 人格特质, 工作记忆能力, 创伤期间认知加工

Abstract:

Trauma-related flashback (also called intrusive imagery) is one of the most typical re-experience symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and has important impacts on the development of PTSD. The cognitive model of PTSD and the dual representation theory of PTSD both emphasize the effects of abnormal peritraumatic cognitive processing (i.e., data-driven processing or sensational representation being strengthened while conceptual processing or contextual representation being weakened). Some vulnerable personality traits of PTSD and working memory abilities are also focused in studies of analogue and real trauma, and are considered as risk factors and protective factors respectively. This study aimed to examine the effects of vulnerable personality traits of PTSD, working memory abilities and peritraumatic cognitive processing on flashbacks in different periods after analogue trauma.
A total of 159 healthy college students (38 males; age = 17~26 ys, M = 20.44 ± 1.80) participated in the study, who were screened by a self-designed health status questionnaire (e.g., “Did you receive psychotherapy or psychopharmaceutical treatment in recent two years?”), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Self-report Anxiety Scale (SAS). In the laboratory, they were asked to watch a 14’34’’ long Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) film alone. Trait anxiety, trait dissociation, neuroticism and attentional control were measured before watching the film respectively by State-trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version (STAI-T), Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II), the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale for Chinese (EPQ-RSC), and Attentional Control Scale (ACS), while working memory capacity was tested by a revised Operation Span Task (OSPAN) seven days later. Immediately after the film, data-driven processing and conceptual processing were measured by Thoughts and Feelings Questionnaire-Chinese Revised (TFQ-CR). Five minutes after the film, participants firstly read a standardized description about the film-related flashback until they fully understood it with the help of the experimenter, and then reported immediate flashback (number, vividness and distress level). In the following week after the laboratory portion, participants independently reported flashback at three regular time points every day through WeChat or QQ. Upon coming back to the laboratory, they reported the frequency of posttraumatic symptoms through the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and triggered flashback after finishing a single-blind fake task assessing the degree in which they liked (10 relevant to the film).
Structural equation model (SEM) and Bootstrap method were mainly adopted in the statistical analyses. Results showed that data-driven processing positively predicted the number, vividness and distress level of all three kinds of flashbacks (i.e., immediate, one-week and triggered) and one-week frequency of intrusion; higher neuroticism predicted higher distress level of triggered flashback; attentional control and working memory capacity both negatively predicted one-week frequency of intrusion. Conceptual processing played a mediating role between attentional control and distress level of immediate flashback. Furthermore, attentional control was positively associated with conceptual processing, whereas conceptual processing negatively predicted distress level of immediate flashback.
These findings suggest that data-driven processing is the main factor influencing flashbacks in different periods after trauma; conceptual processing mainly affects the early acute stress response, while attentional control functions as a protective factor; neuroticism and working memory ability have long-term effects on flashback, and working memory ability serves as a protective factor.

Key words: analogue trauma, flashback (intrusive imagery), personality trait, working memory ability, peritraumatic cognitive processing

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