ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (9): 997-1006.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00997

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

特质焦虑对急性心理性应激反应的预测 *

彭惠妮1, 吴健辉1, 孙小方2, 关青1, 罗跃嘉1()   

  1. 1 深圳大学心理与社会学院, 深圳 518060
    2 清华大学工业工程系, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-04 出版日期:2018-09-15 发布日期:2018-07-27
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金资助项目:应激下情绪与记忆的认知神经机制(项目批准号:31530031)重点项目;国家自然科学基金资助项目:社区正常老化及轻度认知障碍的多维评估与实证研究(项目批准号:31571129)面上项目;国家自然科学基金资助项目:皮质醇觉醒反应预测脑功能(项目批准号:31771246)面上项目

Trait anxiety predicts the response to acute psychological stress

PENG Huini1, WU Jianhui1, SUN Xiaofang2, GUAN Qing1, LUO Yuejia1()   

  1. 1 College of Psychology and Sociology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, China
    2 Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2017-09-04 Online:2018-09-15 Published:2018-07-27

摘要:

急性应激反应使得个体在紧急情况下迅速调动心理生理资源, 从而更好地面对当前的挑战。本研究采用特里尔社会应激测试(Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), 以心率和唾液皮质醇为应激反应指标, 在控制了性别、年龄和受教育时间三个人口学变量的条件下, 探讨特质焦虑对急性心理性应激反应的预测作用。结果发现:(1) TSST成功地诱发了被试的应激反应, 表现为心率加快和唾液皮质醇含量升高; (2)分层回归结果显示, 特质焦虑对急性应激状态下的心率变化具有预测作用, 对唾液皮质醇变化的预测效应未达到显著水平。上述结果表明特质焦虑和急性应激反应的快反应指标——交感神经系统——密切相关, 特质焦虑水平越高, 急性应激状态下的交感神经系统反应越小。特质焦虑水平较高的个体可能由于长期的焦虑造成心肌细胞的过度消耗, 从而导致急性应激反应受限。

关键词: 特质焦虑, 急性心理性应激, 心率, 唾液皮质醇, 预测

Abstract:

Recently, An increasing number of studies are focusing on individual differences in response to acute psychological stress. Emerging evidence suggests that personality, especially trait anxiety, might be a significant predictive factor of individual difference in response to acute stress. Most of the previous studies have taken trait anxiety as a categorical (discontinuous)construct. However, a full-range analysis of trait anxiety could result in greater statistical power and less parameter estimation bias. The present study aims to examine whether and how the continuum of trait anxiety scores predict the acute psychological stress response induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) while controlling for the potentially confounding factors of gender, age and education years.
A total of 54 healthy students (35 males, 19 females), aged 18~25 years (mean: 22.57 ± 1.67) and educated for 13~18 years (mean: 15.89 ± 1.34), were recruited from universities in Beijing. Several inclusion criteria were employed to control for potential factors influencing the stress response (see 2.1 for details). The acute psychological stress was induced by the TSST and the stress response was measured with heart rate (the index of the response in sympathetic adrenal medulla) and salivary cortisol (the index of the response in hypothalamus pituitary-adrenal). Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized to study how trait anxiety predicts the heart rate and salivary cortisol response toward stress.
The result showed that the TSST elicited significantly acute psychological stress responses. Specifically, both heart rate and salivary cortisol during the TSST were higher than that measured at any other time points. Regression analysis corroborated that after controlling for gender, age and education years, trait anxiety significantly and negatively predicted heart rate response (β = -0.35, p < 0.01), but not salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress.
The present findings suggest that trait anxiety is a powerful predictor of sympathetic adrenal medulla response, i.e., individuals with higher level of trait anxiety perform lower sympathetic nerve activity in rapid response to acute psychological stress. Individuals with high trait anxiety may experience long-term anxiety in their daily life and chronic consumption of psychophysiological resources, thereby resulting in the limited response to acute stressors.

Key words: trait anxiety, acute psychological stress, heart rate, salivary cortisol, predict

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