ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2009, Volume 17 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    The Bottleneck Theories of Attentional Blink
    ZHANG Ming;WANG Ling-Yun
    2009, 17 (1):  7-16. 
    Abstract ( 2290 )   PDF (726KB) ( 1933 )  
    This review summarized the studies on the bottleneck theories of attentional blink. It mainly contains three parts. The first, four theories as two-stages model, central-interference theory, temporary loss of control (TLC) model and the delayed engagement of attention hypothesis, indicated that the bottleneck in higher central processing produced the attentional blink; the second, input-filter and target-template hypothesis illustrated that there is a control bottleneck in target selection of attentional blink; the third, simultaneous type, serial token model (ST2 model). Finally, the limitations in bottleneck theories of attentional blink embodied in the two areas, the bottleneck theories couldn’t explain all the phenomena in attentional blink and the theories themselves were imperfect
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    Viewpoint-dependence on Object Recognition and Mental Rotation
    LI Shi-Qi;ZHOU Guo-Mei
    2009, 17 (1):  17-21. 
    Abstract ( 1721 )   PDF (704KB) ( 1416 )  
    The performance of object recognition depends on the viewpoints of objects, which is very similar to the performance of mental rotation. Therefore, some researchers believe that mental rotation accounts for the viewpoint-dependence in object recognition. While others argue that object recognition is dissociated from mental rotation. There are a lot of behavioral and neurosciences research in support of both theories. However, most of the existing behavioral evidences are indirect and not convincing. Further researches are suggested to focus on directly manipulating the factors influencing mental rotation and object recognition. And behavioral experiments should be combined with such on-line techniques as eye-movement and neuroimaging in future research
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    The Concentric Model of Working Memory
    ZHENG Yun-Jia; JIN Zhi-Cheng
    2009, 17 (1):  22-28. 
    Abstract ( 1227 )   PDF (711KB) ( 1245 )  
    The Concentric Model of Working Memory specifies three regions in which memory contents can be held: the focus of attention, the region of direct access, and the activated part of long-term memory. This article reviews the main research methods and the latest evidence of the model, followed by its theoretical contributions to the study of working memory, including providing explanations for the capacity of the focus of attention, the relationships between storage and processing, and individual differences in working memory capacity. Moreover, the article discusses the relationships between the model and other working memory models, namely Cowan’s embedded-process model, Baddeley’s multi-component model, and Engle’s opinions of working memory. In the end, the article makes some suggestions for further research
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    Emotion Effects on Interval Timing
    MA Xie;TAO Yun; HU Wen-Qin
    2009, 17 (1):  29-36. 
    Abstract ( 1434 )   PDF (715KB) ( 1881 )  
    Interval timing perception is vulnerable to emotion, which can result in the deviation of perceived duration from actual. Recently, based on maturing scalar timing model and related neurological evidence, also the use of standardized emotion-induced materials, researchers provide a better understanding in two arousal effects of emotion: of physiology and of attention, both of which affect the processing of duration. According to the research, the former effect may increase perceived duration while the latter may decrease it, with different characteristics respectively in the process. This article gives a survey to the latest researches on emotional effects in timing perception. And three supplements, namely, seeking methods to distinguish the two effects, taking the memorial factors into account and increasing variable level and number during the research, are proposed to support further study
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    Anchoring Effect in Judgment and Decision-making
    Wang Xiao-Zhuang, Bai Xue-Jun
    2009, 17 (1):  37-43. 
    Abstract ( 2402 )   PDF (714KB) ( 3524 )  
    The anchoring effect has been well-established in the field of judgment and decision making and verified across many different domains since it was first proposed by A. Tversky and D. Kahneman. Researchers have proposed different types of anchoring effects, research paradigms to study them, and different theoretical viewpoints on the psychological mechanisms underlying these phenomena. This paper reviews the latest research on anchoring effect and discusses several areas that should be explored in future studies. Specifically, more research is needed to investigate the neuropsychological mechanisms of anchoring effects, other external influences and factors, and the positive and negative impacts anchoring effects have on behavior
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    The Influences of Mood Proxy Variables to Investor Decision-making
    Li Ai-Mei;Tan Qing-Fang
    2009, 17 (1):  44-50. 
    Abstract ( 2059 )   PDF (715KB) ( 1963 )  
    Mood proxy variables refer to the noneconomic variables which have an impact on investors’ judgments to the asset market, such as weather, biorhythms, lunar phases, beliefs, social events, asset images etc. Being similar to “butterfly effect”, investors always made ignorance to these impacts. However there were some researches showing that they had induced great fluctuations on the stock market. This article summarized the influences induced by two kinds of mood proxy variables (the “misattribute” variables and the “heuristic” variables) to investor decision-making. These researches not only brought benefits to investors from understanding the effects of the mood, but also provided evidences for the government to take polices and control the market
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    A Review of the Studies on Need for Cognitive Closure
    LIU Xue-Feng;ZHANG Zhi-Xue
    2009, 17 (1):  51-55. 
    Abstract ( 2209 )   PDF (705KB) ( 2432 )  
    Need for Cognitive Closure is one of individuals’ stable cognitive characters. It describes individuals’ motivation to process information systematically when people are facing ambiguous situations. Many researchers found that need for cognitive closure has significant influence on individuals’ information processing and decision making. Generally speaking, individuals with high dispositional need for cognitive closure are more likely to rely on heuristics to make decisions, so they commit to cognitive traps such as over-attribution and primacy effect more frequently. Even though most researchers regarded need for cognitive closure as a stable cognitive character, others found that it could be changed to some degree by environmental factors such as noise in a short term. Thus, in a specific study need for cognitive closure can either be measured by a scale, or be manipulated by changing the level of environmental noise or time pressure. Previous literatures have some limitations as well. Firstly, few studies have been done to investigate how to make people with high dispositional need for cognitive closure to process information systematically. Secondly, almost all of the studies were conducted in laboratories so their external validity may suffer. Thirdly, even though it seems obvious that need for cognitive closure could be applied to the area of conflict research, this promising topic has been neglected totally so far. More studies are expected to overcome those limitations
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    Researches on Cross-linguistic Syntactic Priming
    JIA Yue-Fang;CHEN Bao-Guo
    2009, 17 (1):  56-63. 
    Abstract ( 1817 )   PDF (718KB) ( 1575 )  
    The paper firstly introduced the methods of cross-linguistic syntactic priming, such as picture description, sentence complementarity and sentence recall, then analyzed and summarized the main issues of cross-linguistic syntactic priming. It included that the influence of word order and lexical factor on the cross-linguistic syntactic priming; the magnitude difference between within language and cross languages syntactic priming. After that, a main model of bilingual syntactic priming was introduced. Finally, some questions which need further study were also put forward, for example, the effects of word order and lexical factor on the cross-linguistic syntactic priming
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    The Knowledge Structure and Diagnostic Reasoning of Medical Experts
    WANG Yan;YAO Mei-Lin
    2009, 17 (1):  64-70. 
    Abstract ( 1713 )   PDF (728KB) ( 904 )  

    The discovering of ‘intermediate effect’ in medical expertise research inspires researchers to explore the knowledge structure of medical experts. On the basis of ‘knowledge encapsulation’, medical experts’ knowledge is organized with ‘illness script’. With the accumulation of clinical experiences, medical experts acquire ample ‘illness scripts’. On diagnostic reasoning, they needn’t carefully and systematically analyze all the signs and symptoms of the patient, but activate the matching ‘illness script’ automatically and make a diagnosis. This activation, called non-analytic, is based on recognition of either an instance or a pattern. The nature of medical expertise lies in the knowledge organization of the medical expert. ‘Adaptive expertise’ represents the future direction of expertise research

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    Fast Mapping in Word Learning Process
    CHEN Yong-Xiang;ZHU Li-Qi;Twila TARDIF;
    MENG Xiang-Zhi;Rachel PULVERMAN
    2009, 17 (1):  71-77. 
    Abstract ( 2171 )   PDF (716KB) ( 2334 )  
    Word learning plays an important role in language acquisition and influences the development of other cognitive domains. Susan Carey suggested first that it involved a Fast Mapping process in word learning when she was investigating the phenomenon of children’s highly-expanded vocabulary. Many researchers studied the mechanism of Fast Mapping during the last two decades. One kind of researchers suggests that children can use a set of “cognitive biases” to guess the meaning of a new word. The second kind of researchers emphasize that language environmental factors, such as word frequency, utterance final position, influence Fast Mapping process. The newest research trends, such as Emergentist Coalition Model (ECM) and the Bayesian Inference Model of word learning, tend to believe that both cognitive ability and language environment are important for fast mapping; however, these theories are not unanimous as referring to the influencing time and proportion of the two factors
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    Infants’ Core Systems of Number Cognition
    LIU Feng;CHEN Xu
    2009, 17 (1):  78-85. 
    Abstract ( 1146 )   PDF (754KB) ( 1074 )  
    Based on the brief review of generation process of the two core-system hypothesis, the essay mainly analyses the core point, working mechanism and experimental basis of the two core-system hypothesis, including the experimental basis on the small precise representative system and large approximate representative system。Finally, the problem and dispute of behavior and brain physiological mechanism are discussed, as well as the contradiction result and method limitation, and seven urgent problems are explored such as the baby’s number cognition depends on independent system or multiple systems and so on
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    Cognitive Aging and the Brain: HAROLD Model Debate
    FU Yan;WANG Da-Hua
    2009, 17 (1):  86-91. 
    Abstract ( 2151 )   PDF (717KB) ( 1278 )  
    HAROLD model (Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults) refers to the phenomenon that brain activation during cognitive performance tends to be less lateralized in older adults than in younger adults. Since the proposal of the model, a lot of studies have been elicited. In recent years, a series of studies have provided much evidence in support of this model from different fields, such as memory, inhibition, language, sense-motor process and brain structure. However, other studies have argued against the model, in particular its explanation of the compensation hypothesis. By analyzing the literatures in light of these two aspects, it is suggested that HAROLD is a task-specific model and that other hypotheses other than the compensation view can also explain the age-related differences in functional brain imaging. A unified operational definition of brain activation could be useful in further clarifying these issues
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    Academic Emotions and Its Influencing Factors
    XU Xian-Cai; GONG Shao-Ying
    2009, 17 (1):  92-97. 
    Abstract ( 3006 )   PDF (705KB) ( 5078 )  
    Academic emotions refer to various emotional experiences in connection with students’ academic activities in the teaching or learning process. Its antecedents mainly include individual’s self-cognition, achievement goals, cognitive ability and social environments such as class, family, instruction, etc. Furthermore, the relationship between social environment and academic emotions is mediated by self-cognition. In addition, academic emotions are organized in a domain-specific manner. In the future, more attention will be paid to the conceptual definition, construct and development characteristics of academic emotions. At the same time, it is necessary to give attention to academic emotions of the special students and make some positive intervention to help students avoid negative emotions
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    The Property and Neural Mechanism of Temporal Discounting
    HE Jia-Mei;HUANG Xi-Ting
    2009, 17 (1):  98-105. 
    Abstract ( 2046 )   PDF (749KB) ( 1729 )  
    Temporal discounting is a psychological phenomenon which the value of event decreases as time , it’s the important component of behavioral choice theory. The property and mechanism of temporal discounting is reviewed. The attention is concentrate on the function of temporal discounting which display the process of its value discount with the time (exponential function ,hyperbolic function, and q- exponential function), the relation of the temporal discounting and the probability discounting, theory of delayed and accelerated temporal discounting and discussion on neural mechanism about temporal discounting. Some problems in the future researches are proposed
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    Neural Mechanism of Creative Thinking
    LIU Chun-Lei;WANG Min;ZHANG Qing-Lin
    2009, 17 (1):  106-111. 
    Abstract ( 2193 )   PDF (724KB) ( 3054 )  
    Creative thinking is the fundamental part of creativity. At present, neural mechanism of creative thinking is becoming more and more interesting to cognitive neuroscientists with Electroencephalogram (EEG), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and other neuroimaging techniques. The present article reviewed recent studies of the biological correlates of creative thinking (e.g., insight, divergent thinking, remote associate, contrast of verbal and figure creative activity). Those results showed that creative thinking is associated with several key regions of the brain in different cognitive tasks. Finally, problems existed in past studies and prospects in the future were discussed briefly
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    Brain Mechanisms involved in Humor Processing
    WU Hai-Yan; FU Gen-Yue; ZANG Yan-Hong
    2009, 17 (1):  112-117. 
    Abstract ( 1991 )   PDF (1059KB) ( 2624 )  
    Humor is an universal however unique phenomenon of which the studies are with a considerable applied value. Current researches on neural mechanisms of humor has carried out in normal and special individuals, which mainly involved the two-stage model and neural mechanisms of humor processing, the cognitive and affective factors in the humor processing, as well as individual differences and the the brain asymmetry in humor processing. Future research should focus on the more complicated model of humor processing and exploring the relationship between.humor and other cognitive process from a broader vision
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    Mirror Neuron System: Retrospect and Prospect
    HU Xiao-Qing;FU Gen-Yue;SHI Zhen-Yan
    2009, 17 (1):  118-125. 
    Abstract ( 2751 )   PDF (716KB) ( 2947 )  
    The finding of mirror neuron system engenders researchers to understand human beings’ various domains of social cognition from a unifying neural mechanism. Mirror neurons in macaques’ F5 area enabled them to decipher others’ goal-directed action at an abstract level. Using brain imaging techniques, it has been found that the human beings’ mirror neuron system could map the observation of external action on internal motor representation, which warrants human beings to conduct social activities like imitation, language comprehension, understanding others’ intentions as well as emotions via embodied simulation. Moreover, MNS has been evidenced to play a vital role in social interaction. Finally, several possible directions for future researches are discussed: the function of MNS underlying theory of mind, relations between self-other question and MNS, the influence of factors like experience and motivation on the activity of MNS
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    Reasons Block Extinction of Conditioned Fear Memory
    AN Xian-Li ;WANG Wen-Zhonga;ZHENG Xi-Geng
    2009, 17 (1):  126-131. 
    Abstract ( 1260 )   PDF (762KB) ( 1489 )  
    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a kind of anxiety disorder which developed after severe trauma. The key of treatment for this disorder is to extinct the conditioned fear memory acquired in trauma. But the most effective exposure therapy can’t repress fear memory efficiently. Researches from animal model of fear conditioning showed that: enhancing effects of emotional arousal, secondary-order conditioning and reconsolidation of fear memory, deficient function of medial prefrontal cortex etc all are reasons block the extinction of fear memory. According to these reasons,corresponding treatment ways can be explored and developed
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    Intervention Measure and the Effect on Training Transfer
    WEI Jun;WEI Yan-Yan
    2009, 17 (1):  138-146. 
    Abstract ( 1947 )   PDF (735KB) ( 1286 )  
    After reviewed the research about organizational intervention of training transfer, the major three aspects have been discussed including pretraining invention, mid-training invention and posttraining invention. We summarized the various types of intervention factors and their effect on training transfer. We pointed out the limitations of actual theory and several areas such as the interaction between organization and individual for future research.
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    Transformational Leadership Style and its Mediators: An Integrative Perspective
    SONG Ji-Wen;SUN Zhi-Qiang;MENG Hui
    2009, 17 (1):  147-157. 
    Abstract ( 1403 )   PDF (756KB) ( 2159 )  
    Although research findings on the relationship between transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness are legion, there is a lack of systematic examination of the mediators. The mediating mechanisms could be investigated along three paths, (1) re-assessment of the psychological cognition, (2) re-evaluation of the social relationship, and (3) re-interpretation of the work environment. Future research on the mediating mechanisms of transformational leadership needs to be conducted from multi-level and cross-cultural perspectives
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    “Opening the Black Box”: The Development and Prospect on the Mediating Variable for the Transformational Leadership
    YU Bo;LIU Xin-Mei
    2009, 17 (1):  158-164. 
    Abstract ( 1969 )   PDF (715KB) ( 1883 )  
    The research for the mechanism of how transformational leadership takes effect is popular at present. It is generally agreed that psychological empowerment mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness. As the main dimensions of psychological empowerment, meaningfulness and self-efficacy significantly mediate the relationship. It is also reported that trust and organizational justice significantly mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance. In addition, leader-member exchange and job characteristics play the mediating role between transformational leadership and subordinate behavior. In the future, goal setting will be explored as a different way for explaining the effects of transformational leaders
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    Review and Prospect on the Research of Personal Initiative
    JIANG Lin-Feng;YUAN Deng-Hua
    2009, 17 (1):  165-171. 
    Abstract ( 1980 )   PDF (730KB) ( 2185 )  
    Personal initiative is a work behavior defined as self-starting and proactive, that overcomes barriers to achieve a goal and task, characterized by the following aspects: self-starting, proactive, and overcoming barriers. It can be measured both qualitatively and quantitatively, by incorporating behavioral interviews and self-report surveys. The core antecedents of personal initiative are differentiated into proximal and distal causes. Scholars have previously suggested that proximal causes—orientations—should be more predictive of personal initiative than the distal causes, and the distal causes may influence personal initiative through the proximal causes. Our study advancing future research into personal initiative will focus on the following aspects: (1) the impact mechanism of leadership variables on employee’s personal initiative; (2) the impact mechanism of the organizational variables on personal initiative; (3) examining the construct validity of the personal initiative scale, and developing more scientific and feasible measures; and (4) exploring the moderate variables between personal initiative and important performance
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    A Review of Research on Workplace Spirituality
    WANG Ming-Hui;GUO Ling-Ling; FANG Li-Luo
    2009, 17 (1):  172-179. 
    Abstract ( 1309 )   PDF (714KB) ( 1156 )  
    Workplace spirituality was described as the inner psychology level beyond that taken place in the context of working. It could be nourished through meaningful work, connectedness or community, in order to experience ultimate meaning and purpose of one’s life and to live an integrated life. Through reviewing the state of workplace spirituality including the conception, method and hotspot of the research, the authors pointed out some promising domain of the research that should be conducted in terms of theory and practice, such as giving the definition and construct of spirituality, using the new paradigm to explore the system that the spirituality influenced the staff
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    Research on Cultural Intelligence: Review and Prospect
    GAO Zhong-Hua;LI Chao-Ping
    2009, 17 (1):  180-188. 
    Abstract ( 1774 )   PDF (717KB) ( 3104 )  
    Cultural intelligence (CQ) is defined as individual’s ability to contact with people from other cultures effectively. The structure and measurement of cultural intelligence, the relationship between cultural intelligence and other constructs, and various development methods of cultural intelligence have become hot topics in present researches. Additionally, some empirical studies have consistently found the influence of cultural intelligence on some important variables, such as cognitive outcomes, affective outcomes, and behavioral outcomes. In this paper, we summarized some theoretical and empirical studies on CQ, and point out some prospects and trends for future research
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    The Retrospect and Prospect of Spreading of Alternatives Effect
    CAO Wen;CHEN Hong;GAO Xiao;YE Lin
    2009, 17 (1):  189-196. 
    Abstract ( 1414 )   PDF (719KB) ( 1241 )  
    The spreading-of-alternatives effect is the consequence that attitude change followed dissonance. When people have to make a choice between two alternatives, they often evaluate the chosen alternative substantially more positively than the rejected alternative after they have made their decision. Many models of dissonance proposed their own explanations of the spreading-of-alternatives effect, such as self-related models and action-based model. Currently, researches on this topic focusing on brain mechanism have supported the action-based model as indexed by left frontal cortical activation. However, on the other hand, some studies on cultural differences have provided evidences for self-related models. This article reviewed the main researches on the following aspects, including research paradigms, psychological and physiological mechanism and cultural effect. It is hoped that it will improve researches on dissonance theory and assist in connecting the large body of dissonance theory. Moreover, attention should be paid to the relation between dissonance reduction and mental healthy in the future
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    Autonomous-Controlled Motivation Effects and Their Application
    HU Xiao-Yong;GUO Yong-Yu
    2009, 17 (1):  197-203. 
    Abstract ( 1527 )   PDF (714KB) ( 2584 )  
    Self-determination theory (SDT) is a new cognitive theory of motivation. SDT maintains that motivation can be divided into autonomous motivation and controlled motivation. And these two motivations are not necessarily opposite dimensions but, rather, relate to each other in a quasi-simplex fashion. SDT also posits that there are five different types of motivation that vary according to their level of autonomy, which reflects the aspects of quality of motivation. A great number of studies show that autonomous motivation and controlled motivation have different effects, and autonomy supportive contexts are the most important factors proved to facilitate motivation internalization. Future studies should improve on the research methods, and be more conducted on the application studies. Besides, more studies based on the Chinese culture are needed
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    A Brief Introduction of Existential Anxiety Research
    CHEN Jian;WANG Dong-Yu
    2009, 17 (1):  204-209. 
    Abstract ( 2428 )   PDF (705KB) ( 1958 )  
    Existential Anxiety is one of definitions of anxiety ontology, and is one of the important concepts in philosophy, literature and psychology. The theory mainly includes anxiety ontology put forward by Rollo May, existential anxiety by James F. T. Bugental and the interaction between existential anxiety and mental health. However, the present method of study -- scale measurement, is still immature. There is not much empirical research which focuses on the relation between existential anxiety and mental health, existential anxiety and self-identity, existential anxiety and anxiety and depression, and so on . Enrichment of the study of conception, broadening of objects of study, improvement of approaches of research are the trends of research in this field
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    A Summary of Researches on Flow
    REN Jun1 SHI Jing1 MA Tian-Yu
    2009, 17 (1):  210-217. 
    Abstract ( 2155 )   PDF (739KB) ( 2240 )  
    Flow is a kind of important positive emotions, and it is emotional experience which occurs when one shows eager interest in a particular activity or thing, making him/her act in total involvement. Flow experience includes nine characteristics which are balance of perceived challenge and skills, the merger of action and awareness, clear goals, unambiguous and immediate feedback, concentration on the task at hand , a sense of control over the outcome of the activity, lack of self-consciousness, transformation of time and autotelic experience. Psychological researches on flow have mainly focused on its own nature and its applications by interview, questionnaire and ESM
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    Review of Superstition Research
    CHEN Yong-Yan;ZHANG Jin-Fu;LI Jian
    2009, 17 (1):  218-226. 
    Abstract ( 2565 )   PDF (716KB) ( 2941 )  
    Superstition has been a hot research topic of western psychology circle all the while, but few Chinese psychological researchers have give enough value to it. This article domestic the superstition researches of home and intonation and tallied up the shortage of present superstition researches from 3 factors of superstition, such as: the definition, theories and the impact. First of all, so far, the definition of superstitious hasn’t been unifying. Secondly, there is a long way, which makes the theories of the superstition perfectly. What’s more, the result of the superstition research to the influencing factors, and the superstition scales of reliability, validity and applicability of cultural need a more deeply examination. We should peruse the superstition content, explore the measuring scales and positive study in the future research
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    Psychological Researches on Antarctic Expeditioners
    YAN Gong-Gu;YE Qian
    2009, 17 (1):  227-232. 
    Abstract ( 1766 )   PDF (707KB) ( 1679 )  
    The unusual isolated and confined environment (ICE) in Antarctica is harsh and challenging for all of the people who try to visit and explore it. Meanwhile, the extreme environment provides a natural laboratory for the study of psychology, human behavior and social sciences. Winter-over syndrome and the third-quarter effect occurred commonly for most of people with various degrees. Positive experiences by winter-over staffs were highlighted in recent studies. This paper summarizes main psychological research findings and development on polar psychology in past three decades, including winter-over syndrome, adaptation process, personality research, behaviors and performances in station cultures. Some significant topics for further study are proposed
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    Uniform Design: Exploring Application in Psychological Experiment
    FAN Hui-Yong;YANG Xin-Guo;ZHANG Jin-Fu
    2009, 17 (1):  233-239. 
    Abstract ( 1847 )   PDF (737KB) ( 1066 )  
    Uniform design was a new experimental design developed by Chinese statisticians, which developed from orthogonal experimental design. The characteristic Repetition of orthogonal experimental design was removed, but the characteristic Uniformity was remained and emphasized. The number of experiments equaled the number of treatments combinations. After the step of choosing right table of uniform design, it was the step arranging the selected treatment combinations. Uniform design was capable of dealing with number of experimental treatments in psychology, ranging from 2 to 18, especially in exploring experiments. Uniform design could deal with not only the continuous variables, but also the discrete variables
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    Thanks to all reviewers
    2009, 17 (1):  240-240. 
    Abstract ( 950 )   PDF (500KB) ( 885 )  
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