ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2009, Volume 17 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    International Cooperation in Psychology at the Regional Level:
    The European Example
    Kurt Pawlik
    2009, 17 (2):  241-250. 
    Abstract ( 1036 )   PDF (767KB) ( 1081 )  
    Depending on the task at hand, international cooperation in psychology can – and need to – be pursued at varying levels, from global down to regional and even sub-regional. After a review of major functions of international psychology, recent developments of cross-national psychological collaboration at the regional level are illustrated for the case of Europe. In an introductory section on the ‘many faces of Europe’ comparative data is presented to illustrate traditional cultural divergences across Europe, also in the area of education. In its strive for ‘integration in diversity’ the European Union has now become instrumental in promoting novel forms of cooperation and exchange in academic training and scientific research, with significant consequences also for psychology. In this article they are explained and illustrated, with (mostly on-line) reference to regional curricular innovations, novel research initiatives, and evolving new cross-national organizations of psychology in Europe. The review may be useful when preparing for collaborative exchange with psychological institutions and research networks in Europe. And it may perhaps stimulate reflection on possibilities and needs of regional cooperation also in other parts of the world
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    Applied Developmental Science: A New Scientific Subject Focusing on Human and Society Development
    ZHANG Wen-Xin;CHEN Guang-Hui;LIN Chong-De
    2009, 17 (2):  251-260. 
    Abstract ( 824 )   PDF (707KB) ( 1548 )  
    The latter part of the twentieth century was marked by public anxiety about a myriad of social problems including economic development, environmental quality, health care, poverty, violence, school failure that were affecting the lives of vulnerable children, adolescents, adults, families, and communities. The potential role of scientific knowledge about human development in addressing these issues resulted in growing interest in what has been termed applied developmental science. In order to build interdisciplinary bridges and accomplish the collaboration of university and community, applied developmental science includes several defining features: developmental systems theory, diversity, longitudinal methodology, the normative developmental process, reciprocity of knowledge generation and knowledge application, and developmental interventions and enhancement programs. Under the new outreach research paradigm of applied developmental science, knowledge advances as a function of collaborations and partnerships between universities and communities such that the scientists and the children, families, and communities that they seek to understand and help are defining problems, methods, and solutions together. Applied developmental science is attracting the increasing interest of both policymakers and the private and public founders of applied research. Moreover, it is building a set of moral norms for the interdisciplinary research in the field
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    Effects of Perceptual Cues on Releasing Speech From Informational Masking
    XU Li-Juan; HUANG Ying; WU Xi-Hong; WU Yan-Hong; LI Liang
    2009, 17 (2):  261-267. 
    Abstract ( 1609 )   PDF (693KB) ( 1442 )  
    In a noisy “cocktail-party” environment, target speech is masked by different sounds. The masking includes at least two different components: energetic masking and informational masking. Energetic masking occurs when peripheral neural activities elicited by the target signal are overwhelmed by those elicited by the mask signal, leading to a substantially degraded neural representation of the target signal. Informational masking occurs when the target and the masker are similar in some dimensions, such as when they are both speech signals. The similarity leads to a competition for the limited central cognitive processing resources between the target and the masker signal. Thus, the amount of informational masking is not only affected by the bottom-up processes but also modulated by the top-down processes. The effects, which occur at the perceptual level, of the perceived spatial separation, the visual cues such as lip reading and speech-synchronized light flash, and the familiarity with the characteristics of the target signal on releasing target speech from informational masking are summarized. Future research will focus on the interactive effects among these cues and the perceptual processing mechanisms of using different cues to release speech from informational masking
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    Scene Perception and Its Research Paradigms
    WANG Fu-Xing; TIAN Hong-Jie; SHEN Ji-Liang
    2009, 17 (2):  268-277. 
    Abstract ( 2135 )   PDF (833KB) ( 1634 )  
    The main purpose of scene perception is to investigate how people perceive and process complex real-world scene information. Objects and background elements are the necessary parts of scene. Furthermore, according to the complexity and reality of the stimuli, meaningless figures or letters, sequences of objects, 3D pictures, and real-world environment could be used as stimuli in scene perception. Previous studies of scene perception mainly used top-down and bottom-up processing to explain the scene perception. Surprisingly, more and more researchers emphasize the interaction of top-down and bottom-up. Based on different purpose of experiments and techniques they used, researchers use different paradigms to study how we perceive and process scenes. These paradigms include eye movement, object detection, contextual cueing, change detection, and follow-the-dot. Further studies should pay more attention to definition of scene perception, relationship of different paradigms, internal validity, and processing patterns of different cognitive stages
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    Theories on Own-Race Effect in Face Recognition
    ZHOU Guo-Mei;ZHANG Lu-Ran;ZENG Wei-Xian
    2009, 17 (2):  278-283. 
    Abstract ( 1511 )   PDF (683KB) ( 2627 )  
    The own-race effect refers to the finding that faces of one’s own race are better recognized than faces of other less familiar race. Plenty of explanations of this effect can be grouped into three categories: The Contact Hypothesis and the Utilitarian Analysis originate from social cognition; the Multidimensional Space Theory and the Configural-featural Hypothesis center on representation of faces; the Cognitive Disregard and Attention, the Level of Processing, the In-group/Out-group Model and the Dual-process Approach focus on face processing. All of existing theories are distinct but connected with each others. We argue that these theories fail to provide a convincing explanation to the own-race effect. Researches that directly manipulate possible factors influencing the own-race effect are needed in the future
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    What Makes a Face a Face: A Review of Studies on Face Specificity
    LI Xiao-Bai; ZHU Qi; LIU Jia
    2009, 17 (2):  284-293. 
    Abstract ( 1824 )   PDF (868KB) ( 1474 )  
    There is a general consensus that mechanisms involved in face processing are "special". It is unclear, however, that what exactly they are specialized for. According to the face-specificity hypothesis, these mechanisms are selectively involved in processing faces per se. According to the expertise hypothesis, on the other hand, they are selectively involved in processing any class of visual stimuli that share the same basic configuration and for which the subject has gained substantial visual expertise. Here we reviewed recent behavioral, neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies concerning this issue, and we further proposed a novel approach to address this debate by orthogonally manipulating two factors that are centered in both hypotheses: cognitive process (holistic versus part-based analysis) and stimulus (faces versus nonface objects). Specifically, three new hypotheses derived from this manipulation were proposed to replace the original two for future experiments: a) faces are special (i.e. domain specific), b) the holistic process is special (i.e. process specific), and c) a hybrid of the first two: the holistic process of faces is special. Finally, we suggest that studies from genetic perspectives may provide final solution to this long lasting debate
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    Review of Studies on Posture-cognition Dual-tasking
    HUANG Hui-Xin;LIU Dian-Zhi
    2009, 17 (2):  294-298. 
    Abstract ( 1800 )   PDF (691KB) ( 1613 )  
    The traditionally separate researches on cognition and posture have been connected in the study of posture-cognition dual-tasking, which has become a new expanding area of research. A large quantity of studies revealed the role of cognitive factor in the control of balance which indicated the coexistence of posture and cognition. Studies with old person’s who had specific neurological disease showed some of the mechanisms underlying motor control problems in those patient populations. The knowledge gained from such studies will contribute to the design of old people’s falling prevention and intervention method, and also provide insights into children’s attention problem and the construction of their academic setting. Moreover, such studies indicated that the interaction between the development of postural control and cognition should be further investigated
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    An Analysis of the Discrepancy-Model
    and the Component Model of Reading Disability
    BAI Li-Ru
    2009, 17 (2):  299-307. 
    Abstract ( 1939 )   PDF (707KB) ( 1332 )  
    In dyslexic assessment research studies, the IQ-Achievement Discrepancy Model is much favored and widely used for its easy operation since it came into being. However, more and more studies have revealed that there exist a number of theoretical and practical problems by adopting the Discrepancy-Model in dyslexic assessment. Therefore, the Component Model of Reading Disability, based on the Simple View of Reading, intervention-oriented and easily-handled, was put forward in order to avoid some of the disadvantages raised by using the Discrepancy-Model. Nowadays, in Chinese dyslexic assessment and subtypes diagnosis, the Discrepancy-Model has also been found out to have some major problems in operation, causing different results of assessment and subtypes diagnosis as well as various diagnostic solutions. This would require replacing the Discrepancy-Model with the Component Model, which identifies the sources of different children’s reading problems and tailors instructional strategies to fit specific weaknesses. Thus, Chinese dyslexic assessment and subtypes diagnosis can free from the current confusing situation to march onto a more scientific and more standardized research field. Empirical studies in Chinese dyslexic research field have proved that the Chinese reading process is also a product of at least two potential componentsdecoding and comprehension, and weakness in one of these components or in both of them could therefore results in three types of poor readers; reading comprehension and listening comprehension in Chinese reading process are highly correlated and listening comprehension is found to be a better predicator of reading achievement in Chinese elementary schools; the Chinese dyslexic children can be classified into three categories: dyslexia, hyperlexia and garden-variety poor readers. The results show that the Component Model is of feasibility and effectiveness in Chinese dyslexic assessment and subtypes diagnosis
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    The Researches and Theories on Verbal Overshadowing Effect
    LIU Li-Hong;ZHANG Ji-Jia;CUI Zhan-Ling
    2009, 17 (2):  308-313. 
    Abstract ( 1785 )   PDF (689KB) ( 1591 )  
    Verbal overshadowing effect refers to the surprising effect whereby additional verbal information about a visual stimulus hinders its subsequent recognition. The factors which affected the VOE include temporal factors, verbalization factors, post verbalization factors, recognition test, individual differences and so on. Three major theoretical explanations existed for verbal overshadowing effect were introduced: recoding interference theory, transfer inappropriate processing shift, the theory of criterion shifts. At the same time some advices were given for further researches
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    Sentence Comprehension in Discourse Context: Evidence from the N400
    ZENG Hong-Ling;LIU Si-Yun
    2009, 17 (2):  314-320. 
    Abstract ( 1672 )   PDF (699KB) ( 1367 )  
    The N400 component of ERP implies anomalous processing in language semantics, its amplitude reflects the difficulty of semantic integration during processing. The N400 can be used as an important index to observe how meaning is constructed under discourse context. Discourse context can be categorized into linguistic context and nonlinguistic context. Previous studies on discourse processes using the N400 indicated that the linguistic context plays a constraining and coordinating role in sentence comprehension, which were found to specifically function in aspects of semantic priming in words, scenario goodness-of-fit, text message and causal inference; whereas the nonlinguistic context plays a constraining and complementary role in sentence comprehension, with its functional mechanism not known very well. The semantic information from the two different sources may probably be processed in parallel during the on-line comprehension
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    The Dual-Process Theory of Reasoning and Decision-making
    XIAO Qian-Guo;LUO Le;YU Lin
    2009, 17 (2):  321-324. 
    Abstract ( 1624 )   PDF (680KB) ( 2207 )  
    The dual-process theory is an influential theory in the field of reasoning and decision-making. By analysis from the aspects of the basic characteristics, differences, and the reason of failure in reasoning and decision-making, many problems have been found on the understanding of some basic matters of this theory:(1) The key distinctions between the two systems are not the absolute participation or not of working memory;(2) Different researchers of dual-process theory differently explained the failure of reasoning and decision-making;(3) The understanding of the failure of reasoning and decision-making is awaited by the aspects of the influence and the relationship between emotion and reasoning
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    Theories and Influential Factors of Hindsight Bias
    GONG Meng-Yuan; XU Fu-Ming; FANG Fang
    2009, 17 (2):  325-333. 
    Abstract ( 2330 )   PDF (737KB) ( 1596 )  
    Hindsight bias refers to people’s overestimation of their predictability on the outcome of previous events after they have known the results. Research suggested that this may due to the distortion of previous memory, induced impressions of predictability or the impressions of necessity. Many studies suggested that the bias was widely observed in both labs and real situations, and was difficult to be debiased by using strategies. Relevant theoretical models were mainly based on cognitive processes and social motives, and many factors such as research methods, personal traits, ability variables, personal-relevance and event valence were found influential. Future studies should focus on the integration of various theories, and the exploration of debiasing strategies in application
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    Cognitive Mechanism and Neural Substrate of Regret
    SUO Tao; FENG Ting-Yong; WANG Hui-Li; LI Hong
    2009, 17 (2):  334-340. 
    Abstract ( 1495 )   PDF (718KB) ( 1726 )  
    Regret is a complex negative social emotion whose generation depends on counterfactual thinking to the better outcomes provided by the alternative choice. It influences decision-making, and has important impacts on people’s physical and mental health in everyday life. Compared with disappointment, regret is different with respect to its phenomenology, the prerequisites of generation as well as the subsequent appraisals. Regret is affected by individual’s behavioral manners, personality, attribution as well as information of behavioral outcomes. Functional brain areas involved in expectancy and experience of regret mainly include Orbitofrontal cortex, Anterior cingulated, Hippocampus, Amygdala. The experimental approaches and technological measures need to be improved in further studies of regret. Meanwhile, the cognitive mechanism and neural substrate of regret remain to be further explored in future
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    The Neural Mechanisms of Error Processing
    LIU Chun-Lei;ZHANG Qing-Lin
    2009, 17 (2):  341-348. 
    Abstract ( 1212 )   PDF (708KB) ( 1497 )  
    The concept of error processing plays a central role in theories of cognitive control and performance monitoring. Effective behavior requires flexible and continuous performance monitoring. Identification and correction of differences between an intended an executed response (i.e., an error) are the main contents of the error processing. The research of the error-processing focused on the anterior cingulate cortex and the error-related negativity (ERN), a component of the event-related brain potential elicited when human participants commit errors or receives feedback indicating that they just made an erroneous response. There are four theories that account for the functional significance of ERN and ACC, such as error detection theory, reinforcement learning theory, conflict monitor theory, expectancy-deviation hypothesis. Despite in-depth insights provided by previous studies into our understanding of error processing, there are still some important questions to be answered, which might be the direction of future studies
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    The Brain-Imaging Studies on General Fluid Intelligence: A Review
    ZHANG Xiao-Jiang;LIU Chang;LIU Ying-Jie
    2009, 17 (2):  349-355. 
    Abstract ( 1361 )   PDF (698KB) ( 1400 )  
    The brain-imaging studies on the general fluid intelligence will contribute to the comprehension of the brain mechanism of intelligence. We introduced related researches from two ways: structural imaging and functional imaging. Works on brain structure revealed a moderately positive correlation between general fluid intelligence and the total brain volume and the gray volumes of frontal or other brain areas. The high-g loading tasks induced more active brain activities than the low-g loading tasks in certain brain areas. Early studies revealed a negative correlation between the levels of general fluid intelligence and the levels of brain activation, but later studies had found contrary outcomes. Studies in the future should increase researches of individual differences, combine techniques of brain-imaging with EEG or ERP, clarify the brain mechanism of intelligence by integrating multi-level outcomes
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    Neural Mechanisms of Aging Effect on Emotion Processing
    2009, 17 (2):  356-361. 
    Abstract ( 1744 )   PDF (690KB) ( 1250 )  
    Behavioral studies have suggested that recognition, attention and memory for negative emotions declined in older adults while processing of positive emotions remained intact. Neuroimaging studies revealed that, during emotion processing, the activation of limbic system (especially amygdala) in older adults was weaker than their younger counterparts. However, the activation of the frontal cortex was relatively stronger in older adults. Based on these findings, two hypotheses were proposed, namely, the functional compensation and the strategic change hypothesis. The former argued that older adults’ stronger activation in the frontal cortex was to compensate functional decline in the limbic system, hence, reflecting the compensation of brain function. The later proposed that older adults adopted strategies which were different from younger adults. So it was the different patterns of emotion processing that led to different cerebral activities. Finally, the directions of future research and some problems need to be resolved were also discussed
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    Positivity Effect in Attention and Memory: Paradox of Aging and the Perspective from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
    WU LIN;XING Xiao-Li
    2009, 17 (2):  362-369. 
    Abstract ( 2191 )   PDF (700KB) ( 1919 )  
    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults have a greater focus on emotional goals, especially the positive information contributing to emotional goals. Perceived constraints on time lead older adults to avoid negative and favor positive information in their attention and memory. Both automatic and controlled processes influence the positivity effect in attention and memory. The effect of the limited time perspective on attention and memory is controlled by cognition, and it is also constrained by cognitive resource and capacity. Presently, there are some disadvantages on the researches related to SST. We need to enrich the research methods and enlarge the research domain in the future work. As the development of cognitive neuroscience, it is necessary to observe and explore the effects of emotion on the aging cognitive process by advance and precise apparatus
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    Personality Vulnerability to Depression: Conceptions, Theories and Development
    XU Hua-Chun; HUANG Xi-Ting; LIU Chun-Xiang; CHENG Ke
    2009, 17 (2):  370-376. 
    Abstract ( 1819 )   PDF (695KB) ( 2746 )  
    Research on personality vulnerability to depression is focused upon the concepts of dependency-self- criticism, sociotropy-autonomy, and perfectionism. This article reviewed theories and studies concerning the features and structures of the vulnerable personality, the relations among personality, stress-situation and depression, the relations among vulnerable personality, normal personality and the depression symptoms, the maladaptive nature of the personality vulnerability and so on. While continuing in these directions, future study should consider a bottom up approach to reexplore the personality vulnerability in different culture context and a new way to develop the existing study by integrating the cognitive vulnerability research
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    Neurophysiological Mechanism of Human Attachment
    CHEN Wen-Feng; WANG Zheng-Yan; WANG Yan
    2009, 17 (2):  377-383. 
    Abstract ( 1621 )   PDF (699KB) ( 2138 )  
    Attachment researchers investigated the neurophysiological mechanism of human attachment based on neurobiology studies of animal social attachment. They made a conclusion that the insecure individuals have higher heart rate and high cortisol comparing with the secure ones , While the location of brain function and electrophysiological study shows that compared to secure infants, insecure infants exhibited less left frontal brain activities when attachment system was inactivated, but there are no consistent results in adults. However, the researches are mostly correlational ones and can not provide causal inferences, moreover, the further researches about basic physiological characteristic of attachment need to be reinforced and discovered
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    Two Kinds of Self-protective Mechanism: Mnemic Neglect and Self-immunization
    CHEN Yan; ZHAO Chen-Ying
    2009, 17 (2):  384-389. 
    Abstract ( 2241 )   PDF (957KB) ( 2048 )  
    When self-concept stabilization is threatened, people sometimes adopt the self-definition means to cope. When individual is in the face of threatening information, mnemic neglect represents a selective nature of self-protection, restricting the information to elaborate process, and then preserves a positive self. When individual receives a feedback of the self-difference, self-immunization works strategically by adaptively changing the subjective operationalization of personal traits, viz. skills that individuals believe themselves to be good at are conceived as highly diagnostic, whereas skills that persons do not believe they possess are considered less diagnostic. The article approached the current studies through cognitive mechanism; it also introduced and discussed the two self-protective processes from three aspects: summarization, method and farther research, and was in hope that further concern of the new advances in self-protective mechanisms study could be aroused
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    Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality: A Commentary
    GUO Shao-Dan; HE Jin-Lian; ZHANG Li-Yan
    2009, 17 (2):  390-395. 
    Abstract ( 2014 )   PDF (690KB) ( 2485 )  
    Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory attempted to explain individual differences of personality through human neurophysiological mechanism. This theory argued that, some subsystems, assumed to come from the central nervous system, were sensitive to signal of reward and punishment stimuli respectively. These subsystems were also assumed to modulate people’s behavior and motivation by their reinforcing effects. To test this theory, several measurements about reinforcement sensitivity were developed, and associated empirical studies were conducted. However, some defects were found around this theory. To remedy these defects, according to the authors, future studies should be devoted: (1) to verify the theory hypotheses by means of physiological measurements; (2) to explore some appropriate personality traits which represent the reinforcement sensitivity; and (3) to investigate the interaction between cognitive and biological factors
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    The Nature and Causes of Internet Close Relationship
    MENG Qing-Dong;WANG Zheng-Yan
    2009, 17 (2):  396-402. 
    Abstract ( 2085 )   PDF (694KB) ( 2194 )  
    As a new phenomenon, internet close relationship is different from face-to-face close relationship in establishment, maintenance and dissolution. Internet close relationship seems more perfect than face-to-face close relationship, but there are more emotional betrayals happening in internet close relationships. People who are more shy; who get high scores in attachment anxiousness; who are sexually-permissive; who are more sensitive than others and who are frustrated by the failure of personal relationship are prone to establish internet close relationship. The research on internet close relationship is still in its primary stage, thus, questions about how internet close relationship evolves over time and how internet close relationship transforms into face-to-face close relationship deserve further analysis
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    Review on Models of Homosexual Identity Development
    LIU Jun;ZHANG Jin-Fu
    2009, 17 (2):  403-413. 
    Abstract ( 1877 )   PDF (804KB) ( 4333 )  
    Essentialism-oriented stages model and constructionism-oriented influencing factors model are early theoretical frameworks of homosexual identity development. It is one of the most fiercely debated issues among the two approaches whether sexual orientation is a core component of a human. Then, ecological theory, life-span theory and life course theory tried to integrate the two approaches and proposed advanced models of homosexual identity development. Two factors should be concerned in model construction, which are diversity of homosexual identity development and effect of disclosure. Prospective longitudinal study should be the future directions of research. The characteristics and research hypotheses of Chinese homosexuality are also discussed
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    Concept and Measurement of HIV/AIDS Related Stigma and Discrimination

    LI Xian-Hong; HE Guo-Ping; WANG Hong-Hong
    2009, 17 (2):  414-420. 
    Abstract ( 1343 )   PDF (705KB) ( 2321 )  
    Developing the measurement of HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination is the prerequisite of evaluating and reducing the stigma and discrimination. Based on elaborating the concept and category of HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination, the authors focused on analyzing and comparing the widely used measurements of HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination, and pointed out that most of these scales were invented by developed countries, and no scale was adaptive for Chinese culture context; and no scale measured the dual stigma and discrimination among HIV-high risk populations either. It is urgent to develop an instrument which is adaptive for Chinese culture context
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    Overview of Napping Research
    ZHAO Da-Yong; FU Ming-Qiu; TANG Yong-Long; LI Zhe
    2009, 17 (2):  421-425. 
    Abstract ( 1662 )   PDF (685KB) ( 3097 )  
    Napping not only can be a countermeasure to the afternoon circadian nadir, but has the potential to improve mood, alertness, and performance in the afternoon. However, habitual napping behavior in young adults is not to compensate for poor sleep on the preceding night. More specially, a short-term nap was long enough to lead to benefits, but short enough to avoid post-nap grogginess. Moreover, research has consistently shown that nap can also benefit to memory consolidation. Declarative memory was consolidated in slow wave sleep (SWS) during daytime naps, and the consolidation was associated with stage 2 sleep and spindles. Furthermore, stage 2 sleep and spindles may be particularly important for the efficient consolidation of motor skill memory. The mechanism of memory consolidation during naps might be the direction of further studies
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    Service Sabotage Behaviors:
    The Conception, Measurement and Relevant Variables
    DING Gui-Feng;LI Xin-Xia;ZHAO Rui
    2009, 17 (2):  426-431. 
    Abstract ( 2180 )   PDF (689KB) ( 1974 )  
    Service sabotage behaviors refer to members in service industry organization deliberately make negative impacts on service when they are offering service to customers. Sabotage behaviors in service settings are also the embodiment of workplace sabotage behaviors in previous studies. Service sabotage behaviors mainly perform in four types: customary-private, customary-public, sporadic-private and sporadic-public service sabotage. The primary measurement methods of service sabotage behaviors include interview, questionnaire and situational projective test. The antecedent variables of service sabotage behaviors were analyzed from individual, group, organization and environmental levels. And the consequence variables of service sabotage behaviors were explored from individual, service performance and organizational performance aspects. Future research in this field should emphasizes the improvement of measurement methods, analyze the mechanism among the relevant variables, seek for effective countermeasure to control the service sabotage behaviors, expand the field of vision and widen the subject’s type and industry field further
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    A Commentary on the Research of Attribution Theory in Leadership
    ZHENG Jian-Jun; JIN Sheng-Hua
    2009, 17 (2):  432-441. 
    Abstract ( 1399 )   PDF (714KB) ( 2060 )  
    The research of attribution in leadership has the important theoretical and practical significance for grasping process of leadership, performance assessment of organization, leader member relationship and so on. The article reviewed some related studies come up with after Leadership Attribution Theory, including construction, verification and development of model, implicit attributing on attribution of leadership. Meanwhile, relationship between attribution of leadership and some factors was systematically reorganized and analyzed, such as attribution bias, attribution style, leader member relationship, personality traits, leadership style, emotion, culture, demographic variables. In the end, the paper analyzed and summarized some problems on the previous research and indicated the future research trend
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    Structure, Method and Antecedents of Career Exploration
    QU Ke-Jia; ZOU Hong
    2009, 17 (2):  442-450. 
    Abstract ( 1450 )   PDF (719KB) ( 2171 )  
    his article reviews the literature on career exploration. Career exploration refers to the process whereby individuals engage in exploration of the self and the career-related environment. Skills, cognition and emotional reflection obtained during this process serve the further purpose of self-development and self-integration. Past researches have examined the concept, structure, measurement and antecedents of career exploration. Researches on structure have increasingly focused on content and process, while studies of antecedents consider the family context and individual factors. This article concludes with suggestions for future research, including a deeper understanding of structure, development of measures and the antecedents of career exploration
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    To Build and Measure the Brand Associations of Consumer
    WU Xin-Hui;YUAN Deng-Hua
    2009, 17 (2):  451-459. 
    Abstract ( 1834 )   PDF (704KB) ( 2478 )  
    Brand associations are informational nodes linked to the brand node in consumers’ memory and reflect a brand’s image. Brand association is an important component of brand equity and characterized by network structure, cluster, dual-direction, metaphor, implicit and multi-dimensions. Brand associations represent the bases for purchase decisions and for brand loyalty. Companies need to build a set of favorable, strong and unique core brand associations for differentiating from the compete brand. Measuring brand associations include identifying competent of brand associations and associations network. Future research issues include definite description of brand associations, conceptualization of the dimensions of brand associations, and improving of measuring techniques and so on
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    The Application of Mental Lexical Method in Brand Personality Research
    YANG Chuan-Wei; WANG Yong
    2009, 17 (2):  460-466. 
    Abstract ( 1717 )   PDF (708KB) ( 1365 )  
    Rooted in the early research of trait-word, mental lexical method is used to reveal the inner nature of subjects by analyzing the words which are able to evaluate specific individual or object. In brand personality studies, mental lexical method mainly focuses on the dimensions or key traits of brand personality. So far, many other methods have been combined into mental lexical method, such like reaction time test and implicit attitude test from interrelated fields. Mental lexical method is also applied to the studies of brand extension, brand positioning and some other fields related to brand personality
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    An Introduction to Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects
    LAN Yu-Juan;ZUO Bin
    2009, 17 (2):  467-472. 
    Abstract ( 3371 )   PDF (692KB) ( 2901 )  
    Social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) originates from the deindividuation theory. It challenges the past view that deindividuation is the result of loss of self, which brings about the expression of antinormative or antisocial behaviors. SIDE provides new explanations to the deindividuation phenomenon in both cognitive and strategic dimensions. Research has been done to show evidence which supports SIDE and to apply it in terms of identity performance and computer-mediated communication. SIDE is more relevant to the contemporary research on group influence and group behavior in social psychology. However, more research is needed for further validation and consummation
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    The Classification of Intergroup Threat and the Effect of Threat on Prejudice
    ZHANG Qi;FENG Jiang-Ping;Wang Er-Ping
    2009, 17 (2):  473-480. 
    Abstract ( 1833 )   PDF (701KB) ( 2359 )  
    Intergroup threat occurs when one group’s resources, beliefs, or values challenge the goal attainment or well-being of another group. This perceived threat will lead to negative out-group attitudes and behaviors. Based on the intergroup threat literature and relevant theories, intergroup threat was classified into three categories, realistic threat, cultural threat and identity threat. The theoretical model on the relation between intergroup threat and prejudice has evolved from single threat model to integrated one. Future researches should pay more attention to the exploration of relationship between different types of threats, the modification of current models, and the development of intergroup theories in Chinese context
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