ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2008, Volume 16 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    What Psychology Can Learn from Its History?
    Kurt Pawlik
    2008, 16 (6):  833-843. 
    Abstract ( 2064 )   PDF (677KB) ( 1479 )  
    The paper looks into regularities in the history of psychology as a science and as a profession that may stand generalization beyond conditions and contexts. Lacking a better term they are referred to as “lessons” to be deduced from history. As to the first, the history of psychology as a science, six such regularities are proposed: (i) dual status of psychology as a scientific discipline and a “bridge” science due, integrating biological, social and cultural methods; (ii) indispensability of empiricism as methodological guideline; (iii) cross-over utility of results from basic and applied research; (iv) need of alternative heuristic scales; (v) compatibility of universality and indigenization; and (vi) disciplinary strength of psychology in scientific development. Another additional 3 regularities are proposed from a examination of psychology’s history as a profession: (i) rapidity of professionalization; (ii) need of two-way transfer between academia and practice; and (iii) lessons to be learned from cross-disciplinary give and take of expertise
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    The Dissociation Between Categorical and Coordinate Spatial Relation Processing Systems: Evidence from Multi-Domain Studies
    ZHANG Yu, YOU Xu-Qun
    2008, 16 (6):  844-854. 
    Abstract ( 1797 )   PDF (516KB) ( 1218 )  
    Kosslyn suggested that there are two distinct spatial relation processing systems which are Categorical spatial relation processing subsystem and Coordinate relation processing subsystem. As well as a functional dissociation between the two subsystems, there is a neural-level dissociation between the hardware of brain circuits involving this two types of processing, which can be indicated by brain hemisphere specialization. The left hemisphere is specialized for coding categorical spatial relations, whereas the right hemisphere is specialized for coding coordinate spatial relations. This article reviews studies extending from low-level spatial perception into multiple domains including spatial relation processing in visual mental imagery, memory, language, motor action and object identification etc., in which diverse methodologies are adopted: visual half field methodology, neural network simulation, PET, fMRI, ERP, rTMS, studies with brain damaged patients and comparative animal study. In general, it can be summarized that, although hemisphere specialization provides convergent evidence for the neural-level dissociation of categorical and coordinate spatial relation processing systems, the obtaining of hemisphere specialization in various studies is unstable and sensitive to methodological factors. The reason for the dissociation, however, is still open for debate, although it appeared to be linked with the hemispheric specialization for processing the output of neurons with different receptive field properties
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    The Development and Prospects of Retrieval-induced Forgetting Researches
    MU De-Fang;Song Yao-Wu;Cheng Ying-He
    2008, 16 (6):  855-861. 
    Abstract ( 1429 )   PDF (739KB) ( 1816 )  
    Theory of retrieval-induced forgetting emphasizes that the competition between target items and relevant items in recalling can lead to forgetting. In this article, several important aspects of retrieval-induced forgetting were reviewed, such as its concept, the retrieval practice paradigm, the relevant theories. And this article mainly summarized the empirical research results and the debates about the mechanism underlying retrieval-induced forgetting. Further research in this field should be focused on the level at which inhibition operates, how the spread of activation may be limited and how it functions in context
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    The Problem-size Effect in Mental Addition and Subtraction
    TIAN Hua;LIU Chang
    2008, 16 (6):  862-867. 
    Abstract ( 1707 )   PDF (608KB) ( 1023 )  
    There are two different theories, the retrieval and nonretrieval theories, accounting for the mechanism of the problem-size effect. The retrieval theories indicated that the problem size effect is attributed to various aspects of the representation of stored arithmetic knowledge. Recently, the researchers pay much more attention to the important role of nonretrieval procedures such as counting and decomposition in the problem size effect. The less efficient retrieval and calculation strategies and more use of nonretrieval procedures contribute to the problem size effect. Due to the different proportion of various strategies, the problem size effect in addition and subtraction shows distinct forms. Future research seems to consider various different study means (e.g., combined ERP and fMRI) and unify the standards to classify the small and large problems
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    Connectionist Acquired Dyslexia: A Review of Primary System Hypothesis
    WANG Xiao-Juan;YANG Jian-Fen;SHU Hua
    2008, 16 (6):  868-873. 
    Abstract ( 2065 )   PDF (609KB) ( 1401 )  
    Cognitive neuropsychology explained the mechanism of acquired dyslexia as selective impairment for task specific procedures, such as grapheme-phoneme translation route for non-word reading. Recently, in the framework of connectionist triangle model of reading, “Primary System” hypothesis explained the acquired dyslexia as the impairment in different primary system (e.g., visual, phonology and semantics). Both the reading and non-reading task was influenced by the deficit in these primary systems. This approach suggested a new mechanism of all kinds of acquired dyslexia, as well as the relationship between dyslexia and other cognitive functional deficits. This paper elaborated it in the detail
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    Cognitive Control in Bilingual Lexical Access
    ZHAO Jun-Hua;MO Lei
    2008, 16 (6):  874-879. 
    Abstract ( 1886 )   PDF (609KB) ( 1503 )  
    Previous research has shown that bilingual nonselective and selective lexical access requiring the development of cognitive control ability which depends on language proficiency. The present series of studies extends this finding by identifying the contextual effect on cognitive control which can appear after lexical access or before it, that is the reason of nonselective and selective access. Considering of the situation that cognitive control under context can restrict the activation of non-target language before lexical access, the hypothesis proposed by BIA+ model which has suggested that bilingual lexical activation was nonselective should be revised, also is the idea that the cognitive control ability depends mainly on proficiency
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    Theories of Conceptual Change and Their Developments
    WU Xian;LUO Xing-Kai;XIN Tao
    2008, 16 (6):  880-886. 
    Abstract ( 2038 )   PDF (621KB) ( 1636 )  
    Conceptual change is a critical issue in psychological and educational fields. From different backgrounds and beliefs, Researchers have investigated conceptual change and given rise to several theories for interpreting the processes and mechanism of conceptual change in the past two decades, like epistemology, ontology and framework theory. With the gradual deepening of studies on conceptual change, those theories have been developed, such as cognition-oriented theories were taken social/affective factors into account and different theories were integrated to a multidimensional framework for interpreting conceptual change in classroom, etc. This article reviews theories of conceptual change and their developments, and then makes some suggestions for studies and theories of conceptual change in the future
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    The Relationship Between Extroversion and Positive Affects
    HE Yuan-Yuan;YUAN Jia-Jin;WU Ze-Lian;LI Hong
    2008, 16 (6):  887-891. 
    Abstract ( 1615 )   PDF (606KB) ( 1891 )  
    Considerable research confirmed that extroversion plays an important part in the processing of positive emotions. In general, the relationship between extraversion and positive emotion includes: (1) extroverts experience more positive affects than less extroverted individuals in life settings; (2) extroverts react more strongly to positive stimuli; (3)it is possible that there is an attentional bias of extroverts for emotionally positive stimuli; (4)Amygdala and other structure activation for happy expressions correlate positively and significantly with the degree of extraversion. Along with the development of cognitive neuroscience, which aims to delineate mechanisms underlying brain-behavior interrelations, we can explore the relationship between extroversion and positive affects more accurately. This paper integrated numerous experimental results, analyzed the reasons for the conflicts, and proposed new directions of the future research in the relation between extroversion and positive affects
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    The Application of Second-Order Schedule in Drug-Addiction
    2008, 16 (6):  892-898. 
    Abstract ( 1331 )   PDF (642KB) ( 1020 )  
    Second-order schedules, which are called second-order schedules of drug self-administration when put into experiments, stress the significance of the conditioned stimuli in the acquiring and keeping of the behavior that takes place in this model. Under the influence of conditioned stimuli, animals press a lever to seek drugs. The results of many studies suggest that nucleus accumbens core, basolateral amygdale and medial prefrontal cortex play an important role in the drug-seeking behavior aroused by conditioned stimuli. The use of second-order schedules makes it possible to predict substance that may result in addiction, which also provides new ideas in preclinical testing of potential treatment strategies for drug addiction
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    Physiopsychological Mechanism of Startle Reflex
    LU Ning-Yan;WANG Jian;YANG Hong-Chun
    2008, 16 (6):  899-904. 
    Abstract ( 2281 )   PDF (611KB) ( 1161 )  
    Startle reflex(SR), as a kind of protective reflex by animals and human beings to avoid potential dangers in the exposure to unexpected stimulus or dangerous conditions, has its biological significances. Most of the previous studies focused on acoustic startle reflex, and adopted the reflexes of eyes and facial expression muscles, like eyeblink reflex, as the dependent variable. The physiological mechanism of SR is the direct pathway through amygdale. While the psychological mechanism of strengthened SR is sensitization or fear-conditioning that of weakened SR is habituation, prepulse inhibition or pleasure-attenuation. Future studies should pay more attention to visual startle reflex. The reflex pattern of the gesture-holding muscles throughout the body is to be observed, and more in-depth studies are to be carried out, with the help of advanced instruments, on the brain’s information processing mechanism for startle reflex
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    Approaching to the Integrative Research of Mind:
    A Review on Demetriou’s Theory of Experiential Structuralism in Cognition
    WANG Yuan;ZHANG Xiang-Kui
    2008, 16 (6):  905-912. 
    Abstract ( 1839 )   PDF (616KB) ( 1240 )  
    According to the theory of Experiential Structuralism in cognition, the architecture of developing mind included three levels: environment-oriented system, hypercognitive system, and processing system. Different types of information from environment were represented and processed in the environment-oriented system. The processing system was in charge of the information processing. Meanwhile the two systems were monitored and regulated by the hypercognitive system. Because these three levels were independent and interacting developmentally, the developing mind was a dynamic system and there were three models of changes: bottom-up, top-down and horizontal changes. The development in and between levels obeying four mechanisms of the development were also introduced. As an integrative theory of mind, it had its predominance as well as some details need to be discussed, such as the inconsistent conceptions, the doubts about hypercognition and the role of executive function in mind
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    Expectation in Counseling: Conceptual Discrimination and Theoretical Perspectives
    SUN Qi-Wu;JIANG Guang-Rong
    2008, 16 (6):  913-918. 
    Abstract ( 1977 )   PDF (614KB) ( 1647 )  
    Expectation in Counseling is regarded as a core variable in the future process and outcome researches. Past empirical researches were often conducted without the direction of a certain theory and thus had not obtained a systematical understanding on Expectation in Counseling. Five relatively different theoretical perspectives are presented in order to define related Expectations, with the examples of empirical research correspondently. Expectation about Counseling and Client’s Expectations are differentiated. In order to distinguish five different perspectives, a figure with real-fantastic, contextual-constant dimension is described
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    Activation and Pursuit of Nonconscious Goal
    MA Li-Li, ;GUO Yong-Yu
    2008, 16 (6):  919-925. 
    Abstract ( 1530 )   PDF (612KB) ( 1649 )  
    According to the auto-motive model, goals are represented mentally, and as representations, should be capable of automatic activation by the environmental context。The present article reviews recent research on nonconscious goals, and the similarities between nonconscious goals and conscious goals. It focuses on research examining different ways in which goals may be automatically brought to mind in everyday settings and how such goal priming may affect individuals’ deliberate goal pursuits. Besides, although nonconscious goals and conscious goals are similar in their effects, they may have different mechanisms
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    Research on Team Emotions: Review and Prospect
    TANG Chao-Ying;LI Gui-Jie;XU Lian-Cang
    2008, 16 (6):  926-932. 
    Abstract ( 1422 )   PDF (620KB) ( 1836 )  
    Team emotion refers to the combination of the team members’ emotions. We reviewed the related international and domestic well-known journal papers from 2000 up to now. We introduced the components of the team emotions and the several research methods of team emotions, summarized the forming process of team emotions, and reviewed how team emotions influences the team outcome in terms of team emotions norm, different emotion situation and specific emotion presences. Lastly, it summarized the main research approaches and methods of team emotions, and pointed out that exploiting the team emotion would deepen the research process of team study
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    Shared Mental Model: An Approach to Distribution, Hierarchy and Accuracy
    XU Han-Yi, ;MA Jian-Hong
    2008, 16 (6):  933-940. 
    Abstract ( 1455 )   PDF (731KB) ( 1242 )  
    Since the concept of Shared Mental Model was defined, researchers have deemed it an antecedent of team performance. Yet, there remain several issues to be delineated. Shared mental models include various contents that are in various representations, which could be analyzed in terms of heterogeneity/homogeneity and interdependency/independency. Shared Mental Models are hierarchical, including concrete knowledge and abstract categories, as well as attitudes and beliefs directing at them. The only expert-mental model doesn’t exist in logical means. The development and evolution of shared mental models should be of more meanings than approaching to expert-mental models. Finally, “share” is more than an output of team process; it should gain more attention on its role as a team processor
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    Concept, Measurement and Related Constructs of Job Embeddedness
    YUAN Qing-Hong,;CHEN Wen-Chun
    2008, 16 (6):  941-946. 
    Abstract ( 1922 )   PDF (607KB) ( 2072 )  
    This paper reviews and discusses the development of research on job embeddedness. Job embeddedness represents the degree how people embed into their job, which is non-affective and multi-dimensions. It describes a web of forces that cause people to stay in their job and it includes three dimensions: link, fit and sacrifice. It differs markedly from other constructs of organizational behavior such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This paper focuses on introducing ways of measuring job embeddedness and investigating the possible consequences of job embeddedness such as turnover intention. Finally the paper points out several areas for future research, such as antecedents and measurement
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    The Mechanism and Influencing Factors in the Comparative Advertising’s Communication
    LUO Rui-Kui;TIAN Xue-Hong
    2008, 16 (6):  947-954. 
    Abstract ( 1962 )   PDF (638KB) ( 1519 )  
    Comparative advertising is a novel yet controversial form of advertising. Researchers have reached a consensus on the comparative advertising’s concept and its communication effects, the emphases of their recent studies are the functional mechanism of comparative advertising and the relevant factors that influence its communication effects. When the comparative advertising’s communication effects, transmission mechanism and its influencing factors were systematically investigated, some of the existing problems such as its mechanism and the control of influencing factors, which existed in the recent research were pointed out, and the prospect that comparative advertising should be further studied in the subculture was proposed
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    Humor Advertising Appeal and Its Communication Effects
    ZHOU Xiang-Xian
    2008, 16 (6):  955-963. 
    Abstract ( 3343 )   PDF (627KB) ( 2703 )  
    Humor is one of the most ordinary modes of advertising appeal. A review of the recent researches into the communication effects of humor appeals in advertising was summarized as follows: (a) Humor appeals had an advantage of attracting audience’s attention and increasing their degree of preference to the advertisements and the brands of certain products. However, a consistent conclusion had not been achieved as to whether humor appeals exerted promotion or inhibition to brand information processing. (b) The communication effects of humor appeals were obviously under the influences of products types and involvement, audience’s need for humor and cognition, gender, cultural differences and prior brand evaluation, the types of humor and other relevant factors. Furthermore, there remained some other problems. For example, environment influence research, systematic researches into communication process and theorization were still in need
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    Validity Generalization: A Review on the Achievements in Meta-analysis of Predictive Validity over 30 Years
    WANG Yong-Jun;YU Guo-Liang
    2008, 16 (6):  964-972. 
    Abstract ( 2143 )   PDF (641KB) ( 1550 )  
    Validity generalization (VG) is one of the most useful methodologies to estimate the effect sizes of predictor-criterion relationships based on the techniques of meta-analysis. One of the most important advances on applied psychology in recent 30 years(1977-2007) is the work on validity generalization. This article reviewed on the achievements in VG. Hunter-Schmidt’s meta-analytic procedures made it possible to draw clearer and more consistent conclusions from the body of literature across independent studies about the predictive validity of predictors. Robustness, correspondence and increment quality of the predictive validities of abilities, factors of personality, interviews, and assessment centers had been found
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    Recent Development and Controversies of Rorschach Ink-Blot Method
    GUO Qing-Ke;WANG Wei-Li;QI Fei;CHEN Xue-Xia
    2008, 16 (6):  973-980. 
    Abstract ( 1454 )   PDF (639KB) ( 1476 )  
    The Comprehensive System has obtained successes in standardization and objectification of Rorschach Ink-Blot Method, but many critics of RIM suspect its reliability, validity, norm and standardization, while advocates of RIM provide testimony to support its properties. Authors of this paper systematically reviewed focuses of the controversies about RIM and summarized relevant Meta-Analyses and experimental researches. The results showed that core variables of RIM have high level of rater’s reliability and temporal stability, only conditional variables manifested low level reliability; Focused and Global Meta-Analyses found that the RIM scores have higher validity than other tests variables. Based on above reviews we concluded that RIM has values in clinical diagnosis and overt behavior prediction. The same as other tests, RIM also has its strengths and weaknesses, It should integrate with other tests in application
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    The Psychological View on Social Exclusion
    DU Jian-Zheng;XIA Bing-Li
    2008, 16 (6):  981-986. 
    Abstract ( 1919 )   PDF (598KB) ( 3977 )  
    Social exclusion has drawn more and more attention as a pervasive and negative social experience in recent years in psychological area. The concept of social exclusion refers to the phenomenon that people’s need of belongingness and social relationships is thwarted because the one is excluded by a group or other people. The paper introduces the potentially powerful impacts of social exclusion on excluded individuals, including cognitive, emotional, physiological and behavioral. In the end, some prospects for the further research are put forward, such as constructing psychological theories of social exclusion and realizing the significance of social exclusion researches in China
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    A Review on the Studies of Social Value Orientation in Western Countries
    WU Bao-Pei;KOU Yu
    2008, 16 (6):  987-992. 
    Abstract ( 2185 )   PDF (607KB) ( 2107 )  
    Social value orientation is a relatively stable personality trait, which indicates preferences for particular patterns of outcome distributed to the self and others. Researches on social value orientation in western countries presented a theoretical development from the two-dimensional model to the integrative model. These researches proved the influence of social value orientation on individuals’ behavior choice and social cognition, both in experimental labs and in real life. Interpersonal orientation propositions, the latest theoretical progress in this domain,are discussed. Situational factors and egalitarian orientation should also be highlighted in later empirical studies
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