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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    15 September 2005, Volume 13 Issue 05 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Researches on Children with Learning Disabilities from Strategic Perspective
    Chen Yinghe,Zhao Xiaomei
    2005, 13 (05):  547-556. 
    Abstract ( 2009 )   PDF (644KB) ( 1672 )  
    Strategy refers to goal-directed cognitive operations used to aid problem solving, which is responsible for the execution and control of underlying information process, and has effects on individual learning. So, the research on children with learning disabilities from strategic perspective was introduced. This article reviewed and analyzed the research in this field, explored some issues as followed, the relation between learning disabilities and strategy, the strategic performance of children with learning disabilities, the reason of their strategy deficiencies. Finally, some unsolved basic questions and the future trend are discussed.
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    The Role Played by the Internet in the Intervention of the Students with Learning Disabilities
    Lei Li,Yang Yang,Liu Mingxin
    2005, 13 (05):  557-562. 
    Abstract ( 1640 )   PDF (626KB) ( 1836 )  
    Learning disabilities have always been one of the foci in the psychological and educational research. With the rapid development of computer and internet and the positive effects their integration into classrooms, whether the internet could also play a positive role in helping students with learning disabilities has attracted much attention from the researchers. This article reviews the current studies of the relationship between the internet and learning disabilities, including the role of the internet in motivating students with learning disabilities, improving their reading and writing abilities, strengthening teaching management, and helping them in vocational planning. This article also discusses the limits of the current studies in this area and the tendency of future research as well.
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    Screening and Diagnostic Model for Adults with Learning Disabilities in the West
    Luo Xiaolu
    2005, 13 (05):  563-568. 
    Abstract ( 2195 )   PDF (619KB) ( 1593 )  
    In recent years,on the basis of previous research findings, a screening and diagnostic model for adults with learning disabilities has been gradually established and widely employed at various levels of post-secondary education in western countries typically represented by America . After discussing the relations between screening and diagnosis, an introduction was made to the screening and diagnostic process in details and the standards for selecting and evaluating screening and diagnostic instruments. Finally, a number of suggestions were made for the upcoming establishment of Chinese screening and diagnostic system for learning disabled adults.
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    Social Adjustment of Adults with Learning Disabilities:
    Yan Rong
    2005, 13 (05):  569-575. 
    Abstract ( 1574 )   PDF (631KB) ( 1678 )  
    In recent years,an increasing number of attentions have been paid to social adjustment of adults with learning disabilities in the western academic world. On the basis of summarizing the research framework employed by the western academy, the paper made an analytical review of the current research findings in four different aspects. Finally, an introduction was made to the west educational intervention and counseling services in response to the social adjustment of adults with learning disabilities.
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    Cognitive Characteristics of Adults with Learning Disabilities and Educational Intervention
    Jiang Zhaoping,Zhang Yaming
    2005, 13 (05):  576-580. 
    Abstract ( 1587 )   PDF (625KB) ( 1657 )  
    This article introduced the general characteristics of adults with learning disabilities, and analyzed deeply the characteristics of attention, memory, thinking, and intelligence of adults with learning disabilities. Finally, the educational intervention based on cognitive characteristics for adults with learning disabilities was explored.
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    Neuropsychology of Adults with Learning Disabilities and Behavioral Genetics
    Yi Xinfa,Lin Chongde
    2005, 13 (05):  581-585. 
    Abstract ( 2102 )   PDF (630KB) ( 1561 )  
    This article introduced the neuropsychology and behavioral genetics researches of adults with learning disabilities, and deeply analyzed the characteristics of electrophysiology and behavioral genetics of adults with learning disabilities. Finally, the brief summarize about the neuropsychology and behavioral genetics mechanism of adults with learning disabilities was given.
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    The Behavior Genetic Studies on Developmental Dyslexia
    Gao Bing, Yang Yufang
    2005, 13 (05):  586-595. 
    Abstract ( 1592 )   PDF (673KB) ( 1641 )  
    Developmental dyslexia is very common in school children and its etiology is very complicated. Many researches have been carried out to study the genetic and environmental influence on dyslexia. This paper reviews the behavior genetic researches on dyslexia, especially the important results and weaknesses of molecular genetic studies. The difficulties faced and the direction in the future are suggested and the relationship between behavior genetic studies and education is summarized and evaluated.
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    Comments on the Theoretical Models of Category-Based Inductive Reasoning
    Long Changquan,Wu Ruiming,Li Hong, Chen Antao,Feng Tingyong,Li Fuhong
    2005, 13 (05):  596-605. 
    Abstract ( 2173 )   PDF (661KB) ( 1854 )  
    Several theoretical models of inductive reasoning had been introduced and assessed. There were two kinds of models of inductive reasoning. The first kind of category-based models was based on the similarity. This kind of models can explain the inductive reasoning phenomena in people’s knowledge poor domains well. The second kind of models emphasized on the function of the people’s knowledge and experience. This kind of models can explain the inductive reasoning phenomena in people’s knowledge rich domains well. Several questions of these models were supposed.
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    Children’s Decision-making Behavior
    Chen Danzhi,Zhu Liqi
    2005, 13 (05):  606-613. 
    Abstract ( 2303 )   PDF (651KB) ( 1937 )  
    Previous researches suggested that young children were relatively able to use base-rate information and other types of statistical information to make decisions and judgments, and this performance increased by age, Children used the same heuristics as adults and were susceptible to many judgment biases. Children’s decision-making was influenced by these factors, such as personality traits, gender, age, content domain-specific and information presentation formats. The paper introduced the self-regulation model of decision making and two-process theory to explain and predict the development of children’s decision-making from different perspective. Finally, future researches were discussed in the article.
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    Theoretical Structure and Intervention Measures of Children’s School Readiness
    Gai Xiaosong,Zhang Xiangkui
    2005, 13 (05):  614-622. 
    Abstract ( 1482 )   PDF (665KB) ( 1920 )  
    School readiness is key features needed by children to benefit from the incoming formal education. Three topics were introduced about current researches of school readiness: (1) Early predictors of children’s school outcomes and ecological model about school readiness. (2) Application and validation of assessment tools of school readiness. (3) Intervention approaches of school readiness and evaluations of its’ effects. At last, the limits of current research and its’ implications for future researches were discussed.
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    The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Consideration of the Educational Placement of Gifted Children
    Li Ying,Shi Jiannong
    2005, 13 (05):  623-628. 
    Abstract ( 1496 )   PDF (637KB) ( 1993 )  
    The educational placement of gifted children is a controversial issue for a long time. Firstly the paper introduced the research about the negative effect of gifted class on the students’ self-concept, which is called the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE). Secondly the paper introduced the relevant research results that supported the BFLPE effect. Then the advantages and disadvantages of the diverse educational placements for gifted children were discussed. And finally the future research orientation in favor of the education for gifted children in China was brought out.
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    Review on the Researches of Attachment Working Models
    Wang Zhengyan,Liu Yingze,Yang Ye
    2005, 13 (05):  629-639. 
    Abstract ( 2563 )   PDF (671KB) ( 2775 )  
    The internal working models (IWM) concept is the foundation for understanding how attachment processes operate in parent-child relationships and adult relationships over the lifespan. It is proving to be a powerful tool in thinking about attachment and about developing patterns of attachment relationships. The article in this issue cut across researches on the nature of IWM, the structure and its stability. The discussion focused on the development of the IWM concept and the possibility of different type on the IWM structure over the lifespan. Especially, there are maybe four different types of adult attachment structure which have evolved from child-parent attachment representation. This hypothesis needs to be tested with experiments.
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    Adult Attachment: The Social/Personality Psychology Approach
    Hou Ke,Zou Hong,Jiang Suo
    2005, 13 (05):  640-650. 
    Abstract ( 2499 )   PDF (692KB) ( 3196 )  
    There has been increasing interest in adult attachment from both the Development/Clinic and the Social/Personality approaches. This paper examines the theoretical and methodological assumption of these alternative perspectives. From the view of Social /Personality psychology, the paper provides a review of studies on social cognition and affect regulation, focusing on internal working models and regulation strategies of different attachment types respectively. Moreover, the paper presents the contributions of adult attachment style to the target and belief, communication and self-disclosure, attribution and conflict resolution, support seeking and caregiving in close relationships. Finally, potential areas for future research and development in this field are suggested.
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    Clock Drawing Test and Clock Drawing Test in ADHD Children
    Zhu Xiuhua,Fang Ge
    2005, 13 (05):  651-657. 
    Abstract ( 1910 )   PDF (639KB) ( 1788 )  
    Clock drawing test is used widely to study and test the cognitive deficits and the cognitive decline in old population and proved to be a useful screening tool for dementia patient. There are some studies in normal children and ADHD children recently. The cognitive processes and factors involved in clock drawing test and the relationship between clock drawing test and executive functions are reviewed. The study of clock drawing test in ADHD children is important and practical for it’s simple and can be used to screen ADHD children quickly.
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    Resilience: The Psychological Mechanism for Recovery and Growth during Stress
    Yu Xiaonan,Zhang Jianxin
    2005, 13 (05):  658-665. 
    Abstract ( 2646 )   PDF (675KB) ( 5702 )  
    Resilience refers to the effective coping and adaptation although faced with loss, hardship, or adversity. This biological imperative for self-protection will be exhibited when people are faced with stress, threats, or life changes. Coping resources or protective factors on personal, family, and social aspects interact with each other into a dynamic system in order to resist the effect of adversity. The process model argues that resilience refers to the higher homeostasis than original level, and it is different from recovery. The hierarchy of resilience demonstrates its adaptive nature on different developmental stages, and the meaning of resilience varies according to the specific situations. Although there is no consensus on the measurement of resilience, some scales have been employed widely for their convenience and efficiency. The aim of resilience research is to examine strength and promote adaptation of people, and resilience interventions conducted by schools, clinical institutions, communities, and enterprises have been proven good effects.
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    Back up Behaviors and Correlative Factors in Teams
    Lu Lan,Wang Erping
    2005, 13 (05):  666-671. 
    Abstract ( 2045 )   PDF (637KB) ( 1690 )  
    Back up behaviors in teams are help behaviors among members of a team that enable them to dynamically adjust their resource and energy to improve team performance. In this article, authors first introduce the definition of back up behaviors and some related concepts, as well as some types of back up behaviors. Next they summarize the measurement methods which are mostly used. Then the antecedents and consequences of back up behaviors are discussed. Finally the authors indicate some deficiencies related to the research, and the promising field that the research would be conducted.
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    A Contingent Analysis of Transformational and Transactional Leadership
    Xu Changjiang,Shi Kan
    2005, 13 (05):  672-678. 
    Abstract ( 2508 )   PDF (642KB) ( 4817 )  
    More and more attention had been paid to transformational leadership and transactional leadership in the existing research. And most researchers suggested that transformational leadership was more effective than transactional leadership. However, the effectiveness of transformational leadership and transactional leadership was influenced by the situational and followers’ variables in the view of contingency theories. This paper tried to analyze the effect of such moderate variables as substitutes for leadership, leader-subordinate relationship and organizational culture on the relationship between leadership and leader’s effectiveness. The trend of future research was also discussed.
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    An Introduction of Research and Theory of Feedback-seeking Behavior in Organization
    Wang Yanfei
    2005, 13 (05):  679-685. 
    Abstract ( 2334 )   PDF (640KB) ( 1605 )  
    This article aims at some important aspects about the researches of feedback-seeking Behavior, introduced the research content of the feedback-seeking behavior model, the process of feedback-seeking behavior, summarizes the empirical finding of the antecedents and consequences of feedback-seeking Behavior, discussed some drawbacks and several interesting directions for future research are raised.
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    Review on Relations between Temperature and Aggression
    Wang Lei,Huang Xiting
    2005, 13 (05):  686-693. 
    Abstract ( 2197 )   PDF (699KB) ( 1468 )  
    Based on the general theoretic model in human aggression, this paper mainly introduced attention-deficit model, social justice model, negative affect correction model, heat hypothesis and related findings, then discussed some problems existing in this field. Firstly, the findings are often inconsistencies that hot temperatures sometimes increase and sometimes decrease aggressive behavior. Secondly, aggression in the lab is fundamentally different from real aggression. Thirdly, there is a lack of symmetry between heat and cold effects in the field data. Finally, explanations and studies at present haven’t entirely searched factors influencing aggressive behavior, so we need to discuss all the influential factors and their interactions with different methods.
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    The Past and Present of Evolutionary Psychology
    Zhong Jianan,Zhang Guangxi
    2005, 13 (05):  694-703. 
    Abstract ( 2082 )   PDF (665KB) ( 3509 )  
    Evolutionary psychology, with a growing acknowledge of original, creative reputation, comes into being a terminology which appeared in the 1990s. It evolved from the Sociobiology. However, the origins could be traced back to more than one century ago. Evolving psychology negates the Standard Social Science Model, making a point of the research of the common problems. The explanatory project of evolutionary psychology is more successful.As a way of thought, Evolutionary psychology has been applied to the studies of many fields besides psychology,the achievement outstanding is in the realm of economics. The criticisms are mainly about it's non-empiricism method, but it still has great potential.
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