ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    15 July 2005, Volume 13 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Studies in Cognition: A Discipline of Excellence with Sustained Productivity
    Fu Xiaolan
    2005, 13 (04):  385-387. 
    Abstract ( 2424 )   PDF (555KB) ( 1830 )  
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    Cognitive Science—the Scientific Frontier of New Millennium
    Zhou Haotian1,Fu Xiaolan
    2005, 13 (04):  388-397. 
    Abstract ( 1478 )   PDF (610KB) ( 4566 )  
    Cognitive science is the booming scientific enterprise attempting to unravel the mysteries of human mind using an interdisciplinary approach. Cognitive science explores the most influential scientific territories in terms of future destination of human beings and has been attracting attention from all walks of life. Based on a myriad of up-to-date information and data, this review introduces the status quo of cognitive science research around the globe, analyzes the future trends of its development, discusses the prospective areas where the inquiry of human mind will find marked practical uses, and points out the challenge facing the future generation of cognition researchers.
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    Eye Gaze: Special or Not Special?
    Lin Zhicheng
    2005, 13 (04):  398-405. 
    Abstract ( 3372 )   PDF (622KB) ( 3180 )  
    As an important component of the face information, eye gaze is shown to have unique psychological qualities. From the view that eye gaze is special, this article reviewed research studies on the special morphology of eyes, the function of eye gaze, the mechanical independence of eye gaze on face recognition and focused mainly on its implications on reflexive shift of attention for behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Finally, combining eye gaze with theory of mind, emotion and self researched was analyzed.
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    Cross-modal Reorganization in the Blind
    Wu Jianhui,Luo Yuejia
    2005, 13 (04):  406-412. 
    Abstract ( 1709 )   PDF (611KB) ( 1834 )  
    Blindness could lead to enhanced acuity in the remaining senses. Brain imaging and TMS researches found that the brain cross-model reorganization underlies this kind of behavior compensation: visual cortex is not remains ‘silent’ after visual deprivation but rather is recruited by other modalities to process sensory information in a functionally relevant manner. Neutral circuits are shaped by altered sensory experience consistently activating tentative neural connections, which might mediate the cross-modal plasticity.
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    The Perceptual Load Theory and Selective Attention
    Wei Ping,Zhou Xiaolin
    2005, 13 (04):  413-420. 
    Abstract ( 2894 )   PDF (601KB) ( 2867 )  
    It is considered that the perceptual load theory proposed by Lavie resolves the conflict between early and late selection models in the study of selective attention. According to this theory, to what extent the task-irrelevant stimuli are processed is determined by whether there are spare attentional resources left when they are used to process the task-relevant stimuli. If the current task has high perceptual load and exhausts all the attentional resources, there will be no spare resources left to process distractors; if, however, the current task has low perceptual load and uses only a proportion of attentional resources, the spared resources will automatically spread to distractors, their processing causing interference. This paper reviewed studies that investigate the impact of perceptual load on selective attention, and studies that examine the interaction between the distribution of attentional resources and other cognitive processes or factors, such as working memory load.
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    Feature Binding in Visual Working Memory
    Xuan Yuming,Fu Xiaolan
    2005, 13 (04):  421-427. 
    Abstract ( 2520 )   PDF (596KB) ( 2301 )  
    Binding problem is a central issue of cognitive sciences and neurosciences and is at the core of the dispute on consciousness. Much of mental life involves the manipulation of binding of features from different objects. The mechanisms that maintain these bindings within working memory are essential to efficient functioning. Feature binding in visual working memory turns to be a heated topic recently. Most related studies focus on whether visual working memory stores bound features, the relation between the storage of separate features and bound features, and the role of attention in the storage of bound features. However, there are not clear answers to above questions till now.
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    Studies of Event-related Potentials on Human Working Memory
    Li Xuebing,Luo Yuejia
    2005, 13 (04):  428-434. 
    Abstract ( 1830 )   PDF (599KB) ( 1891 )  
    Working memory as one of the most important cognition processes has been always attracting a nice bit of interest in cognitive neuroscience field. Researchers used ERP technique to examine the temporal course and scalp activity area of storage, rehearsal and central executive processing in working memory. A number of ERP studies indicated that the slow cortical potentials are specific to the kind and amount of information retained in the working memory, and the positive difference wave (Pd) is related to the updating function of the central executive. Overall these results validate and reinforce Baddeley’s working memory model.
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    Familiarity and Difference between Working Memory and Episodic Memory: To Explore Their Relationship from Brain Regions
    Liu Rong,Guo Chunyan
    2005, 13 (04):  435-441. 
    Abstract ( 2334 )   PDF (595KB) ( 1707 )  
    Although recent findings converge on the idea that prefrontal regions (PFC) was engaged during the working memory task and episodic long-term memory task, it remains unclear whether different regions play roles specific to working memory or episodic long-term memory. Researchers argued about the relationship between working memory and episodic long-term memory and supported different views. Some researchers support the view that prefrontal activation during episodic memory reflects the recruitment of specific working memory processes in the service of episodic memory. The others raise the possible that the same prefrontal regions implement reflective processes that support both working memory and episodic long-term memory. The present article supports the discussion to the questions above.
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    Source Memory and Aging
    Nie Aiqing,Guo Chunyan
    2005, 13 (04):  442-447. 
    Abstract ( 2287 )   PDF (587KB) ( 1454 )  
    Source memory was more affected by aging than item memory. The reason for this phenomenon comprised physiological and psychological aspects. The deterioration of prefrontal cortex function was the physiological factor that influenced older people’s source memory, and the difficulty of attentive allocation and the difficulty of memory procession were the psychological factors that influenced older people’s source memory.
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    The Relationship between Working Memory and Attention in Researches of General Fluid Intelligence
    Luo Ting,Jiao Shulan,Wang Qing
    2005, 13 (04):  448-453. 
    Abstract ( 2653 )   PDF (589KB) ( 2323 )  
    The relationship between working memory and attention is regarded as the key to the relationship between general fluid intelligence and those 2, with researches on general fluid intelligence go on recently. Since function of the central executive of working memory is not identified, the relationship between controlled attention and working memory is still a problem. Two different points are hold among researchers: (1) working memory and attention interact in most situations; (2) they are with identical function and frame, thus actually one cognitive component.
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    Thinking and Language: Evidences from Cognitive Neuroscience
    Luo Jing,Ying Xiaoping
    2005, 13 (04):  454-465. 
    Abstract ( 2201 )   PDF (617KB) ( 2904 )  
    As a basic and important research topic on brain and mind, the relationship between thinking and language still remains unspecified. With the help of new technique and methods, recent cognitive neuroscience provides new insight on this topic. The research logic in this study is, if a thinking process (e.g., the simple arithmetic or syllogism) is “language” in its nature, then the brain areas that participate in language information processing will involve in this process. On the contrary, if a thinking process is “spatial” in nature, then the “special” area will be highlighted in the thinking process. These neuroimaging evidences, together with other evidences (such as the behavioural ones and the brain-damaged ones) enable us to obtain a new comprehension on the relationship between thinking and language.
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    Representation of Artifacts’ Concepts: Function, Intention, and Teleological Explanation
    Sun Yuhao,Fu Xiaolan
    2005, 13 (04):  466-478. 
    Abstract ( 925 )   PDF (655KB) ( 1435 )  
    This paper proposed that “using-goal” instead of “intended design” as the top-down constraints in representation of artifact concepts after reviewing intentional-historical theory (Bloom, 1996) of artifact concepts and its evidences reported recently. Basing on analysis on experiments reported recently, a using-based teleological explanatory mode for representation of artifact concepts and a dual-goal model for artifacts’ categorization were advanced.
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    What is Situation Model: Propositional Symbol or Perceptual Symbol?
    Wu Limei,Mo Lei,Wang Ruiming
    2005, 13 (04):  479-487. 
    Abstract ( 1445 )   PDF (600KB) ( 1921 )  
    How to construct situation model is the hotspot in comprehension study. The prevailing propositional symbol theory proposes situation models are amodal system composed of a bunch of relative propositions. With the development of knowledge representing theory, perceptual symbol theory conceptualizes situation models as modal system containing perceptual symbol. This paper compared the different explanations of situation model based on different theories, introduced the experiments to verify their reasonableness and prospected the way to validate two theories.
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    Emotional Information and Attentional Bias
    Peng Xiaozhe,Zhou Xiaolin
    2005, 13 (04):  488-496. 
    Abstract ( 3000 )   PDF (618KB) ( 3843 )  
    Recent studies on the interaction between cognition and emotion demonstrate that people suffering from emotional disorders may have attentional bias to emotional stimuli. Different experimental paradigms and subject populations have been used in research, in which four types of theories concerning the mechanisms of attentional bias were developed. According to the components of selective attention account, the reason for attentional bias is that threat-related stimuli make the disengagement of attention more difficult. According to the schema theory, the activation of relevant schema or knowledge structure induces the bias of attentional to the particular stimuli. According to the attentional resource theory, emotional information captures attention automatically, which leaves no attentional resources to process non-emotional dimension of stimuli. According to the PDP model, for people with emotional disorders, the input units for threat-related information have higher activation levels, resulting in interference with the completion of the current task.
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    Recognizing Facial Expression and Facial Identity: Parallel Processing or Interactive Processing
    Wang Yamin,Fu Xiaolan
    2005, 13 (04):  497-516. 
    Abstract ( 1208 )   PDF (735KB) ( 2842 )  
    The model that facial expression and facial identity was traditionally viewed as parallel processing is now dubious. More and more evidences tend to establish an interactive model to illustrate the relationship between the processing of facial expression and the processing of facial identity. The article reviewed the literatures on the issue after Face Recognition Functional Model (Bruce & Young, 1986) was proposed, and focused on the debates about parallel or interactive processing between facial expression recognition and facial identity recognition. The distributed neural system was discussed as a recent model, and then an idea of integrative model was proposed based on visual representation and stages of faces perception to illustrate mechanism of facial identity and facial expression recognition.
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    The Neural Bases of Social Emotions
    Xu Xiaokun,Wang Lingling,Qian Xing,Wang Jinjin,Zhou Xiaolin
    2005, 13 (04):  517-524. 
    Abstract ( 2204 )   PDF (618KB) ( 1979 )  
    Social emotions depend on a social context and arise later in development and evolution than basic emotions (happy, sad, angry etc) and require an extended representation of oneself as situated within a society. This article categorized social emotions and reviewed recent findings concerning the neural bases of different social emotions. The advantages and limitations of various experimental paradigms and the neural relations between social emotions and other social cognition processes are discussed.
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    Neural Basis of Social Cognition
    Zhu Chunyan,Wang Kai,Lee TMC
    2005, 13 (04):  525-533. 
    Abstract ( 1739 )   PDF (617KB) ( 2470 )  
    There is no doubt that humans differ from other animals in their social skills, in that they are able to form higher-order representations of the social environment, and to manipulate those representations in reasoning that can be quite flexible. But the neural underpinnings of social cognition are not understood yet. Studies in humans and other primates have been focused on several structures, such as the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex, the superior temporal sulcus, the anterior cingulate cortex and some other brain areas that lay a key role in guiding social behaviors. In this review, we summarize recent work that has illuminated the neural basis of complex social cognition and behavior in humans.
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    Neurobiological Mechanism of Nicotine Dependence
    Deng Linyuan,Fang Xiaoyi
    2005, 13 (04):  534-543. 
    Abstract ( 1625 )   PDF (655KB) ( 1792 )  
    Nicotine dependence is the main cause of cigarette addiction, which is characterized by uncontrollable compulsion of nicotine-seeking, impulsive and continuous nicotine in-taking,in order to experience euphoria and happiness, and to avoid withdrawal symptoms without nicotine. This article reviewed some research findings of neurobiological mechanism of nicotine dependence from both animal model and human brain imaging study, which revealed that mesolimbic dopamine system is the important neurobiological basis of nicotine dependence. However, previous studies mostly took a static approach, but rarely considered the dynamic process of nicotine dependence; there are also lack of enough evidences of the differences between nicotine dependence and other drugs dependence, which will direct the future studies.
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