ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2004, Volume 12 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    The Development of Methods for Testing Awareness State in Subliminal Perceptual Studies and Its Imply
    Zhou Renlai
    2004, 12 (3):  321-329. 
    Abstract ( 1542 )   PDF (774KB) ( 1944 )  
    This article analyzed the various findings in subliminal perceptual priming by using subjective threshold measurement, objective threshold measurement, and other improved methods to test subliminal priming without awareness. By combining them with some theories about the relationship between consciousness and unconsciousness, the author showed that the phenomenon which have been quarrelling how to test the validity of awareness over one hundred years possibly result from the wrong theoretical hypothesis about the relationship between consciousness and unconsciousness subconsciously. The future study should avoid such traps and focus on studying how unconscious perceptual affect human behavior consciously and search for the index of neural activity in subliminal perceptual priming.
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    The Theories of Spatial Memory and Retrieval
    Zhou Ronggang,Zhang Kan
    2004, 12 (3):  330-339. 
    Abstract ( 2116 )   PDF (832KB) ( 2507 )  
    Research on how do people learn the layout of some-scale space has been an important filed in spatial cognition study. Deep researches on spatial memory and retrieval of physical environment not only help us to understand human spatial behavior, but can provide useful data or support for interface design, information presentation in virtual spatial environmental. This article reviewed current theories of spatial memory from theory of intrinsic reference system, the coordinate system model of retrieval, spatial situation model and spatial category model.
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    Verification of the Dissociation between Perception and Action in the Visual Illusion Experiments
    Tang Rixin,Zhang Zhijun
    2004, 12 (3):  340-346. 
    Abstract ( 2002 )   PDF (792KB) ( 2210 )  
    The dissociation between perception and action refers to the phenomena that visual perception and visual control of action correspond to the two different systems. The dissociation was found from clinical cases at first. Aglioti and others verified the dissociation in normal people using Titchener circles illusion later. Some researchers looked on the dissociation as functions of two different cortical pathways (ventral stream vs. dorsal stream). There were lots of controversies on experiments and hypotheses about the phenomena. The article reviewed a lot of verification experiments done with illusion experiments last ten years, analyzed and summarized some important results and viewpoints, and hereby put forward ourselves’ opinion.
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    The Minimal Model of Transitive Inference: The New Theory of Transitive Inference
    Chen Jing,Li Hong,Zhang Zhongming
    2004, 12 (3):  347-354. 
    Abstract ( 1419 )   PDF (783KB) ( 1653 )  
    Wynne’s minimal model is a theoretical model based on the study of transitive inference in animals. He posits that individual can do transitive inference by representing sequence information with the reinforcement value of stimuli, and comparing the differences among the presented stimuli’s reinforcement values. The authors consider the model as the most parsimonious model to account for transitive inference problems, because research literatures demonstrate that the minimal model can account for the most of standard effects coming from transitive inference researches in humans and other animals. However, the model’s tendency of reductionism, interpreting higher cognitive activities in humans with mechanical learning ways in animals, deserves being discussed. And whether the transitive behavior the model discussed is the “true transitive inference” needs to be validated
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    Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities
    Zeng Shouchui,Wu Huaqing
    2004, 12 (3):  355-362. 
    Abstract ( 2542 )   PDF (786KB) ( 2561 )  
    Recently much research on working memory in LD showed, children with reading disability and children with math disability have some deficiencies in verbal working memory and executive function; Children with math disability have deficiency in visual-space working memory, but there has dispute whether children with reading disability show deficiency in visual-space working memory; There has been much dispute over whether LD are characters of developmental lag or developmental deficit, which is partly caused by the methods adopted. The field is facing some challenges including causal relationship between LD and deficiencies in working memory, the validity and sensitiveness of materials used to assess working memory, the relationship between working memory and other cognitive abilities. The future research should be carried by adopting longitudinal design, multivariate statistical procedure, reforming method and techniques of assessing working memory, explaining roles and mechanisms of working memory in the field of academic domain.
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    Researches on Children with Learning Disabilities from Metacognitive Perspective
    Zhang Yaming,Yu Guoliang
    2004, 12 (3):  363-370. 
    Abstract ( 2491 )   PDF (780KB) ( 2394 )  
    Metacognition refers to the knowledge and regulation of cognition. In the field of learning disabilities, metacognitive theory has contributed substantially both to understanding students’ underlying processing problems and to guiding development of instructional approaches that promote academic success. After a comprehensive literature review, the author point some unsolved basic questions. Further studies should focus on those questions, explore the underlying process deeply, and integrate cognitive, motive and effective factors for training learning disabilities to self-regulated learners.
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    Preschools’ Developnent And Acquirement of Naïve Theory of Biology
    Zhang Lijin,Fang Fuxi,Yang Xiaodong
    2004, 12 (3):  371-378. 
    Abstract ( 2173 )   PDF (792KB) ( 2213 )  
    The studies of preschoolers’ development of theory of naïve biology have been the hot issues of children cognitive development in last 20 years. Carey claimed that young children’s conceptions of living things undergo radical conceptual change that intuitive biology emerges from an intuitive psychology and do not possess an integrated concept of living things that includes both animals and plants. An alternative view, a growing number of cognitive developmentalists argued that young children honor the biological ontological distinction and use coherent biological causal principles in reasoning about biological domain. So they possess the naïve theory of biology, and the child’s conceptual system may involve the gradual elaboration of a single system. Now, the integrated view claimed that naïve biology is separated from naïve psychology at early ages but is sometimes influenced by psychological understandings that were established even earlier.
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    Children’s Understanding of Biological Goal-Directed Action
    Qing Sulan,Fang Fuxi
    2004, 12 (3):  379-386. 
    Abstract ( 1355 )   PDF (779KB) ( 1602 )  
    Goal-directed action is a basic trait of biology, which is also an important standard for identifying whether the entity is alive. There are three viewpoints about preschooler’s distinguishing living things from non-living things through goal-directed movement, namely, able, unable or only able to understand animals’ goal-directed action except plants’. According to goal-directed action, some researches about how children understand people’s, animals’ and plants’ goal-directed action are introduced in this essay. Researches about preschooler how to attribute goal-directed action of unfamiliar things are also introduced. Furthermore, previous researches are evaluated and some questions remaining to be answered in the future are put forward.
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    Children’s Cognitive Development of Emotional Display Rules
    Hou Ruihe,Yu Guoliang,Lin Chongde
    2004, 12 (3):  387-394. 
    Abstract ( 3227 )   PDF (782KB) ( 3974 )  
    Children’s cognitive construction of emotional display rules(EDRs) was an important task during their socialization and the development of emotion. This review synthesized many researches involving in the concept and cognitive development theory and measurement of EDRs, and reflecting the relation between EDRs cognitive development and other factors. The results mainly demonstrated three relationships. First, children’s cognitive development of EDRs was most strongly related to age and gender. Second, positive family emotion environment was related to children’s more knowledge and use of EDRs and lower negative affect. Third, children’s knowledge and use of EDRs was positively associated with their social competence.
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    Subtypes of Social Withdrawal in Childhood and Relations with Social Adjustment
    Sun Ling,Chen Huichang,Shan Ling
    2004, 12 (3):  395-401. 
    Abstract ( 1831 )   PDF (777KB) ( 2964 )  
    This article reviewed the studies of social withdrawal in childhood from the 1980s, including the concept, method, subtypes and relations between different subtype of social withdrawal and children’s social adjustment. The author discussed the concept of social withdrawal and suggested that there were three subtypes of social withdrawal: passive withdrawal, active withdrawal and anxious withdrawal. Passive withdrawal was related more closely to children’s social adjustment in late childhood and active withdrawal was related to social adjustment in the reverse direction in the whole childhood, while the relation between anxious withdrawal and social adjustment depended on the situation, only anxious withdrawal in familiar situations was related to social adjustment in reverse direction. In the end, the author pointed out the flaws of existing studies and proposed the study directions in the future.
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    The Simulated Situation Approach in Personality Psychology
    An Jinghui,Zhang Jianxin
    2004, 12 (3):  402-408. 
    Abstract ( 1285 )   PDF (772KB) ( 2292 )  
    The pattern of intra-individual variation may not change across situations and over time, therefore it contains a large amount of significant information about a person's personality. The stable variation pattern is called a person’s “behavioural signature”, which characterizes stability and uniqueness in each individual behaviour to certain characteristics of a situation. Compared to the trait paradigm which dwells on motionless and phenomenological description, the rule of intra-individual variation, from the dynamic perspective, may reflect an inner cognitive pattern and mechanism. The paper briefly introduces to the Chinese psychologists the simulated situations approach, which can help personality researchers understand and find out the pattern of intra-individual variation.
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    The Development and Prospect of Dweck’s Motivational Goal Orientation Theory
    Peng Qinfang,Li Xiaowen
    2004, 12 (3):  409-405. 
    Abstract ( 1631 )   PDF (767KB) ( 4190 )  
    This article briefly introduces how Dweck’s goal orientation theory shaped in order to stress its major value. The paper mainly analyzes the theory’s development both at home and abroad, which can be basically divided into two aspects: one concerns the research of the theory itself, the other is about goal orientation’s dynamic regulation function. Further, the article points out that the soul of Dweck’s theory lies in the intelligence theory. However, the cultivation of the intelligence theory is what recent researches are deficient, thus it should become an important direction of future study. This article discusses the possible approaches of intelligence theory’s cultivation and indicates that we should explore such approaches in terms of children’s own development.
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    Shavinina’s Perspective on the Assessment of Intellectual Abilities
    Qiu Jiang,Zhang Qinglin
    2004, 12 (3):  416-422. 
    Abstract ( 2078 )   PDF (761KB) ( 1657 )  
    This article reviewed Shavinina’s perspective on the psychological assessment of intellectual abilities, which was based on the new theory of human intelligence that included cognitive experience and manifestations of intelligence. The nine methodological and procedural principles, which formed this approach, were considered along with the examples of new intelligence tests,such as “ideal computertest”,“conceptual synthesis”test and formulation of problems test.
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    A Brief Introduction of Swann’s Self-Verification Theory and Research
    Gu Meixi
    2004, 12 (3):  423-428. 
    Abstract ( 1843 )   PDF (770KB) ( 2962 )  
    Swann raised the theory of self-verification and recently proposed a framework of self-verification processes for classifying most of the past researches on self-verification. Self-verification and self-assessment are complementary,but the debate between self-verification and self-enhancement is much more complicated,and their debate can be divided into three stages, from“mine is bigger”to“both of us are all big”, to“how do they interact to guide our behavior”. Self-verification theory has been widely applied to many domains.
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    Introduction of Ecological Momentary Assessment and Other Methods for Measuring Coping Ways
    Feng Danjun,Shi Lin
    2004, 12 (3):  429-434. 
    Abstract ( 2383 )   PDF (773KB) ( 2302 )  
    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is an advanced method for measuring coping ways at present. It can also be used in the other domains of social science and behavioral science, so it has been applied widely in the western countries. This article mainly introduces its characteristics, using methods, applying conditions, merits and shortcomings and so on. Because EMA is especially suitable for issues that are process-oriented, it is an appropriate tool for research on coping ways. In addition, the article simply introduces and comments on some other methods for measuring coping ways. Finally this article points out the development trend of measuring coping ways.
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    A Preliminary Report on the Worried Well of AIDS
    Wang Jianping1, Wang Shanshan1, Lin Xiuyun1, Su Wenliang1, Chen Haiyong1, Wu Hao2
    2004, 12 (3):  435-439. 
    Abstract ( 1635 )   PDF (757KB) ( 2303 )  
    The worried well of AIDS is a mixed neurosis, whose central symptoms might include those of anxiety, hypochondria, phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression; there may also be physical symptoms similar to those of HIV infection; individuals suffering from the disorder seek for HIV testing repeatedly. Based on western literatures and clinical cases, this article reviewed several issues of the disorder, including its definition, the clinical symptoms, the psychological mechanism, the diagnosis methods and strategies for psychological treatment.
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    Applications of IDB in Consumer Researches
    Ding Xiaqi,Ma Mochao,Wang Yong,Fan Chunlei
    2004, 12 (3):  440-446. 
    Abstract ( 2204 )   PDF (774KB) ( 1998 )  
    Information Display Board (IDB) is a process tracing technique, which shows an m×n information matrix to subjects and monitors their information acquisition behavior. Researchers employ this technique to study subjects’ information searching and acquiring process in problem solving and decision-making. Mouselab is the generally adopted software of IDB and applied in many researches. Since consumers are problem solvers with bounded rationality, IDB is fitted for the studies of consumer behavior. Using IDB, the patterns of information acquisition and some influence factors were studied in consumer decision-making studies.
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    Review and Comment on Heuristic Fairness Theory
    Long Lirong
    2004, 12 (3):  447-454. 
    Abstract ( 1061 )   PDF (767KB) ( 2559 )  
    Organizational justice is thought to consist of distributional justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice in which they are both differential and related. Lind paid attention to the integration of distributional justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice instead of their differences , and proposed his fairness heuristic theory. The key concept heuristic in fairness heuristic theory was described from both its formation and function. The problems in heuristic fairness theory and some future study orientation is discussed finally.
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    Social Desirability in Industrial/Organizational Psychology
    Li Feng,Li Yongjuan,Ren Jing,Wang Erping
    2004, 12 (3):  455-461. 
    Abstract ( 2564 )   PDF (785KB) ( 2638 )  
    This article firstly discussed the measurement of the Social Desirability (SD) by reviewing the Attribution vs Denial Approach and Self-Deception vs Impression Management Model, and then reviewed the different effects of SD on the Computer-presented and pencil-paper questionnaires tests; the effect of the SD on the relationships of the constructs in Organizational Psychology, and the construct validity of the Personality Measurement used in personnel selection on the basis of the relative papers. At last the directions for the future study of SD on the personality measurement, job analysis and the control method on the SD were presented.
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    Issues on Multilevel Research of Organizations
    Yu Haibo,Fang Liluo,Ling Wenquan
    2004, 12 (3):  462-471. 
    Abstract ( 1673 )   PDF (792KB) ( 3770 )  
    Multilevel theory has becoming a new paradigm in organizational research. And the interaction between macro and micro phenomena can be studied in multilevel theory. After showing the origin of multilevel researches, the article introduced three unite-level constructs, five composition models of construct, and a decision-making frame. And the article explained the usefulness and the comparison of the four justified indexes (rwg、ICC(1)、ICC(2)、WABAI) that were constantly used. And at last, the article simply showed the three popular analysis procedures and comparison between them(WABA:within-and-between-analysis、HLM:hierarchical linear modeling、CLOP:cross-level operator)
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    Parsing the Definition, Peculiarities and Typology of Workplace Deviance
    Yang Jie,Lin Wenquan,Fang Liluo
    2004, 12 (3):  472-479. 
    Abstract ( 1691 )   PDF (785KB) ( 3208 )  
    Based on reviewing a wide variety of literatures within psychology, sociology, criminology, and organizational behavior, three questions were systematically analyzed, including the definition of deviant behavior, the peculiarities and typology of workplace deviance. Then, three suggestions were put forward: (1) Great attention should be paid to workplace deviance research since it can produce significant negative repercussions.(2)The working definition of workplace deviance is as follows: Voluntary behavior of organizational members that violates significant organizational norms and , in so doing, may produce four possible outcomes for the two sides of relationship, that is win-win, win-lose, lose-win and lose-lose.(3) A typology of workplace deviance with Chinese characteristics should be established and developed.
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