ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2007, Volume 15 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Interaction of Emotion and Memory
    Li Xuebing, Luo Yuejia

    Li Xuebing;Luo Yuejia

    2007, 15 (1):  3-7. 
    Abstract ( 1629 )   PDF (952KB) ( 5773 )  
    As to the relationship between emotion and memory, it had been the focus of research in social cognitive neuroscience. This article mainly introduced three aspects of researches on emotion and memory: the role of emotion in memory, the way of emotion effects on memory and brain regions involved in the emotion-memory interaction. The affection of emotional arousal to amygdale, and the interaction among amygdale, medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex were specially emphasized
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    The Relationship Between Working Memory And Selective Attention
    Zhang Ming;Zhang Yang
    2007, 15 (1):  8-15. 
    Abstract ( 2031 )   PDF (960KB) ( 3501 )  
    The aim of this review was made a summary of the interplay relationship between Working memory and selective attention. These works can put into two categories. The fist category mainly stressed the role of the working memory in the selective attention which included the influence of the contents in working memory on the allocation of selective attention, the influence of working memory on the working memory in the control of selective attention and the influence of working memory on visual search and inhibition of return. The second category mainly stressed the role of the selective attention in the working memory which included the role of the attention in the rehearsal of the spatial working memory, the role of mechanism of distractor processing of selective attention in working memory and the orient spatial attention on mnemonic representations
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    Reasoning and Working Memory
    Bai Xuejun;Zang Chuanli;Wang Lihong
    2007, 15 (1):  16-21. 
    Abstract ( 1694 )   PDF (941KB) ( 3763 )  
    This paper reviewed systematically the advanced studies on reasoning and working memory, which included five aspects, i.e. (1)the concepts and the related studies on reasoning and working memory; (2)theoretical models of reasoning and working memory; (3)studies on the relationship between different kinds of reasoning and working memory; and (4)their cognitive neuroscience studies; (5) in the end, the directions for future researches of reasoning and working memory were put forward
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    Verbal Working Memory, Sentence Comprehension, and the Processing of Filler-Gap Dependencies
    Zhang Ya xu;Jiang Xiaoming;Huang Yongjing
    2007, 15 (1):  22-28. 
    Abstract ( 2556 )   PDF (949KB) ( 2826 )  
    One of central issues in current cognitive neuroscience is how the verbal working memory system is used in sentence comprehension. In this article, we first review a debate on the specificity of the resource underlying language comprehension. We then review some critical studies investigating how verbal working memory system is used in the processing of filler-gap dependencies during online sentence comprehension and speculate on the direction of further studies
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    The Interaction Between Working Memory and Episodic Memory

    Guo Chunyan;Liu Rong

    2007, 15 (1):  29-35. 
    Abstract ( 2474 )   PDF (1248KB) ( 3616 )  
    Although the working memory modal by Baddeley is supported by various experimental results, the relationship between working memory and long-term memory is unsolved. The evidence from neuropsychology showed that prefrontal region was involved in both working memory and episodic memory tasks. Meanwhile, some researches found that there was different prefrontal sub-regions which execute separate functions for working memory and episodic memory. The study topic in future should be focus on the interaction between the two memory systems. The precious studies results show the age effect and material-specific on the temporal and scalp distribution when the studied experience stored at episodic memory impact the content of working memory. On the other hand, the earlier process stage of working memory may determine successful episodic memory forming. The future studies should focus on exploring the neuropsychological mechanism of two memory system by employing various approaches supported by theoretical frame
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    The Role of Working Memory in Mathematical Calculations
    Lian Siqing;Lin Chongde
    2007, 15 (1):  36-41. 
    Abstract ( 1720 )   PDF (947KB) ( 2323 )  
    The vast majority of empirical work on working memory and mathematical calculation had been done within the three-component model proposed by Baddeley, & Hitch(1974). Literatures on the subject were not systematic. Firstly, those reviewed researches were focused on addition and multiplication, and were rarely involved in abstraction, division and more abstract algebra calculations. Secondly, researchers paid more attention to the role of phonological loop and central executive system, and the role of visual-spatial sketch pad were often overlooked. Thirdly, the role of working memory in mathematics calculations would be dynamical, and be changed by external factors, intrinsic factors of math tasks, and individual cognitive factors (e.g. cognitive strategies). Finally, almost all of empirical results suggested that the central executive system play an important role in mathematical calculations, but it was difficult to determine how executive components acted on them because secondary tasks included more executive functions. The adequate solution of these problems will be the direction of future studies
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    Focus of Attention’s Switch in Working Memory
    Fang Weijun;Lin Juncai;Jin Zhicheng
    2007, 15 (1):  42-49. 
    Abstract ( 864 )   PDF (976KB) ( 2478 )  
    Based on the mechanisms of selective attention and the focus of attention (FOA) in working memory, this article reviews 3 aspects regarding the switching of FOA in working memory: Firstly, the concept of switching of FOA in working memory and its basic research methods. Secondly, the cognitive factors which might affect the focus switch costs, mainly including retrieval, rehearsal, processing, update of memory and size of memory set, etc. Thirdly, the relation between FOA switching and the functions of working memory, including the relation between FOA switching and the executive functions of working memory, the relations between storage, processing and the executive functions of working memory which are all reflected through FOA switching, the relation between FOA switching and the distributing of resource in working memory. Finally the directions for future research are prospected
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    Subitizing, What Can It Tell Us
    Xu Xiaodong;Liu Chang
    2007, 15 (1):  50-56. 
    Abstract ( 1647 )   PDF (948KB) ( 2151 )  
    During the process of enumeration, researchers found that enumeration of three or fewer objects is very fast and accurate (often called “subitizing”), but gets slower and more error prone for more than three items (“counting”). Thereby they suggested that “subitizing” and “counting” are two qualitatively separable processes, a number of behavioral reaction time and accuracy supported their hypothesis. Moreover, recent neruoimage and electrophysiology results showed that “subitizing” and “counting” are also separable in attentional requirements. that is, “subitizing”can happen without attention, while “counting”must rely on attention. Based on these findings, many theories have been proposed to account for subitizing phenomenon
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    The Evolutionary Foundation of Human Numerical Competence: Implication from Comparative Studies
    Zhang Zhen;Su Yanjie
    2007, 15 (1):  57-63. 
    Abstract ( 1562 )   PDF (953KB) ( 1832 )  
    Numerical competence has reached a high level of abstraction in human culture. However, there is growing evidence suggesting that both human infants and non-human primates exhibit an initial responsiveness to numbers, including numerical representation and reasoning about numerical quantities. Recent research was reviewed to compare the representation content and format involved in numerical discrimination as well as simple addition and subtraction between human infants and non-human primates. Further, the comparison of related neural mechanisms was made between human and non-human primates. Since there is no such research on human infants, we relied on research on human adults and inferred to human infants. Similarity revealed through these comparisons implied that there is shared numerical competence across primates. Further studies on the similar core systems of number presented in both human infant and non-human primates would provide better understanding of the evolutionary origin and nature of this capacity in human beings
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    The Development of the Single-category View When Categorization Is Uncertain
    Chen Lin;Mo Lei;Liu Zhiya;Xu Minghui
    2007, 15 (1):  64-70. 
    Abstract ( 1437 )   PDF (964KB) ( 1556 )  
    When categorization is uncertain, there are two theories of feature prediction: the Rational Model and the single-category view. The Rational Model assumes that people will consider all the categories an object could belong to when they judge the likelihood that the object has a feature. The single-category view suggests that people don’t consider multiple categories but only consider the target category. The article will introduce the development of the single-category view
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    ERP Studies of Endogenous and Exogenous Attention
    Wu Yan;Sui Guangyuan;Cao Xiaohua
    2007, 15 (1):  71-77. 
    Abstract ( 2001 )   PDF (1080KB) ( 5057 )  
    Endogenous attention and exogenous attention reflect the top-down and bottom-up regulation mechanism of orientation and focus of attention. Great deal of event-related potentials studies investigated the effect of endogenous and exogenous attention on neural activities. Endogenous attention has been shown to enhance as early as N1component and late P300 component, while whether early P1 component can be enhanced was less consistent; exogenous attention has been found to enhance N1component, P1 component, and late P300 component. It has also been found that endogenous and exogenous mechanisms represent two attention systems that can affect information processing in the brain in distinct ways
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    The Multiple Systems Theory in Category Learning
    Zhang Qi;Liu Wanglun
    2007, 15 (1):  78-87. 
    Abstract ( 2295 )   PDF (1034KB) ( 2053 )  
    The multiple systems theory in category learning was introduced in this paper. A set of experiments for the theory were conducted by the multiple systems theorists. The results showed that feedback practices, delayed feedback, the location of the response and discontinuous categories effected on information-integration category learning but not on rule-based category learning, whereas the simultaneous performance of a numerical Stroop task, a sequential memory scanning task and categories’ number impacted rule-based category learning but not information-integration category learning. Basing on the analysis of the prior researches, the authors proposed some issues about difficulties and differences between the category structures that had been not solved and some topics should be studied further
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    Relationship between Speech and Hand Movement
    Zhu Mingquan
    2007, 15 (1):  88-93. 
    Abstract ( 2100 )   PDF (944KB) ( 1891 )  
    The relation between speech and hand movement has been unclear. The findings of behavioral and neurological researches on the relation between speech and two types of hand movement, specifically gestures accompanied with speech and grasping, were reviewed. The results were summarized as follows: (1) gestures accompanied with speech facilitated speech process, especially lexical retrieval; (2) online observation of hand grasping influenced the lip movement and voice of speech; (3) word perception influenced the plan of grasping; (4) speech production increased the excitability of hand motor cortex. It was implied that the relation between speech and hand movement was reflected not only in the overlap and mutual activation of neural paths, but also in interaction of explicit behavior. The further researches focusing the relation between hand movement and sub-processes of speech perception and production were suggested
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    Children’s Naïve Theory of Motion Cognition
    Zhao Junyan;Yu Guoliang
    2007, 15 (1):  94-100. 
    Abstract ( 2212 )   PDF (948KB) ( 2010 )  

    The article introduces children’s knowledge systems of naïve motion theory from two parts: one is the explicit knowledge which can be verbally and consciously accessible in daily life, another is the implicit motor knowledge which children can access by dealing with moving objects. In addition, the article sets forth that the implicit perceptual knowledge and the explicit conceptual knowledge are of little or no cross-talk. There are dissociation of implicit motor knowledge and explicit conceptual knowledge. Dynamic imagery may become an important bridge between motor knowledge and conceptual knowledge. Yet it remains controversial whether the false beliefs are highly task specific and what the relation of the two implicit knowledge system is, etc

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    Loneliness in Childhood and Relations with Peer Interactions
    Zhao DongMei;Zhou Zongkui;Liu Jiujun
    2007, 15 (1):  101-107. 
    Abstract ( 2196 )   PDF (947KB) ( 4760 )  

    Loneliness is a kind of negative feeling. Being in this state for a long time will lead to children’s maladjustment. Social Needs Theory suggests loneliness is a response to a relational deficit, and emphasizes the affective aspects of loneliness; while cognitive processes approach suggests that loneliness results from dissatisfaction with one’s social perceived social relationships, and emphasizes the cognitive aspects of loneliness. Variables on the four levels of peer experiences, have impacts on loneliness, while as negative emotional experience, loneliness has negative effect on peer experiences. Future studies should be more conducted on the integrative impacts of peer experiences and family functioning on loneliness. What’s more, interventions for lonely children are needed to be conducted

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    The Development and Prospect of Researches on Moral Sensitivity
    Zheng Xinjun;Ceng Guozhen
    2007, 15 (1):  108-115. 
    Abstract ( 1786 )   PDF (952KB) ( 3193 )  
    Moral sensitivity is apperception and interpretation ability to the moral implication of situation. It is logically initial psychological component during moral behavior produce procedure. Moral sensitivity is closely related to automatic process toward situations and concomitant “gut feelings”. Individual moral sensitivity is probably influenced by context and character of situation, individual role-involving, moral schemas, personality trait,and so on. Currently, there have been some positive outcomes in moral sensitivity research on children’s earlier development, professional ethic and measure approach, and so on. However, its theoretical construct needs to be further consummated and deepened, its developmental research to be strengthened which is closely related to educational intervention, and its research methods to be improved
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    Core Self-Evaluations: A New Approach of Dispositional Research
    Du Jianzheng;Zhang Xiang;Zhao Yan
    2007, 15 (1):  116-121. 
    Abstract ( 1543 )   PDF (975KB) ( 7559 )  
    The foreign researchers proposed the core self-evaluations concept on the basis of the integration of dispositional sources on job satisfaction. It includes four core traits: self-esteem, locus of control, neuroticism, and generalized self-efficacy. They construct a more fundamental structure. Core self-evaluations and four core traits correlate significantly with job satisfaction and job behavior variables. Finally this article discusses the contributions and limitations of core self-evaluations and opportunities for future research
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    “Big Five” and Five-Factor Model: Two Different Structures of Personality
    You Jin;Guo Yongyu
    2007, 15 (1):  122-128. 
    Abstract ( 2677 )   PDF (1033KB) ( 3740 )  
    With the appearance of “Big Five” structure from lexical approach and five-factor model from theoretical approach, personality researchers have come to agreement on the taxonomy of personality. Although it seems that there are lots of similarities on the form and content between “Big Five” and FFM, in fact they are different in many aspects such as history, form and content, basic nature and future developmental direction. This article tries to distinguish them from each other to clarify related confusion and misunderstanding, and the implications to Chinese trait structure researches brought by two approaches are analyzed in the last part
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    A Brief Introduction of Optimism Research in the Western
    Wen Juanjuan;Zheng Xue;Zhang Ling
    2007, 15 (1):  129-133. 
    Abstract ( 2394 )   PDF (952KB) ( 4305 )  
    The optimism is one of the most important central concepts in the Positive Psychology. Optimism has a high correlation with the people’s future focus and optimism is the predictor of people’s physical-mental health, This article summs up the optimism main researches on the optimism conception, including the expectancy-value theory、personality trait theory and explanatory style theory, and the optimism structure, including the unidimensional structure、bidimensional structure、three factors model and the second-order construct, and the corresponding measurement . The research on the neurobiology of optimism and its influence mechanism on people’s physical-mental health in Chinese culture context is the trend of research in this field
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    Eudaimonic Well-being: A Review on Psychological Well-being
    Zhang Lu;Zuo Bin
    2007, 15 (1):  134-139. 
    Abstract ( 3440 )   PDF (942KB) ( 10592 )  
    According to the Eudaimonic philosophical roots, psychological well-being researchers suggest that well-being involves more than happiness, rather it is characterized by the quest to actualize potential, and the structure and measurement of PWB should be based on the psychological theories. The results of relative researches show that some internal and external variables such as demographic variables, personality and life contexts can be predictors of PWB. Recently there has been an integration tendency between PWB and SWB. And the study of Chinese well-being should be based on the Chinese culture
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    Issues on WebCounseling and Its Current Applications
    Yang Jing;YU Lin
    2007, 15 (1):  140-145. 
    Abstract ( 1856 )   PDF (943KB) ( 4413 )  
    Current WebCounseling should not be regarded as counseling exactly, because not only the practitioners’ qualification and service quality deserve to be discussed, but also the inadequacy of nonverbal communication makes it different from traditional counseling. According to its awkward status and characteristics, this paper suggests the essential definition of WebCounseling, and summarizes its current practices and its main limitations, such as confidentiality, licensing considerations, ethical considerations, incomplete information, and client referral problem
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    Interdependence and Teamwork
    Ren Jing;Wang Erping
    2007, 15 (1):  146-153. 
    Abstract ( 2434 )   PDF (951KB) ( 3214 )  
    Interdependence is defined as the extent on which team members rely on each other when they are working together. According to its sources, it is classified into two types, task interdependence and outcome interdependence. This article first introduces the definition and classifications of interdependence, as well as its measurement. Next, empirical researches of interdependence in teamwork after the 1990s are reviewed. Findings reveal that interdependence has significantly effect on a lot of team variables, especially on outcome variables, and there are interaction effects between different types of interdependence, or between interdependence and other variables. Finally, based on the limitations of these researches, future directions about interdependence and teamwork study are suggested
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    Involvement and its Impact upon the Communication Effects of Advertisin
    Jin Zhicheng;Zhou Xiangxian
    2007, 15 (1):  154-162. 
    Abstract ( 2169 )   PDF (963KB) ( 4404 )  
    The concept of involvement receives widespread attention in domains of marketing, particularly in those of advertising. It is found that involvement not only influences the communication effects of advertising but also restricts the functions of the factors of advertising, such as its own features, its broadcasting context and its attraction on the target audience. Researchers have put forward some theoretical models about the concept of involvement (e.g. Four Levels of Involvement, the Elaboration Likelihood Model, FCB Grid, Rossiter-Percy Grid, etc.). After a study of the relevant researches, a systematic discussion is provided about some problems that should receive more consideration. That is, the external validity is a bit lower, various research methods should be tried, and a deeper examination into the automatic processing of advertisement information is needed
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    Attitude and Behavior Relationship

    Zhang Hongtao

    2007, 15 (1):  163-168. 
    Abstract ( 2410 )   PDF (946KB) ( 10498 )  
    There are some kinds of ways in the research of relationships of attitude and behavior: the direct correlation; attitude through some moderators or other factors influence behavior; different aspects of attitude has different effects on behavior. The article mainly discussed the models about the relationship between the attitude and behavior, reviewed some influential theory such as the theory of planed behavior and attitude strength etc. Furthermore, we put forward some implications to the future research about some new ways such as implicit attitude measurement and time series
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    Psychological Sense of Community in Western Countries
    Chen Yongsheng;Mu Lixia
    2007, 15 (1):  169-173. 
    Abstract ( 2416 )   PDF (939KB) ( 2646 )  
    Sense of community is a mutual influence that community members have on each other and their related community, a feeling that members have of belonging, a shared faith that members’ needs will be met by their commitment to be together, and an emotional connection that is formed on the community history. Initially, this article presents the formulation and development of PSOC concept. Then the article introduces some recent achievements on different types of PSOC, influential factors of PSOC and measurement. Finally, the article points out that the trend of further research should be focused on varying methods, expanding the research fields and developing PSOC competency
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    Ironic Effects of Self Control in Competing Sport
    Zheng Meng;Zhang Liwei
    2007, 15 (1):  174-178. 
    Abstract ( 2286 )   PDF (939KB) ( 2922 )  
    Ironic effect of self-control refers to paradoxical or counter-intentional mental state effects arising during efforts at self control under high pressure. This article briefly describes that dual-process model of self control and theory of ironic processes, what follows is a brief discussion of evidence of ironic effects for those domains of self control relevant to competing sport. Specifically, these are movement, image suppression, thought suppression, mood control, intentional relaxation and concentration, and so on. This article indicates that three limitations of the present researches of ironic effects in competing sport: deficiency of validity of ecology, lack objectivity of measurement on ironic effects and less researches of coping strategy. Future study should improve on these limitations
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    Ethnic Contact and Interdependence
    Liu Yi
    2007, 15 (1):  179-184. 
    Abstract ( 1916 )   PDF (939KB) ( 3263 )  
    How to eliminate ethnic prejudice and discriminate, and to reduce ethnic conflict? On the one hand, Ethnic contact theory suggest that there a negative correlation, that is, the more personal contact, the less conflict. On the other hand, interdependence perspective point up an argument with the analysis of historical and practical examples that the conflict intergroup violence less likely to erupt where interdependence has become institutionalized
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    Quantitative Analysis on Literature of Domestic Study on Minorities’ Psychology from 2000 to 2005
    Wan Minggang;Zhao Guojun;Yang Junlong
    2007, 15 (1):  185-191. 
    Abstract ( 2289 )   PDF (947KB) ( 2120 )  
    The author made quantitative analysis on 182 papers of study on minorities’ psychology which were published in domestic Chinese journals from 2000 to 2005. Total of papers of study on minorities’ psychology was less. Take 9 psychological journals as example, the number was less than 1% of the total during 6 years; study field was broad, and object of study nearly included all minorities; attentive group mainly focused on middle school students and undergraduate students; study method was mainly focused on survey; study train of thought was mainly on contrast between minority and the Han nationality; and nationality, grade, and gender were three latitudes of reviewing contrast. Main problems were: method of study was single, research of imitating external study and using external scale was more, study with innovation was less, and attention of theoretical problem was lack; study staff mainly distributed in northwest and southwest, authors with 3 papers in publication were less than 10 during 6 years, and there was no steady study group
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    Thanks to reviewers
    2007, 15 (1):  192-192. 
    Abstract ( 810 )   PDF (721KB) ( 1225 )  
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