ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conceptual Framework
    How to reconcile team innovation paradox? An explorative study from the perspectives of members’ cognitive style “composition” and “configuration”
    ZHAO Kai, XIANG Shuting
    2021, 29 (1):  1-18.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00001
    Abstract ( 1303 )   HTML ( 92 )  
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    In recent years, “How to improve team innovative performance?” is a popular topic in both management practice and academia fields. Because innovation is an ambidextrous activity including both “exploration” and “exploitation”, understanding how to balance the paradoxical relationship between them is crucial to improve team innovative performance. Based on a micro-perspective of team members’ cognitive styles, “compositional approach” and “configurational approach” were adopted to explore how to reconcile this kind of paradox. Specifically, (1) the complementary effects between members’ cognitive composition and team leader behaviors will contribute to the reconciliation of team innovation paradox; (2) an appropriate “members’ cognitive styles-work role requirements” configuration incorporated with a high level of team coordination climate will be useful to reconcile team innovation paradox. Further, based on the ideology of yin-yang philosophy, the mechanism embedded in the process of reconciling team innovation paradox was also studied. To justify the relevant theoretical propositions, three sub-projects will be conducted to examine the proposed research model with both quantitative and qualitative methods. The findings will not only enrich two streams of literature regarding exploration of the antecedents of team innovation and the approaches to management paradox from a micro perspective, but also provide suggestions on the innovation management practices of companies.

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    ·Research Method·
    Can trust game measure trust?
    GONG Zhe, TANG Yujie, LIU Chang
    2021, 29 (1):  19-30.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00019
    Abstract ( 2176 )   HTML ( 125 )  
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    Trust games were widely used as a classic paradigm of trust measurement. However, the accuracy of the results of the trust game had been questioned by scholars in the field all the time, making precise trust measurement an important topic for exploration. The controversy mainly includes the following two aspects. On the one hand, the appropriateness of the trust game paradigm has yet to be verified. The controversy over paradigm changes further reveals that social preferences and risk preferences might have an impact on the level of investment trust, thereby reducing the internal validity of the trust game. On the other hand, the correlation between the level of the investment trust in trust games and the trust measured by the survey is very low, which can be explained by differences in attitudes and behaviours, differences in measurement types, and the limitations of trust measured by the survey and trust game. Although trust game face with some controversy, in general, it is still a suitable method for trust measuring. Future research should focus on the following points: Verifying the scientificity of the changes in the paradigm of trust game; Clarifying the low correlation between trust game and trust measured by survey; Expanding the measurement dimensions of trust game; Improving the ecological validity of trust game.

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    Gamma oscillation: An important biomarker reflecting multisensory integration deficits in autism spectrum disorders
    JIA Lei, XU Yu-fan, WANG Cheng, REN Jun, WANG Jun
    2021, 29 (1):  31-44.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00031
    Abstract ( 918 )   HTML ( 43 )  
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    Multi-sensory integration (MSI), also known as multi-modal integration, refers to a comprehensive process of selecting, connecting, unifying, and interpreting different sensory information. It involves coordination among various functional brain regions to achieve temporal binding of multiple sensory information and global predictive coding. On the other hand, the gamma rhythm oscillation (i.e., γ-band oscillation, at 30-100 Hz), as a type of neural oscillatory activity with low amplitude but high frequency, widely exists in different brain areas. Gamma rhythm oscillation mainly originates from the responses of glutamic acid of the supragranular layers to external stimuli, while this response is synchronously modulated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons. Recent research has shown that gamma rhythm oscillation plays a critical role in perceptual process due to its multiple functions in reflecting excitation/inhibition balance of interneurons, implementing temporal binding of multi-sensory information, and participating in global predictive coding via a cross-frequency coupling mechanism. 
    On the other hand, MSI deficits are typical comorbidities of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and usually found in ASD children from 7 to 12 years of age in the growth and development period. The main clinical manifestation of MSI deficits in ASD is that the patients have difficulties in combining with multi-sensory information efficiently, and even show abnormal perception such as hyper- or hypo-sensitivity. Under laboratory conditions, the MSI deficits in ASD could be illustrated as lacking multisensory redundant target effect, wider but symmetrical temporal binding window, weaker ability of rapid audiovisual temporal recalibration, and few illusions in multi-sensory integration.
    From the perspective of MSI deficits in ASD, this article systematically reviews previous theories in abnormal perception of ASD, which include the minicolumn pathology hypothesis (Casanova et al., 2002), the temporal binding deficit hypothesis (Brock et al., 2002), the predictive coding deficit hypothesis (Chan et al., 2016), and the cross-frequency coupling hypothesis (Kessler et al., 2016). We also analyze the physio-psychological mechanisms of ASD’s MSI deficits in combination with their abnormal gamma rhythm oscillations. We argue that abnormal gamma rhythm oscillations should be treated as an important biomarker of MSI deficits in ASD. Specifically, compared with healthy controls, children with ASD usually exhibit abnormal gamma oscillations caused by their structural and functional abnormalities in GABA interneurons (i.e., impaired minicolumn). In turn, the abnormalities in GABA interneurons indexed by gamma oscillations would interfere the functional gamma feedforward connectivity and then disrupt the normal temporal binding and predictive encoding, and thus eventually cause MSI deficits. 
    Although gamma rhythm oscillations in ASD have high correlations with their MSI deficits, it should be noted that the gamma rhythm oscillations might be one of the critical biomarkers of MSI deficits, but not the only one. Previous research has also shown that the alpha rhythm oscillations could also reflect the MSI deficits in ASD.  In addition, interventions on abnormal gamma rhythm oscillations could improve clinical symptoms of MSI deficits in children with ASD, but may not able to fully resolve their multi-sensory integration problems. Therefore, as a biomarker of MSI deficits in ASD, gamma rhythm oscillations should to be used in caution. Nevertheless, given a causal link existed between gamma neural oscillations and MSI deficits in ASD, future research could use gamma rhythm neural oscillation as a biofeedback indicator, in combination with non-invasive and reversible intervention technologies (e.g., repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, rTMS), to develop scientific and systematic clinical interventions.

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    Regular Articles
    Rapid disengagement hypothesis and signal suppression hypothesis of visual attentional capture
    ZHANG Fan, CHEN Airui, DONG Bo, WANG Aijun, ZHANG Ming
    2021, 29 (1):  45-55.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00045
    Abstract ( 1057 )   HTML ( 96 )  
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    In visual search, the phenomenon that attention is attracted by task-independent salient stimulus, which leads to search efficiency reduction is called attentional capture. In the traditional theories of visual attentional capture, stimulus-driven theory and goal-driven theory were argued for nearly 20 years. According to stimulus-driven theory, attention is automatically captured by physically salient objects, and regardless of the intentions of the observers. Other researchers believe that only stimuli that match the features of the search target will capture attention. In recent years, two new hybrid models were proposed, which combined bottom-up capture and top-down control settings, called rapid disengagement hypothesis and signal suppression hypothesis. The main content of the rapid disengagement hypothesis is that a salient distractor can always capture attention in a bottom-up manner, but attention only landed on the position of the highlighted stimulus that similar to the target. If the selected stimulus does not look like the target at all, disengagement from that location would be fast and swift. In the empirical evidences of the rapid disengagement hypothesis, spatial-cueing paradigm and oculomotor disengagement paradigm were most often adopted. In those tasks, participants usually took a singleton search strategy to promote search. The signal suppression hypothesis posits that a salient object can automatically produce a bottom-up “attend-to-me” signal, but this signal can be suppressed via top-down control processes when the highlighted object does not meet the task requirements. In the empirical evidences of the signal suppression hypothesis, an additional singleton paradigm was most often adopted. In those tasks, participants were forced to take a feature search strategy. The rapid disengagement hypothesis and the signal suppression hypothesis are indispensable components of the theories of attentional capture, and there are both similarities and differences between them. The similarity lies in the fact that both two theories assume that the initial stage of the attention capture occurs automatically. However, there are different opinions about the shifting of attention during this initial stage. The rapid disengagement hypothesis holds that there is an attention shift in the initial stage of the processing of the salient stimulus, and when the attention has enough time to disengage from the highlight stimulus that does not match the target, attentional capture will not occur. Different from the above views, the signal suppression hypothesis believes that there is no attention shift in the initial stage of the highlight stimulus processing. Attention capture does not actually occur because the salience signal can be suppressed by a top-down mechanism when the salient stimulus is inconsistent with the target. Future researches would focus on the following aspects: (1) More studies adopting different stimuli and experimental methods are needed to support rapid disengagement hypothesis and signal suppression hypothesis; (2) The effects of reward and training on “attentional capture-disengagement” and “signal-suppression” should also be explored in future researches; (3) The neural bases of reactive inhibition mechanism and active inhibition mechanism that involved in rapid disengagement hypothesis and signal suppression hypothesis is a problem which deserves attention.

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    Binocular disparity: Neural mechanisms and perceptual learning
    WANG Getong, XI Jie, CHEN Nihong, HUANG Changbing
    2021, 29 (1):  56-69.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00056
    Abstract ( 1352 )   HTML ( 70 )  
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    Binocular disparity, a critical cue to stereopsis, is defined as the small horizontal displacement between the two corresponding images projected onto the retina of the two eyes. The study of binocular disparity can be dated back to the early 18th century. Recent studies on binocular disparity have advanced our understanding in two aspects. The first is using electrophysiological and brain imaging technique to investigate the functional specialization in disparity processing in the dorsal and ventral visual pathways, which reveals hierarchical and parallel processing principles in the visual system. The second is about learning-induced plasticity. Future research needs to combine brain imaging, neuromodulation and other cutting-edge techniques to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying binocular disparity, its learning effect, and the interaction between binocular disparity and other depth clues. On the application side, future research needs to optimize training paradigms (e.g., with virtual reality technique) for rehabilitation and enhancement in the binocular disparity performance.

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    The influences of auditory cues and individual differences on the processing of musical tension
    SUN Lijun, MA Xiaolong, YANG Yufang
    2021, 29 (1):  70-78.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00070
    Abstract ( 655 )   HTML ( 46 )  
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    The pattern of tension-relaxation is an essential component in music. Musical tension, building a bridge between objective sound and subjective experience, is important for the generation of musical emotion. On the one hand, musical tension is influenced by acoustic elements and structural organizations of tonal hierarchy, which is supported by theoretic models and empirical studies. On the other hand, musical tension experienced by listeners is also affected by individual differences, such as cultural background and musical ability. Future studies should pay more attention to musical tension induced by temporal structure and large-scale tonal structure. Meanwhile, the mechanism of tension induction also needs to be examined, which will be helpful to deepen our understanding of tension and emotion processing in music.

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    The cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying false memory: An information processing perspective
    GUO Ying, GONG Xianmin, WANG Dahua
    2021, 29 (1):  79-92.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00079
    Abstract ( 1137 )   HTML ( 94 )  
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    By reviewing both behavioral and neuroimaging research, the present article illustrates how processing of information from different sources (i.e., the target event/stimulus, internal cognitive schemas, and external interference) and at different stages (i.e., the encoding, storage, re-activation/reconsolidation and retrieval stages) contributes to false memory. We conclude that false memory may arise from three mechanisms: (1) The lack of distinctive item-specific memory representations that makes it difficult to distinguish targets from related lures; (2) The engagement of cognitive schemas strengthens the memory representations of non-target information (including related lures) in the schemas; and (3) Re-activated memory representations of targets are distorted and modified by external interference. Future research may use updated approaches, e.g., multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), to further investigate the brain regions responsible for representing item-specific details, the way different types of schema (e.g., event-based script) promote the representations of related lures, and the way re-activation of schema during memory retrieval influences false memory.

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    How is limb movement information stored in working memory?
    XIE Tingting, WANG Lijuan, WANG Tianze
    2021, 29 (1):  93-101.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00093
    Abstract ( 679 )   HTML ( 36 )  
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    Studies regarding the multicomponent model of working memory mainly focus on the storage of featural properties, spatiotemporal properties and verbal information of objects, as well as the binding of these information (e.g., Allen et al., 2015; Fellman et al., 2017; Logie, 1995; Son et al., 2020; Zhao et al., 2019). The storage of limb movement information has not been explored. Limb movements are one of the important ways individuals interact with their environment. Exploring the storage of limb movement information is helpful to deeply clarify the storage modes of various types of information, as well as understand how different types of information transcoded and interacted with each other. Smyth et al. (1988) proposed two types of limb movements, i.e., movement pattern (including a gesture or movement to be imitated, such as an arabesque in ballet) and movement to positions in space (such as picking up a pen) according to the different goals of movements. The goal of movement pattern is the body pattern, whereas achieving a spatial target is the goal of movement to positions in space. In other words, movement pattern refers to kinesthetic or motor coding in imitation; movement to positions in space refers to the use of movement in visuo-spatial processing. In the field of perception and working memory for limb movement, previous studies did not regard the two types of limb movements as a whole. On the contrary, they usually explored the storage of information of movement to positions in space and body movement patterns information respectively or even compared them in one study. Based on this, the current study reviewed and compared the storage mechanism of these two types of limb movement information.

    Studies on movement to positions in space have revealed that the working memory task of movement to positions affects the encoding of spatial working memory, but it is separated from visual working memory and verbal working memory. In addition, information of movement to positions in space shared brain area (the superior parietal lobule) with spatial information of the object rather than with verbal information and information of the object’s featural properties; information of movement to positions in space activates unique brain areas (the contralateral motor cortex, the primary motor cortex, the ventral supplementary motor area, the left supramotor cortical areas and the primary motor cortex, etc.) that are independent of the other three kinds of information. Researches on body movement patterns have revealed that working memory for body movement patterns and verbal working memory are separated. In addition, the storage of body movement patterns only activates the brain regions that store spatial information of the object, rather than the brain regions that store information of the object’s featural properties and verbal information. More importantly, only the storage of body movement patterns activates the movement-related cortex (the middle temporal). Therefore, the storage of two kinds of limb movement information is independent of the phonological loop and the visual subsystem in the visuospatial sketchpad and needs the participation of the spatial subsystem in the visuospatial sketchpad; movement to positions in space and body movement patterns activate different movement-related cortexes that are independent of the phonological loop, the visual subsystem and the spatial subsystem in the visuospatial sketchpad. These results show that the existing multicomponent model of working memory cannot fully explain the storage of limb movement information. It is implied that there is a “limb movement system” in the working memory system that is specific to limb movement information, belongs to visuospatial sketchpad and coexists with the visual subsystem and spatial subsystem. The brain areas activated in the “limb movement system” vary with different kinds of limb movements.

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    The relationship between rumination and attention disengagement and the underlying neural mechanism
    LIU Qipeng, ZHAO Xiaoyun, WANG Cuiyan, XU Yiya, WANG Shuyan
    2021, 29 (1):  102-111.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00102
    Abstract ( 1394 )   HTML ( 96 )  
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    Rumination is repetitive negative thinking that allows individuals to focus on negative and painful things. Current research has confirmed that rumination is closely related to impaired attentional disengagement and has nothing to do with attention-oriented acceleration.  Rumination and impaired attentional disengagement are independent of each other, and this can be explained by the following three aspects. First, there is an essential difference in the definition of rumination and impaired attentional disengagement. By definition, rumination is described as a way of thinking, but impaired attentional disengagement is a way of attention. Second, rumination and impaired attentional disengagement belong to different concepts; specifically, rumination belongs to the category of psychological process, and impaired attentional disengagement belongs to the category of mental state. Third, there are different measurement methods for the processes of rumination and impaired attentional disengagement.  While rumination is generally measured by the ruminant thinking scale, impaired attentional disengagement is measured by various experimental paradigms. In addition, although there are still some controversies about the relationship between rumination and impaired attentional disengagement, longitudinal studies have confirmed that impaired attentional disengagement to negative expressions can predict individual rumination. In addition, some studies have confirmed that impaired attentional disengagement related to rumination may be controlled by consciousness, which means that impaired attentional disengagement related to rumination is not unconscious or automatic.
    It is on this basis that many researchers have tried to improve individuals’ rumination through attentional disengagement-related training, confirming that it is not only auditory attentional disengagement-related training that improves an individual’s rumination, but that attentional disengagement-related training also effectively improves rumination. Therefore, impaired attentional disengagement may affect the generation and development of rumination. At the same time, previous related studies have also shown that individuals with high rumination thinking have obviously impaired attentional disengagement compared with individuals with low rumination thinking.  In summary, this also shows that the relationship between rumination and impaired attentional disengagement may not be a one-way relationship, suggesting that they may also affect each other. This process of mutual influence may not be caused by only the individual's poor emotion regulation function, but may also be related to the individual's emotions and the brain nerve mechanism of attention. What is more, among them, the excessive activation of the amygdala, and the abnormal adjustment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to self-related negative information, may be the reasons why rumination and attention detach from damage affect each other. Other possible reasons why rumination and attention detach from damage affect each other are the abnormal activity of the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and the related cognitive control abnormalities in the structure and function of attention-related brain neural networks, including cognitive control network (CCN), dorsal attention network (DAN), and the triple network of attention, 
    I would like to conclude by saying that for further clarification of the relationship between rumination and impaired attentional disengagement, future researchers can study the following aspects. First, because impaired attentional disengagement to certain specific stimuli can have an impact on different mental disorders, it is necessary to further determine whether impaired attentional disengagement to specific stimuli can have an impact on specific mental disorders. Second, since not only rumination, but also impaired attentional disengagement involves self-related brain regions, future researchers can verify the role of self-relevance in impaired attentional disengagement in high ruminants. Third, since attention is a part of cognition, it is worth further exploring whether cognitive training can reduce rumination; and (least) because the effects of physiology and environment on individuals are different, researchers need to further clarify the role of physiological and environmental factors in rumination and impaired attentional disengagement.

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    Semantic association effect and its neural mechanism from the perspective of lexical co-occurrence frequency
    LI Yutong, SUI Xue
    2021, 29 (1):  112-122.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00112
    Abstract ( 598 )   HTML ( 30 )  
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    Word recognition and memory are influenced by the semantic associative relationship between words. The free association method has some limitations in establishing lexical semantic associations. Researchers have proposed a new method called co-occurrence association. This study analyzed the semantic association effect and its neural mechanism from the perspective of lexical co-occurrence frequency. The results showed that the number and intensity of semantic association influenced the processing of words. Words with a large number of semantic associations led to an increase in the amplitude of P200 and a decrease in the amplitude of N400. The brain regions involved in semantic association processing are mainly the superior frontal gyrus and the left medial temporal lobe. Future research should discuss the differences between free and co-occurrence association in establishing a semantic association. Based on co-occurrence association, the behavioral characteristics and neural mechanisms of semantic association are further explored. Research on the semantic association effect and neural mechanism from the perspective of co-occurrence association is recommended.

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    Neural mechanisms underlying the experience of musical pleasure
    ZHOU Can, ZHOU Linshu, JIANG Cunmei
    2021, 29 (1):  123-130.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00123
    Abstract ( 1150 )   HTML ( 112 )  
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    The experience of musical pleasure is one of the most common psychological phenomena in music activities. It usually refers to the subjective pleasure feelings and reactions induced or aroused by the listeners during music listening. Exploring the underlying neural mechanisms of musical pleasure can help us understand how music acquires its value in human evolution. Here, recent work on the neural substrates of musical pleasure has been reviewed. 
    Early imaging studies have shown that musical pleasure experience can activate brain regions such as ventral striatum, suggesting that the reward system of the brain is involved in musical pleasure experience. Recent studies on congenital musical anhedonia reveal that the acquisition of musical pleasure depends on the functional connection between the reward system and the auditory cortex. Evidence from neuropsychology further shows that damage to the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex may cause acquired musical anhedonia or musicophilia. These findings imply that the experience of musical pleasure is not only related to the core brain regions of the reward system such as the nucleus accumbens, but may also depends on the intricate interactions between the reward system and other cortical regions. In addition, the experience of musical pleasure is thought to be related to the specific release of dopamine in the striatum. There is some evidence that endogenous dopamine delivery in the striatum increases in response to strong emotional experience of music. By manipulating dopaminergic activity, the intensity of music pleasure can also be regulated, suggesting a causal link between musical pleasure and dopamine reward mechanism. 
    From the perspective of expectation, reward prediction errors theory and information-theoretic model can both explain the psychological mechanisms underlying musical pleasure. Reward prediction errors theory emphasizes that musical pleasure is based on positive prediction errors. Specifically, people form expectations when they listen to music, and when the actual results are better than expected, the positive prediction error occurs, and the musical pleasure is thus generated. Research evidences supporting reward prediction errors have shown the central role of the nucleus accumbens in musical pleasure. However, the model of music information theory suggests that musical pleasure is regulated by different states in the process of music expectation. Studies in support of this model have revealed that the interaction between the uncertainty of expectations and the degree of surprise modulates the degree of musical pleasure. However, this interaction does not depend on the nucleus accumbens, but on the amygdala, hippocampus, and auditory cortex.
    In conclusion, musical pleasure experience can directly activate reward-related brain circuits and induce the release of dopamine neurotransmitters in some subcortical pathways. Moreover, the release of dopamine neurotransmitter affects musical pleasure experience, indicating that the release of dopamine in the reward system has a causal relationship with musical pleasure. Reward prediction errors and information-theoretic model explain the mechanism of musical pleasure from the perspective of expectation. Due to the different theoretical basis, however, their supporting evidence on the neural level diverges obviously. Future studies should further examine the function of the nucleus accumbens and other cortical regions in musical pleasure and integrate different expectation theories. 

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    The neural basis of pride: A comparative perspective
    SHEN Lei, JIANG Daitai, CHEN Ning, LIU Wei
    2021, 29 (1):  131-139.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00131
    Abstract ( 956 )   HTML ( 53 )  
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    Pride is a positive emotional experience arising from evaluating one’s own achievements attributed to oneself based on the standard of self-internalization. As a typical self-conscious emotion, moral emotion, and social emotion, different types of pride have multiple psychological and social functions that have profound significance in promoting mental development and social interactions. In recent years, revealing the neural basis and its potential mechanism for this complex emotion has not only become a hot topic in pride research but also a frontier issue in affective neuroscience. In view of the complexity of pride, this paper analyzed the neural basis of different types of pride from a comparative perspective and places pride in the spectrum of self-consciousness emotions and moral emotions for a comparative analysis of its neurophysiological mechanisms.
    Research has shown that the synergistic actions between regions of the brain that relate to the theory of mind, self-referencing, emotion, reward, and memory constitute the neural basis of pride. Different types of pride activated some overlapping neural regions, and the differences reflected specific psychological components. The neural comparison of pride and basic emotions revealed that the mechanism of pride was more complex. The activated brain regions not only contained sensory and perceptual processing, but also were involved in higher cognitive functions such as the theory of mind, self-reference, and self-reflection. A comparison of neurological and physiological studies found that the brain regions activated by pride and different moral emotions overlapped more than did basic emotions. Specifically, pride and gratitude, the two positive emotions, activated the important brain regions involved in the theory of mind and reward processing, and there was a great overlap among guilt, shame, embarrassment, self-esteem, and other emotions in the brain regions involved in the theory of mind and self-reference. The inconsistency of the results was manifested in the activation of the medial prefrontal cortex, a region related to the theory of mind and self-reflection. These results suggest to some extent that the development of complex cognitive functions is an important basis for the formation of pride. The generation of pride, different moral emotions, and self-conscious emotions is based on the cognition and attribution of the intention and behavior of oneself and others, and influence each other in the process of occurrence and development. These findings provide the basis for understanding the complex neural mechanisms of pride. 
    Current studies on the neural mechanism of pride mostly focus on the individual level and use fMRI to compare the neural basis of pride and different emotions. The differences in the existing research conclusions need to be further explored. Therefore, future research should explore the neural mechanisms of different types and intensities of pride, and use ERP to investigate the interaction between pride and cognitive processes such as perception, evaluation, and decision making in order to reveal the neural mechanism of pride from a multi-dimensional perspective.

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    The external validity of delay discounting in the field of substance addiction
    YANG Ling, LIU Wenxin, ZHANG Yang, ZHANG Jianxun, NIU Lulin
    2021, 29 (1):  140-149.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00140
    Abstract ( 707 )   HTML ( 41 )  
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    Deficiency in inter-temporal decision making of substance addicts has been consistently confirmed by a vast array of studies using monetary Delay Discounting Task. Substance addicts showed a myopia tendency towards the immediate reward during the process of inter-temporal decision making. This myopia tendency corresponds well with the substance-use behavior in their real life. However, the recently emerging evidence from new variants of the monetary Delay Discounting Task (the addictive substance Delay Discounting Task, the Sexual Delay Discounting Task, and the Cross-Commodity Delay Discounting Task) highlighted some limitations in the single use of this paradigm in the delay discounting study of substance addiction, which need to be considered in terms of external validity.
    First of all, the results from monetary Delay Discounting Task may not fully reflect and represent the overall patterns of delay discounting in substance addictive population, the delay discounting level of addictive substance as cigarette, alcohol and heroin, of sex and of other natural rewards were significantly different from the delay discounting level of money. This further confirmed the hypothesis that delay discounting has domain specificity. That is to say, there may not be a general level of delay discounting despite different types of rewards. We need to be cautious when explain the results from monetary Delay Discounting Task in the study of substance addiction, and the additional employing of addictive substance Delay Discounting Task may improve the external validity of studies in this area.
    Secondly, by employing Single Delay Discounting task alone may over simplify the intertemporal decision-making process of substance addicts. The intertemporal decision-making process faced by this group in real life may be more complex than the one simulated by Single Delay Discounting Task. In real life, substance addicts often face intertemporal choices between different types of rewards including but not limited to money, for example, choice between immediate drug using VS. delayed financial benefits in future. According to the specific position of reward in intertemporal decision-making (the immediate one or the delayed one), the relative value between different types of rewards may change. It is of great significance for the purpose of description, explanation, prediction and intervention in the study of intertemporal decision-making in substance addicts to employ the Cross-Commodity Delay Discounting Task more frequently in future studies.
    Finally, compared with its variants, the monetary Delay Discounting Task was not sensitive to the withdrawal status, addiction severity and clinical characteristics related to risky sexual behaviors of substance addicts, hence the monetary Delay Discounting Task showed poor ecological validity compared with Cross-Commodity Delay Discounting Task and Sexual Delay Discounting Task. Whether the monetary Delay Discounting Task is the most ideal task to capture the dynamic changes of intertemporal decision-making in substance addicts after withdrawal and intervention remains to be determined. And here is reason to suspect the results from monetary Delay Discounting Task in the perspective of external validity.
    Considering the external validity of studies on intertemporal decision-making of substance addicts, future research should further enrich and expand the research which employs the Cross-Commodity Delay Discounting Task in the field of substance addiction. Besides, there emerged some evidence which have showed that the authenticity of waiting time between immediate choice and delayed choice would also affect the process of intertemporal decision-making, and the subjective time perception of the waiting duration may also play a nonnegligible role in intertemporal decision-making of substance addicts. So it may be valuable to further elucidate the time factors that may affect intertemporal decision-making. At the same time, researchers also need to consider the question of how to equate non-material rewards with money. The development of effective quantitative methods for non-material rewards such as health, sex and freedom is necessary. In addition, questionnaires and interviews can be introduced to future studies of delay discounting to explore the real motivation of substance addicts to obtain money reward in Delay Discounting Tasks.

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    Immediate extinction deficit: Causes and neurobiological mechanisms
    WANG Hongbo, GUAN Xuxu, LI Zimeng
    2021, 29 (1):  150-159.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00150
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    Fear memories formed in traumatic experience is pathological basis of stress-related disorders. New memories initially persist in a fragile state and are susceptible to being disrupted by behavioral or pharmacological treatments. Exposure therapy based on extinction is a common treatment for pathological fear. However, extinction training that occurs shortly after fear conditioning is less effective than delayed extinction training in yielding long-term extinction memory, a phenomenon that is known as immediate extinction deficit (IED). The IED may be linked to levels of stress and emotional arousal at the onset of extinction training and event segmentation. If the stress and emotional arousal levels are high at the outset of extinction training, the outcomes of immediate extinction are not influenced by context change or event boundary between fear conditioning and extinction (i.e. event segmentation), but rather mainly affected by the high stress state that can impair the consolidation of extinction memory, resulting in IED. When the levels of stress and emotional arousal are moderate before the onset of extinction training, there is no difference between immediate extinction and delayed extinction, and both of them couldn’t prevent fear relapse. When the stress and emotional arousal levels are low at the time of extinction intervention, the early extinction was more effective than delayed extinction intervention, which could disrupt the consolidation of fear memory and prevent the return of fear. In addition, under moderate or low stress levels, the effect of immediate extinction would be also susceptible to event segmentation. That is, if there is a clear event boundary between fear acquisition and extinction, the event boundary may guide selective consolidation to prioritize the consolidation of emotional information in memory (fear memory) -- at the expense of related but conflicting information (extinction memory) experienced shortly thereafter, leading to IED; if without this event boundary, immediate extinction may retroactively interfere with the consolidation of fear memories and prevent the deficit; but the evidence for this is not yet sufficient. In addition, results from human fear conditioning suggest that the IED phenomenon is not inevitable, even though the electric shock was calibrated to be at the same level deemed “highly annoying but not painful” by each participant. Explanations for this may be that people's criterion for the feeling “highly annoying but not painful” has varied greatly, resulting in the actual stress and emotional arousal level of each participant is different, that is, not all participant are in a high arousal state, therefore IED phenomenon is unstable.
    The infralimbic (IL) that is a subdivision of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in the consolidation and retrieval of extinction memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and mPFC form strong reciprocal synaptic connections that play a key role in acquisition and extinction of fear memories. Fear extinction depends on the activities in these two projection pathways, BLA-IL and IL-BLA, which are trade-off. The neurobiological mechanisms of IED may involve that: (1) stress-induced activation of the locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system evokes extensive release of NE in BLA through LC-projecting neurons, leading to hyperactivity of BLA; and (2) stress-activated corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system in BLA triggers the release of CRF that binds G-protein-coupled receptors (CRFR1), resulting in hyperexcitability of BLA; then overactive BLA inputs suppress the activity of IL via feedforward inhibition of projection neurons, which further impair the consolidation of extinction memories, causing IED. Future studies should examine whether the IED is just an aberration or early extinction acts as a secondary trauma which can continually damage the ability to extinguish fear memory, instead, contributes to the development of stress-related disorders, and explore how to optimize the clinical application of immediate extinction. 

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    Childhood poverty and cognitive aging
    ZHAO Xin, ZHENG Qiaoping
    2021, 29 (1):  160-166.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00160
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    How the childhood poverty influences cognitive aging remains controversial. Some studies have shown that childhood poverty can accelerate individual cognitive aging, but other studies have found that childhood poverty can delay individual cognitive aging, which is related to the moderation of social mobility. For poor individuals in childhood, low stability or the downward mobility of socioeconomic status will make the negative effects of adversity accumulate continuously, thus accelerating the cognitive aging of individuals. However, poor childhood individuals with high psychological resilience may promote upward socioeconomic mobility, which will increase the individual's cognitive reserve and enhance specific cognitive abilities, thus delaying cognitive aging. Future research in this field should explore the relationship between childhood subjective poverty and cognitive aging and the influence of childhood poverty on the aging of different cognitive abilities. It should also focus on the survivor bias effect in studies on the relationship between childhood poverty and cognitive aging in later life.

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    A multi-level integrated model of helping behavior in teams
    JIN Yanghua, SHI Rongrong, XIE Jiangpei
    2021, 29 (1):  167-177.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00167
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    Teams are an important link between individuals and organizations. To adapt dynamic and changeable environment, organizations increasingly adopt the team as a unit to complete task and deal with problems. Team helping behavior, when team members volunteer to help other members with task-related issues, is a crucial approach for assistance. Researches showed that helping behavior in teams can promote the smooth development of team work tasks, and is considered to be an effective behavior that can improve team work efficiency, team cohesion, and team innovation. Different types of help behavior in teams have different effects when explaining the team phenomenon in the organization. Previous studies focused on the positive role among individuals within teams, but have neglected the dyadic relationship between helper and help recipient, and the mechanism of team itself and possible dark sides. Research points out that helping behavior in teams consists of team member-level helping, interpersonal helping, and team helping. Team-level and individual-level helping behavior may have different help objects that individual helping behavior can refer to help anyone in the organization, while team helping behaviors are limited to help team member; moreover, individual helping behaviors and team helping behaviors are different for the subject perception, that is, "I help others" and "team members help others", the perception of different levels of helping behavior will affect the emotional and cognitive state of team members; in the meanwhile, individual helping behavior and team helping behavior may be stimulated by different factors and have significant different effects on differential levels, that is, team helping behavior may be more affected by team characteristics or collective cognition. We propose a multi-level integrated theoretical model framework for helping behavior in teams. Organizational context and team environment are important factors that lead to team helping behaviors. The research object of help behavior in the team may be either the help provider or the help recipient, but also involving the helper-recipient dyadic relationship. In the interaction, the emotional attitude of one party affects the attitude and behavior of the other party. Team helping behavior and individual helping behavior may have interaction. For example, when team members perceive that there is a significant difference between team-level helping behavior and individual-level helping behavior, psychological changes may be triggered. Team helping behavior is a bottom-up process of individual helping behavior, and team helping behavior will affect the individual helping behavior, eventually bringing about a self-reinforcing cycle. Furthermore, the emergence of team helping behavior, the internal psychological mechanism of its negative effects at team level, and the subsequence helping mechanism of helping behavior in teams can be delivered to future research.

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    Psychological and neural mechanisms of trust formation: A perspective from computational modeling based on the decision of investor in the trust game
    GAO Qinglin, ZHOU Yuan
    2021, 29 (1):  178-189.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00178
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    Interpersonal trust is the building block of corporation and resource exchange in the human society. The Trust Game is widely-used paradigm to study interpersonal trust due to its high ecological validity. The current review first introduces the TG and major paradigm variations. The aspect of paradigm variation that we especially highlight is the repeated TG (rTG), which captures the learning, reasoning and strategy updating processes compared to the single-shot TG. We then review current theoretical and empirical progresses in the computational modeling of the rTG. We specifically focus on the reinforcement learning (RL) model and the Bayesian model. The RL model essentially assumes individuals constantly update expected utility values associated with each decision options based on prediction errors, which is the difference between expected utilities and decision outcomes. The individual differences in learning capabilities are reflected in differences in learning rates. The Bayesian model essentially assumes that individuals constantly update prior beliefs about the environment based on partial observations to form posterior beliefs. The individual differences in learning capabilities are reflected in differences in the depth of theory of mind. We then reviewed behavioral studies of computational modeling of rTG. Using the RL model, previous studies have consistently shown reputation information about the trustee can not only influence initial impression about the trustworthiness level of the trustee, but also the rate of dynamic learning of feedback signal. Previous studies have formalized the Bayesian model in different ways and developed different algorithms to derive optimal behavioral solutions. These include (1) the trust level model which depicts the depth of theory of mind and the corresponding Nash-equilibrium solution, (2) the interactional partial observable Marcov Decision Process (IPOMDP) which depicts the depth of theory of mind, planning steps and greediness, and the corresponding partial observable Monte-Carlo algorithm, and (3) the subjective Bayesian model and the corresponding free-energy minimization algorithm for behavior inversion. We then review previous studies which integrate computational modeling with neuro-imaging techniques to uncover neurological bases of trust formation. The underlying logic is to extract key internal processes (e.g. the updating of prediction errors, the parameter estimation of learning rates) which are not directly observable via traditional statistics, and then establish their correlations with BOLD signals. Within the RL model, previous studies have found the updates of prediction errors were associated with the activation of striatum and anterior cingulate cortex, and the incorporation of reputation information in the trust decision process were associated with the functional interaction between the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Within the Bayesian model, previous studies have found individuals with different depth of theory of mind primarily differed in the activation of striatum and the temporal parietal conjunction area, and that inference about intentions and adjusting behaviors based on feedback involved two independent neural systems. Lastly, we propose several prospective future directions. First, future researchers could apply the existing formalization of the Bayesian model to the rTG and apply the new type of computational modeling technique, the multilevel Gaussian filter model, which integrates both the Bayesian and the reinforcement learning component, to study the dynamic process of trust formation. Second, future researchers could incorporate non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to study the causal relationships between brain activities and behaviors. Third, computational model is an effective tool to study the impairments of trust formation among clinical samples, by comparing model formalization and parameter estimations between the clinical and healthy population. 

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