ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conceptual Framework
    The cognitive mechanism of Chinese character position processing and word boundary effect
    GU Junjuan, SHI Jinfu
    2021, 29 (2):  191-201.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00191
    Abstract ( 1419 )   HTML ( 141 )  
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    In visual word recognition of Chinese words, it is necessary to process the relative order of Chinese characters in words, i.e., processing of the position of Chinese characters. The processing of the position of Chinese characters is important for word recognition and reading comprehension. If the position of Chinese characters is not processed, it would be difficult to distinguish and recognize transposable words. Transposable words are composed of the same Chinese characters, but the order of Chinese characters is different between words. Previous studies have found that the processing of the position of Chinese characters is more flexible within a word in normal Chinese reading. In addition, the word boundary information affects the processing of the position of Chinese characters, that is, the processing of the position of Chinese characters has a word boundary effect during sentence reading. Which factors affect the word boundary effect of Chinese character position processing in text reading? In this project, the following three issues will be investigated systematically by using the eye tracking technique: (1) How do the initial/final characters of a word modulate the processing of Chinese character position? (2) How do the word boundaries of embedded words and ambiguous words affect Chinese character position processing? (3) How do word plausibility and predictability affect the word boundary effect of Chinese character position processing? In Study 1, the three-character words and four-character words were chosen as targets. We employed eye tracking technique to examine how the initial/final characters of a word modulate the processing of Chinese character position during reading. In this study, the cognitive mechanism of Chinese character position processing and word boundary effect was explored in character level. In Experiment 1, we investigated the effect of the initial/final characters of a three-character word. In Experiment 2, we investigated the effect of the initial/final characters of a four-character word. In Study 2, we employed eye tracking technique to examine how the word boundaries of embedded words and ambiguous words affect Chinese character position processing during reading. In this study, the cognitive mechanism of Chinese character position processing and word boundary effect was explored in word level. In Experiment 3, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of Chinese character position processing and word boundary effect of embedded words. In Experiment 4, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of Chinese character position processing and word boundary effect of ambiguous words. In Study 3, we examined how word plausibility and predictability affect the word boundary effect of Chinese character position processing. In this study, the cognitive mechanism of Chinese character position processing and word boundary effect was explored in contextual level during word segmentation process. In Experiment 5, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of Chinese character position processing and word boundary effect of word plausibility. In Experiment 6, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of Chinese character position processing and word boundary effect of predictability. The present project will promote our understanding of the cognitive mechanism of Chinese character position processing. So far, there has been not a model of character position encoding in Chinese reading. The present project will provide new insights into the construction of character position processing model in Chinese. In addition, character position encoding has been not included in the model of Chinese word segmentation and word recognition. This project will promote modification of the model of Chinese word segmentation and word recognition, and help us to understand the cognitive mechanism of Chinese word segmentation and word recognition deeply. Still, this project will provide new insights into the study of word segmentation in computer. Furthermore, the findings will provide us scientific guidance for efficient vocabulary teaching and learning.

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    Relationship between resilience and well-being in elders: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    YE Jing, ZHANG Xufan
    2021, 29 (2):  202-217.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00202
    Abstract ( 2555 )   HTML ( 319 )  
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    As a key psychosocial resource, resilience can enhance the well-being of the elderly and thus promote successful aging. However, domestic and foreign studies show that, even if the same variable is selected as the predictors of well-being, the research results about the correlation coefficient of elders’ resilience and well-being are different. Since meta-analysis is a comprehensive analytical method for quantitative statistics of multiple research results that have the “same purpose” and are “independent of each other,” it can identify the moderators that influence changes in correlation coefficients among variables, thus providing insights into inconsistent and unexplored research results. Therefore, it is necessary to use the meta-analysis to explore why there is a large gap between the correlation coefficient of resilience and well-being of the elderly and the reasons for the large gap. Compared with children and adolescents, the self-awareness, cognitive ability, and sociality of the elderly tend to be stable due to the differences in the structure and performance of resilience among different age groups. Therefore, it is worth further demonstrating whether the results of the above two groups' resilience apply to the elderly. Secondly, the previous meta-analysis studies on the resilience of the elderly did not take into account the local context and only used the data from western countries. Whether the conclusions of the research apply to the Chinese context remains to be investigated. Finally, the previous meta-analysis did not take well-being as the outcome variable to explore the relationship between them. The actual relationship between resilience and well-being and what moderating factors influence the relationship could not be obtained. Is it true that older people with higher resilience will have a stronger sense of well-being? Therefore, this study adopts the method of meta-analysis, combined with empirical research results of domestic and foreign to avoid the single results caused by the error. It also thoroughly discusses the relationship between psychological resilience and the well-being of the elderly and its influencing factors, to improve the old well-being of achieving successful aging, which can provide a scientific basis for enriching the well-being theory. Specifically, this study conducted literature retrieval and screening by keyword search, subject search, and full-text search. There were 42 pieces of literature in Chinese and English, and 75 independent samples were included in the meta-analysis (N = 12,856). The results revealed significant positive relationships between elders’ resilience and their well-being, life satisfaction, positive emotions, and revealed a significant negative relationship between elders’ resilience and negative emotion. In addition, the relationships between resilience, well-being, satisfaction with life, positive emotions, and negative emotion were moderated by resilience measurements, cultural background, literature quality, year of the literature, sample size, and age of the sample. The results provided not only more accurate estimates for predicting elders’ well-being by resilience, but also insights for future research of successful aging. 

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    Research Reports
    The influence of tonal structure on tension experience in sonata pieces by Mozart and Beethoven
    CHE Xinchun, SUN Lijun, MA Xiaolong, YANG Yufang
    2021, 29 (2):  218-224.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00218
    Abstract ( 1098 )   HTML ( 66 )  
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    Musical tension is the basis of musical listening. In this study, we calculated tension values based on Tonal Tension Model and conducted behavioral experiment to explore the influence of tonal structure on tension experience in sonata compositions by Mozart and Beethoven. The sonata form is composed of three parts: exposition, development and recapitulation. Our results revealed that both of the tension values and tension experience in development were higher than that in exposition and recapitulation, and higher in recapitulation than in exposition. This might be due to the differences of the distance and frequency on tonal modulations in the three parts. Our study investigated the influence of tonal structure on musical tension in large-scale music works, providing evidence and new perspectives for the study of musicology.

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    Research Method
    Preventing and detecting insufficient effort survey responding
    ZHONG Xiaoyu, LI Mingyao, LI Lingyan
    2021, 29 (2):  225-237.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00225
    Abstract ( 3242 )   HTML ( 207 )  
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    Surveys are commonly used in psychological and educational research. Insufficient effort response (IER), as one source of invalid response data, is somewhat prevalent due to the low-stakes nature of the majority of surveys, which often leads to statistically significantly biased estimates and invalid inferences. The current literature shows: (a) IER is commonly believed to be caused by some inner causes, (e.g., low motivation), showing as specific patterns, (e.g., random responding); (b) The most common methods to prevent IER include reducing task difficulty and increasing respondents’ motivation; (c) Current detection methods fall into three main categories, which are proactive approaches/ direct screening methods, response patterns analysis, and response time analysis. Recommendations for future research directions and practitioners are (a) deepening the investigation on IER mechanism and improving the preventing methods, (b) examining the effectiveness of IER identification methods’ applicability of cross-situation and developing new approaches, and (c) delving into the identification and treatment of partial IER.

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    Regular Articles
    The influence of gazer and observer factors on gaze perception
    HUO Penghui, FENG Chengzhi, CHEN Tingji
    2021, 29 (2):  238-251.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00238
    Abstract ( 2285 )   HTML ( 123 )  
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    Gaze perception includes both recognizing the location where another person gazes at in the surrounding environment and the judgment of whether another person is looking at ourselves or not. Previous studies have shown that gaze perception is influenced by many factors from the perspectives of the gazer and observer. In this paper, we reviewed and discussed these factors. Specifically, from the perspective of the gazer, we discussed the influence of the gazers’ facial emotions and attractiveness and the physical characteristics of the eyes and the head on gaze perception. From the perspective of the observer, we discussed the influence of individuals’ psychological disorders, current states, and the observer’s gender, race and culture differences on gaze perception. Future research could develop innovative experimental designs and tasks to explore more about the role of stimulus type, the clinical application, and cross-cultural differences in the field of gaze perception.

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    Processing of emotional information in working memory in major depressive disorder
    HUANG Zhijing, LI Xu
    2021, 29 (2):  252-267.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00252
    Abstract ( 2032 )   HTML ( 209 )  
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    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with mood-congruent processing biases towards negative information in working memory (WM), which is considered as the core manifest of cognitive vulnerability of MDD. This review provides an overview of the biased processing of emotional information of depression in three executive components of WM (i.e., updating, inhibition, and shifting). Patients with MDD are slower in updating negative contents in WM and have difficulties in disengaging from task-irrelevant negative information within WM. Neuroimaging studies show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) are hyperactivated in patient with MDD relative to healthy controls. Moreover, patients with MDD perform poorer than healthy controls in updating positive contents in WM and they have smaller occipital P1 in response to positive materials, which indicates an insensitivity to positive items on early encoding stage of WM updating in depression, thus depression is associated with negative enhancement and positive attenuation in updating emotional contents in WM. In regards to inhibition, patients with MDD are found to exhibit impairments in suppressing irrelevant negative information and cannot effectively prevent the irrelevant negative information entering WM during inhibition. These impairments in inhibition have been suggested to be associated with altered brain activations of the dlPFC and ACC. Relative to healthy controls, patients with MDD show decreased activation of the dlPFC and increased activation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Abnormal functional connectivity within the frontoparietal network has also been suggested to underlie deficits in cognitive control of depression. The findings of emotion-specific dysfunctions of shifting function in depression are inconsistent, which might be related to emotional valence of task materials and confounded by other symptoms, such as rumination. The current review of biased processing of emotional information of depression in WM provides a new perspective for understanding cognitive bias of depression, which helps unravel the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie the cognitive information processing of emotional contents within WM of depression. Importantly, this review also offers important clues for future research on vulnerability factors implicated in the onset and maintenance of depression and expands our understanding of cognitive models of depression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Based upon this literature review, we therefore have identified some open questions and future research directions in this important research area. Firstly, additional research is needed to investigate the unity and diversity of the biased processing in three WM components, and assess their distinctive contribution to depressive symptoms, as well as the mediating effect of other cognitive biases (attention, memory and interpretation biases) and emotion regulation strategies on this association. It is worth noting that the combined cognitive bias hypothesis has been proposed to formulate the interactions among cognitive biases in depression. This hypothesis is arguing that cognitive biases do not operate in isolation, but are interdependent and work together to influence symptoms of depression. Secondly, future research is needed to examine dysfunctions of WM bias across divergent samples (the at-risk sample, the current MDD, the remitted MDD) to uncover the impact of biased processing in different stages of MDD. Thirdly, the induction effects of different emotional materials (affective words, emotional face, or emotional pictorial materials) on biased processing should be explored in future studies. Moreover, unraveling the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the process of emotional materials in WM could help resolve the inconsistency of previous findings. Finally, by examining the effect of WM training on reducing WM bias and depressive symptoms, future research could provide direct evidence for the causal relationship between cognitive bias and depression and benefit future development of cognitive bias modification interventions for biased processing in WM of depression. 

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    Moral emotion: A new perspective on the relationship between morality and creativity
    WANG Botao, WEI Ping
    2021, 29 (2):  268-275.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00268
    Abstract ( 2311 )   HTML ( 181 )  
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    Studies on the relationship between morality and creativity have often distinguished individuals’ moral levels by using standards of moral cognition and moral behaviors, and therefore explored the influence of morality on creativity. However, results are often inconsistent and even contradictory. One possible reason may due to errors from moral measurements, since people are likely to modify their responses to questions for moral cognition or behaviors according to social expectations. Thus, the present study intends to use moral emotions as a new perspective to explore the relationship between morality and creativity. Results indicated that creativity can be affected by moral emotions in many potential pathways:
    First,moral emotions may affect the range of attention and regulate the level of cognitive processing in participants’ brain through their different emotional valence, and then, to affect participants’ creativity performance. For instance, the positive emotional valence which is contained in positive moral emotions can significantly improve the range of attention and the flexibility of individuals’ cognition shortly. It may also help participants to generate more remote concept association in their mind. All these changes will assist individuals to express their creativity better. On the contrary, the negative emotional valence which is contained in negative moral emotions may significantly narrow the scope of individuals’ attention, reducing their cognitive flexibility, and therefor hindering participants to generate their creativity ideas.
    Second, moral emotions may activate moral motivations and mediate the influence of personality on creativity. Positive moral emotions and some negative moral emotions which arouse individuals' willingness to correct or make up for their own faults (such as guilt), will enhance individuals' prosocial motivations, making participants to exhibit more moral and altruistic behaviors as well as enlarging the effects of positive personality traits on creativity. On the other side, other negative moral emotions which arouse individuals’ feelings of powerless and helpless (such as shame), will decrease individuals’ moral motivations. In this case, moral motivations will reduce individuals’ prosocial behaviors and finally impair the effect of positive personality traits on creativity.
       Third, moral emotions may promote individuals to produce more insights and get better creative achievements as it can elicit people to introspect. Moral emotions are also called "self-awareness emotions." Whether positive or negative, moral emotions will guide individuals to switch their attention, focusing on internal self-value and evaluation, rather than the external environment. A series of studies from Kounios et al showed that good self-awareness, the internal integration and coordination for ego, can be viewed as a powerful guarantee to promote the occurrence of insight and to increase the probability of individuals to adopt creative methods for solving problems.
        In addition, moral emotions can also increase individuals' psychological capital and affect people to express different creative characteristics. Specifically, people who often experience positive moral emotions, such as pride and gratitude, are more likely to generate positive attitude toward environment, society and themselves. They tend to own more optimistic and open-mind attitudes and are able to maintain their mental health in good conditions. These characteristics not only promote people to express their positive creativity, making more useful and valued creative products for society, but also reduce crisis events for mental health and inhibit individuals to conceive the evil and dark creativity in life.
    Future researches should deeply understand the characters and mechanism of moral emotions; explore the relationships among morality, moral emotions and creativity; and look for new models of moral and creative cultivation.

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    Children’s gender stereotype threat and its interventions
    WANG Zhen
    2021, 29 (2):  276-285.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00276
    Abstract ( 2902 )   HTML ( 223 )  
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    Stereotype threat is a situational predicament where stigmatized group members perform poorly when they are judged or treated negatively based on stereotypes. There are only few studies on children’s gender stereotype threat in our country, although a large number of research on it have been performed in other countries. Exploring gender stereotype threat in children provides the potential possibility of interveneing in stereotype threat from its source. 
    There are various emergence prerequisites of gender stereotype threat, mainly including category awareness, self-categorization, and stereotype awareness based on the stereotype threat model. There are still some contraveries regarding the emergence time of gender stereotype threat. Some researchers reported that children are affected by gender stereotype threat at the age of 6 or even earlier, while others claimed that children’s gender stereotype threat starts from the age of 7. This is maily due to ages of subjects, experiment materials, manipulations, and culture backgrounds, all of which need to further investigate in the future. There is no significant difference in the manipulations of gender stereotype threat between children and adults, where both have experiment groups including the blatant and subtle activation, and control groups including the nullify and not nullify stereotype threat. According to the different targets, gender stereotype threat can be divided into the effect of gender-math stereotypes on girls’ math performance and the effect of gender-reading stereotypes on boys’ reading performance, respectively. Researchers have found that gender stereotype threat can decrease children’s performance in the threat situation, even losing their confidence and interest in this filed, finally giving up and devoting themselves to other fields. Therefore, researchers have explored a variety of interventions into children’s gender stereotype threat to attenuating those negative consequences, such as priming children’s multiple identities, building the feeling of chauvinism, providing positive roles and counter-stereotypes.
    Nowadays, thhere are several limitations associated with children’s gender stereotype threat currently. (1) Previous studies on children’s gender stereotype threat were mainly conducted in the western culture contexts, while less being conducted in eastern culture contexts. Compared with western cultures, does the Chinese traditional cultures such as “men are superior to women”, and the liberal arts system from senior high school deepen Chinese children’s gender stereotype threat? (2) Previous studies on children’s gender stereotype threat were mainly focused on girls, while overlooking the study on boys. Only a few studies explored the effects of gender-reading stereotypes on boys’ reading performance, Compared with a great deal of studies on the effects of gender-math stereotypes on girls’ math performance. Moreover, the gaps between boys’ and girls’ reading performance have been increasing in recent years. Threfore, much more attention would be paied to the effects of gender stereotype threat on boys’ reading performance. (3) Previous studies on interventions of children’s gender stereotype threat lack ecological validity and have few types. Future studies of interventions should be “moved out” the laboratory and be manipulated in children’s classrooms and schools instead, improvng the ecological validity. Additionally, according to the interventions of adults’ gender stereotype threat, researchers should explore more novel interventions of children’s gender stereotype threat. (4) Previous studies on children’s gender stereotype threat mainly focused on the gender stereotypes, while overlooked other stereotyped domain. Future research can pay attention to the effects of racial stereotype threat, ethic stereotype threat, and academic discipline stereotype threat on children. 

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    Sibling conflict and its resolution: The effects of family subsystem
    QU Guoliang, CAO Xiaojun
    2021, 29 (2):  286-295.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00286
    Abstract ( 2201 )   HTML ( 118 )  
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    In recent years, with the change of national family planning policy, from “a couple should only have one child” to “a couple can have two children”, the two-child family will replace the one-child family as the main family form in China. Under such circumstance, sibling conflict, which is regarded as a serious topic, has come into focus gradually, and at the same time, how parents deal with sibling conflict becomes an important problem to be solved urgently. In view of the current situation that the definition of sibling conflict is ambiguous, this paper preliminarily defines sibling conflict as the incompatibility expressed by two or more people with the same biological parents in their behaviors, goals or activities in an intact family, which is usually characterized by quarrels and hostility, as well as aggression against each other. The styles of parents’ intervention in sibling conflict usually can be divided into child-centered strategies, control strategies, and nonintervention strategies. To be more specific, child-centered strategies, especially mediation, has a good intervention effect on sibling conflict; control strategies are correlated with more severe sibling conflict; and there are positive and negative effects of nonintervention strategies on sibling conflict. Therefore, when parents cope with sibling conflict, they should try their best to use child-centered strategies, rather than control strategies, and carefully use nonintervention strategies. Furthermore, parents should flexibly use these three strategies to intervene in sibling conflict according to different situations, rather than apply these strategies rigidly. Based on family system theory, this paper explores the effect of three kinds of family subsystems on sibling conflict. Specifically, there are bidirectional influence mechanisms between parental marital relationship, parent-child relationship, sibling relationship and sibling conflict. Family system theory emphasizes that the family is viewed as a hierarchically organized system, comprised of reciprocally influential subsystems. Thus, it is not appropriate to solely consider the impact of each subsystem on sibling conflict, but should recognize these impacts from a unified and holistic perspective. Recognizing this, an integrated theoretical hypothesis model is established among sibling conflict, parental intervention styles on sibling conflict and family subsystems in order to further explore the relationships among them in this paper. This hypothesis model points out that parental marital relationship, parent-child relationship, sibling relationship and sibling conflict interact with each other, thus there exist multiple influence paths of family subsystems on sibling conflict. Moreover, parental marital relationship, parent-child relationship and sibling relationship can also affect sibling conflict by indirectly influencing parental intervention styles on sibling conflict. This hypothesis model emphasizes the complex relationship between sibling conflict and the whole family system, which can be summarized as three points: multi-factor, multi-path and multi-level. “Multi-factor” refers to the fact that sibling conflict is affected by multiple factors simultaneously, rather than only by a single factor. “Multi-path” means that the effect of a certain factor on sibling conflict is multi-path, and these paths also intersect with the influence paths of other factors on sibling conflict. “Multi-level” refers to that there are different levels of factors affecting sibling conflict. Although most of the influence paths in the model have been supported by empirical studies, these empirical studies are mainly from United States and other western countries, so the applicability of these influence paths needs to be further confirmed in China. In addition, there still exist some controversial or unconfirmed paths in the model, which need to be tested or verified by future studies. Finally, future studies need to distinguish or integrate between sibling conflict and its related concepts, focus on what factors will affect the styles parents intervene in sibling conflict, and treat sibling conflict from the perspective of development.

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    A New perspective of substance addiction based on network theory
    LIU Yu, HU Chuan-Peng, FAN Fumin, SUN Pei, XU Jie, CAI Yuqing, LIU Xueli
    2021, 29 (2):  296-310.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00296
    Abstract ( 1462 )   HTML ( 124 )  
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    Substance addiction involves multiple factors, ranging from biological, social, to cultural. But the dominant biological reductionism-based explanations focus primarily on the brain, potentially hindering a more comprehensive and inclusive research of substance addiction and its recovery. We propose that network theory, focusing on feedback loops formed by interactions between myriad psychological disorder variables, will provide a better holistic framework to understand the complexity of substance addiction. Applying network theory to substance addiction may provide new insights in (1) understanding the interrelationships and interactions between symptoms, (2) understanding the systematic integrity and dynamic changes in symptom networks, and (3) integrating multiple levels of factors into a unified theoretical framework. Also, network theory may generate new approaches for future interventions and treatments. In sum, networktheory, as a theoretical model, provide a new perspective for understanding substance addiction and its intervention. We believe this reframing will encourage more empirical research toward various other hypotheses within this framework, thus, promoting the treatment and recovery of substance addiction.

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    Effects of oxytocin on psychological resilience: The neurochemical mechanisms in the hippocampus
    XUE Bing, WANG Xuejiao, MA Ning, GAO Jun
    2021, 29 (2):  311-322.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00311
    Abstract ( 1335 )   HTML ( 81 )  
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    Psychological resilience refers to the process of effective and flexible adaptation in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats, and other significant sources of stress. It helps the organism restore to a normal physiological and psychological status. Psychological resilience plays a major mediating role in the development of post-traumatic mental illness in individuals. It can predict the negative emotions after stress and determine the adaptation to stress. It has a significant influence on physical and mental health. Previous studies have shown that the hippocampus plays an important role in psychological resilience, and oxytocin may promote psychological resilience by modulating the hippocampus. However, the specific regulation mechanisms of them have not yet been systematically researched and elucidated. This review focuses on the role of oxytocin in the hippocampus on regulating psychological resilience and try to clarify the underlying mechanisms. It can help to further understand the mechanisms of psychological resilience and help to reduce the incidence of post-traumatic mental illness.
    Hippocampus regulates psychological resilience through the internal and external projection circuits. On the internal circuit of the hippocampus, studies suggest that “entorhinal cortex-dentate gyrus-CA3” circus in the hippocampus may improve psychological resilience by reducing the generalization or promoting the extinction of stress-related memory. On the external circuit of the hippocampus, the “dentate gyrus-amygdala-nucleus accumbens” circuit and the “hippocampus-nucleus accumbens” circuit may enhance or reduce psychological resilience by promoting reward and disgust, respectively. There is a opposite effect on psychological resilience from the projection of the hippocampus to nucleus accumbens directly or indirectly. The basolateral amygdala may play a key role. Studies have shown that stress can cause complex interactions among basolateral amygdala, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens, so more research is necessary conducted to better understand its specific mechanisms. 
    Oxytocin may regulate the hippocampus through four ways to improve psychological resilience. First, oxytocin promotes the neurogenesis of the hippocampus under stress by acting on the oxytocin receptor at the hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. This can reduce the stress-induced harm. Second, oxytocin reduces the sensitivity of mature neurons in ventral hippocampus to stress by stimulating dentate gyrus neurogenesis. This can enhance the function of “pattern separation” in the dentate gyrus–CA3 circuit and reduce the generalization of stress-associated memory. Third, oxytocin increases the synaptic cell signaling pathway kinase levels on the CA3-CA1 pathway and promotes the ability of adaptation to stress by rescuing stress-induced impairments in NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation of hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. At last, oxytocin interacts with glucocorticoids and catecholamine systems to increase oxytocin release. The oxytocin release can inhibit the function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and reduce hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor levels. This protects the structure and function of the hippocampus from glucocorticoid damage and re-establishes brain homeostasis. So, oxytocin can further adjust the stress-related memory and enhance psychological resilience.
    At the same time, research suggests that oxytocin regulates psychological resilience by affecting the structure and function of the hippocampus, which might differ among individuals of different genders or experiences. In terms of individual diagnosis and treatment, it is necessary to combine these factors for reasonable treatment. Besides, the interaction between genes and the environment is also needed to be considered. To improve psychological resilience in a targeted manner, individual characteristics, interpersonal relationships, and emotional support needs to be considered in the treatment of stress-related mental illness. Finally, exploring the neural mechanisms of psychological resilience should be closely integrated with human research and animal research to make up for the deficiencies of each research. Future research should combine various technologies such as human brain imaging and animal neural circuits technologies to determine the fine brain structures and circuits that regulate psychological resilience.

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    HIV stigma based on dual perspectives of the uninfected and the infected
    DUAN Wenjie, LI Yumei, HE Along, WU Tong
    2021, 29 (2):  323-337.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00323
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    HIV stigma consists of public stigma and self-stigma. The former refers to the public's prejudice, stereotype and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA); the latter refers to the perception of prejudice, stereotype and discrimination from the public, and thus negative self-recognition is formed. The measurement is mainly carried out from the uninfected group and the infected individuals. HIV stigma is widespread in many areas of life such as individuals, families, health care providers, and the media. Public stigma and self-stigma survive together, hindering the effective prevention and treatment towards HIV/AIDS, and undermining social equality seriously. Interventions to reduce HIV stigma not only focus on eliminating prejudice, stereotype and discrimination of uninfected group, and improving the social stigma environment, but also focus on paying attention to improving the mental health and treatment willingness of infected individuals, and improving their quality of life. In addition, HIV stigma intervention studies should focus on strengthening the balance between the infected and uninfected group. In the future, we should conduct an in-depth study on the interaction mechanism, measurement tools, intervention measures, and courtesy stigma from the dual perspectives of the uninfected and the infected groups.

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    Explanatory mechanism and theoretical model of unethical pro-organizational behavior
    YAN Qiusi, SUI Yang, HAO Xuejing
    2021, 29 (2):  338-352.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00338
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    Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior (UPB) defines the unethical behaviors of the organization's employees to protect the organization's interests. UPB is difficult to be identified in the organization, but it may bring negative effects to the organization. Due to the pro-organizational and immoral nature, the research of UPB has attracted wide attention from all walks of life. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the origin and definition of UPB. It is also necessary to learn from the interpretation path of "unethical behavior" to theoretically summarize the progress. This progress is made in the research on the cause of UPB from the explanatory mechanisms of rational decision and intuitive judgment to form a theoretical model. On such a basis, future research directions are proposed: the study of Unethical Pro-leader Behavior (UPLB) and Unethical Pro-group Behavior (UPGB); the moderating effect of corporate ownership on UPB in China; and the impact of role stress on UPB.

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    The effects of employee empowerment expectation: The underlying theoretical explanations
    YIN Kui, ZHANG Kaili, ZHAO Jing, GONG Zhenxing
    2021, 29 (2):  353-364.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00353
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    Most of previous research on empowering leader behavior has adopted a leader-centric approach to examine its effectiveness. With the arising of followership theory, more research has emphasized the importance of examining leadership effectiveness from the follower-centric approach. Expectation plays an import role in management. Employee empowerment expectation refers to a set of norms that employees perceived about the responsibilities and obligations the leader should shoulder in terms of empowering. 
    Most of the existing empirical research concentrate on the effect of employee and leader empowerment fit and emphasize that employee’s leadership role expectation has a direct impact on individual behavior from the perspective of congruence. However, previous review of empowerment mainly focused on leader empowering behavior and pay little attention to employee empowerment expectation. From the perspective of the theoretical explanation of the role of employee empowerment expectation in the process of empowerment, the theories used are relatively scattered, based on which, there is a lack of systematic review of the findings and shortcomings.
    The concepts, measurements and related theories involved in the effect of employee empowerment expectation were systematically reviewed. To date, the measurement of employee empowerment expectation is realized by changing the subject of measurement items, referring to Ahearne’s (2005) leadership empowerment behavior scale. Previous empirical studies have mainly explored the effect of employee empowerment expectation from the perspective of employee and leader congruence, while there is no empirical study has focused on the separate influence or formation mechanism of it. There are two type research on the congruence of employee and leader empowerment expectation: (1) The congruence of expectation and experience, which is the congruence of employee’s empowerment expectation and leader’s empowering behavior. And the measurement of leader empowering behavior is divided into employee-rated and leader self-rated. (2) evaluators congruence, such as employee self-rated and leader-rated employee empowerment expectation. In addition, from the role set theory, leader categorization theory and met expectation theory, this paper summarized the effect and research conclusions of employee empowerment expectation.
    Further research can expand current research based on the congruence perspective with the help of more accurate measurement of employee empowerment expectation, or break through the existing research paradigm and recognize employee empowerment expectation as a more important separate variable based on the following theory or implicit leadership theory, as well as systematically explore its antecedents and outcomes: (1) Based on the implicit leadership theory, future research can enrich the measurement of employee empowerment expectation. (2) Drawing on the person-environment fit theory (especially the employee-leader fit), future research can explain the empowerment congruence of employee and leader, such as exploring the path of “employee and leader empowerment expectation congruence → leader relational identity→ employee proactive behavior” based on the relational identity theory. (3) Future research can discuss the main effect of employee empowerment expectation, exploring the path of “employee empowerment expectation → employee following behavior (e.g., proactive behavior) → leader empowering behavior” based on the following theory. (4) In view of the fact that employee empowerment expectation can be used as a moderator and a separate variable to influence employee’s attitude, behavior and leadership effectiveness, future research can analyze the antecedents of employee empowerment expectation. (5) Future research can discuss the antecedents and outcomes of employee empowerment expectation from the perspective of segmentation dimension.

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    Typeface effect in marketing
    XIE Zhipeng, XIAO Tingting, QIN Huanyu
    2021, 29 (2):  365-380.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00365
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    The visual design of texts and wordmarks plays an important part in marketing communication. It directly affects consumers' first impression of the brand. The importance of text is not only reflected in the readability of the content, but also in consumers’ perception and response. Despite the importance of typefaces, surprisingly little research is done on this topic. Existing literature is largely scattered in different fields such as linguistics, design and psychology. There exists conflicting conclusions which lack the support of integrated framework. The current review thus attempts to fill in this gap by providing a systematic framework of the typeface effect. In the first part of this paper, the literature regarding the categorization and definition of typefaces were collected. In the second part, the influence of typefaces on consumer perception and behavior, as well as the three major psychological mechanisms of the typeface effect, namely, appropriateness, perceptual memory and perception of human presence was emphasized in the paper. In addition, the problem of how typefaces are regulated by consumer characteristics, product types, and external environment were discussed by us. Last but not least, the insight into the theoretical and managerial value of typefaces in marketing, and also the potential topics for future studies were provided at the end of the paper.

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