ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conceptual Framework
    Neural mechanism underlying recognition of dynamic emotional faces in social anxiety
    RAN Guangming, LI Rui, ZHANG Qi
    2020, 28 (12):  1979-1988.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01979
    Abstract ( 3004 )   HTML ( 384 )  
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    Abundant studies have explored the processing of emotional faces for high social anxiety participants and intervention work of social anxiety in recent years. Although there are rich findings, some limitations need to be considered. There are fewer types of emotion, dimensions of videos, and durations of videos in the previous dynamic emotional faces in Chinese. Furthermore, recognition of dynamic emotional faces for neural mechanisms in high social anxiety participants has not been examined systematically. The final limitation is that there are controversies on attentional bias training. More specifically, some researchers reported the effects of attentional bias training on participants’ social anxiety while others did not detect such effects.
    To address these limitations, our dynamic emotional faces in Chinese will enrich types of emotion, dimensions of videos, and durations of videos. Then recognition of dynamic emotional faces for neural mechanisms in high social anxiety participants should be investigated systematically by techniques of neuroscience. Finally, we will employ a working memory training to improve attentional biases of the recognition of dynamic angry faces in high social anxiety participants. We propose a model of the neural mechanism for the recognition of dynamic emotional faces in participants with high social anxiety, which consists of a mechanism and intervention sub-model. Our studies provide a new perspective for the research of processing of dynamic emotional faces and social anxiety. In addition, these studies included three research method (behavioral, electrophysiological and brain imaging method). In sum, our findings contribute to the intervention work of social anxiety, decrease psychological health problems in high social anxiety participants, and ultimately decrease their happiness and quality of life.

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    The mechanism and distribution trend of spillover effect of strong brand for advertising competition in traditional media
    JIN Xiangdong, FAN Xiucheng, ZHU Huawei, YUAN Jingbo
    2020, 28 (12):  1989-1999.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01989
    Abstract ( 1269 )   HTML ( 177 )  
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    The advertisement of an enterprise not only promotes its own market demands, but also influences the market demand of its competitors’ products, which is called the Spillover Effect of Advertisement. Previous studies have found that strong brands’ advertising competition cause spillover effects on weak brands). This research extends current studies by examining the underlying mechanism using two experiments. Study 1 explores several mediating and moderating variables. The mediating variables include involvement of a strong brand, perceived product quality, and changes of market share. The moderating variables include product life cycle and product homogeneity, attitude towards advertising, and consumer task orientation. Study 2 examines the overall distribution rule of the spillover effect of strong brands’ advertising competition on weak brands. We focus on the periods of product growth and maturity. In conclude, we unravel the mechanism and overall distribution rule of strong brands’ advertising competition, which will enrich the theory of spillover effect and advertising effect.

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    Regular Articles
    Sequential surface integration process hypothesis of the ground-surface reference frame
    DONG Bo, WANG Chengyu, ZHANG Xiuling, ZHANG Tianyang
    2020, 28 (12):  2000-2007.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02000
    Abstract ( 589 )   HTML ( 39 )  
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    The ground-surface reference frame is important in space perception. The sequential surface integration process (SSIP) hypothesis firstly speculated on its formation process. The SSIP hypothesis greatly promotes the development of research in space perception and opens up a new research field. The core viewpoints and relevant evidences of SSIP hypothesis include three aspects: the representation principle of the ground, the integration conditions, and the representation results. . Future research needs to investigate the formation mechanism of the ground reference framework by employing the process-based technology and the role of high-level cognitive process. The applications of the ground-surface reference frame in national defense should also be considered.

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    Cognitive and neural mechanisms of human gender processing
    YANG Guochun, WU Haiyan, QI Yue, LIU Xun
    2020, 28 (12):  2008-2017.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02008
    Abstract ( 1282 )   HTML ( 152 )  
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    Gender information is an important biological and social attribute of human beings. Rapid and accurate gender identification is of great significance to our survival and reproduction. Human gender processing is characterized by automation, stereotyping and asymmetry. It is influenced by gender processing subjects, other gender information, social category information, and higher-level cognitive regulation. Focusing on two main sources of gender information, namely faces and voices, research on the behavioral and neural mechanisms of gender processing were reviewed. In addition, a two-stage gender processing model was proposed, in which the early stage relates to a specific processing of the physical features aspect of gender information, and the later stage is a general processing of abstract gender information. Future research may focus on aspects of the systematic study of gender processing, gender classification and machine learning, and gender dimorphism, among others.

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    On the causes and interventions of affective forecasting bias
    SUN Lin, DUAN Tao, CHEN Ning
    2020, 28 (12):  2018-2026.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02018
    Abstract ( 1828 )   HTML ( 167 )  
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    Affective forecasting bias is a type of separation phenomenon between affective forecasting and affective experience. According to the literature from the past decade (2009~2019), the popular research topics involve bias phenomena, causes, and interventions. Accordingly, three main findings are presented: Affective forecasting bias is very common, the causes of bias are extensive, and interventions can be conducted. Future research should especially focus on revealing the mechanism of affective forecasting bias, such as the psychological mechanism of specific biases and neuropsychological mechanism of biases and its evolutionary and cultural mechanisms.

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    Establishment and evaluation of animal pre-attentive processing models: Based on the MMN deficit in mental disorders
    WANG Sheng, CHEN Yahong, WANG Jinyan
    2020, 28 (12):  2027-2039.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02027
    Abstract ( 546 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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    Pre-attentive processing refers to the early and automatic cognitive processes which are independent of consciousness and do not demand attention. Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is the most commonly used indicator of pre-attentive processing. MMN deficits have been found in a various of mental disorders, but little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of MMN deficits. Combined with highly developed neurobiological and pharmacological techniques, animal models can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of MMN. Future animal studies of MMN should give more thoughts to the biological characteristics of different species and compare MMN across species in combination with human and animal research advantages. Hopefully, this comparative approach will lead to a better understanding of pre-attentive processing at both the macro and the micro levels.

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    The attentional bias for food cues and its neural mechanism
    LI Ling, HOU Xiaoxu, ZHANG Ya, SUI Xue
    2020, 28 (12):  2040-2051.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02040
    Abstract ( 2407 )   HTML ( 157 )  
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    Compared with other types of stimuli, individuals preferentially pay attention to food-related stimuli, that is, the attentional bias towards food stimuli. Analysis of the individual factors that influence this attentional bias for food cues showed the following results: First, among the state factors, hunger and negative emotions related to self-threat with high intensity of arousal had an enhanced effect on attentional bias for food cues, which was reflected in early and late attention processing. Second, among the trait factors, the behavior study found that, compared with normal weight individuals and non-restriction dieters, overweight/obese individuals and successful restricted dieters who evoke dieting goals did not have a stronger attentional bias for food cues. However, the event-related potential study found that at the early stage of attention processing, the influence of trait factors on attentional bias for food cues appeared. Lastly, fMRI studies have found that attentional bias for food cues is accompanied by activation of reward-related brain regions such as the insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and visual attention networks. It is suggested that future research should be devoted to the following four aspects: (1) studying attentional bias from a dynamic perspective to further improve the reliability of measurement, (2) using specialized paradigms to explore the neural mechanism of individual factors affecting attentional bias, (3) distinguishing the different state factors to explore the attentional bias for food cues, and (4) the conducting of rigorous screening and classification of subjects to conduct comparative studies among them.

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    Nudging strategies to promote healthy eating behavior
    LI Jiajie, YU Tongtong
    2020, 28 (12):  2052-2063.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02052
    Abstract ( 1771 )   HTML ( 94 )  
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    With respect to interventions for healthy eating behaviors of citizens, the more covert nudging strategies, which focus on influencing intuitive thinking system, have shown their advantages over conventional policies. Based on the unique influencing mechanisms of nudging strategies on healthy diet decisions, the nudging framework comprises four main categories, namely, providing decision information, improving decision options, influencing decision structures and reminding decision directions, which further include nine sub-categories. Considering the disputes over the nudging strategies in practice, the implementation of the nudging strategies should be integrated with conventional policies in China, fully take into consideration the actual conditions in China and the characteristics of Chinese consumers and take full advantages of information technology and big data, to achieve the goal of Healthy China.

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    Spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) of children in informal learning environment
    CUI Shuang, GAO Yaru, WANG Yangyang, HUANG Bijuan, SI Jiwei
    2020, 28 (12):  2064-2075.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02064
    Abstract ( 900 )   HTML ( 46 )  
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    A large number of studies take an “ability” perspective on children’s early mathematical development. They mainly concentrated on children’s early mathematical knowledge and skills, thereby ignoring other possibly relevant aspects of young children’s early mathematical competence. This study focuses on spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON), which is a tendency of individuals to spontaneously pay attention to numerosity-related information in the environment. SFON is likely to be the basis for most other mathematical focusing tendencies, but its association with spontaneous attention to a number (SAN), spontaneously focusing on arabic number symbols (SFONS), and spontaneous focusing on quantitative relations (SFOR) remains to be clarified. As one of domain-specific predictors of mathematical performance, the development trajectory and mechanism of SFON should be paid in future research. The mechanism of SFON may be explored from mathematical motivation and math anxiety, and the measurement of SFON should be improved and innovated. Meanwhile, the research on educational intervention of SFON also should be promoted.

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    The unidimensional basic psychological need satisfactions from the additive, synergistic and balanced perspectives
    CHEN Chen, LIU Yuxin, ZHAO Chen
    2020, 28 (12):  2076-2090.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02076
    Abstract ( 870 )   HTML ( 116 )  
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    Studying basic psychological needs in a unidimensional way supplements the general framework of need satisfaction research by exploring the uniqueness of each need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, or competence satisfaction). This article reviews the theoretical basis of the psychological mechanisms (the intrinsic motivation and the internalization of extrinsic motivation) and the research status quo of the need satisfaction successively from three unidimensional perspectives, i.e., the additive, synergistic and balanced perspectives. Notably, inspired by the three perspectives, the article provides insights for the “limited interchangeability” of each need satisfaction’s influence on individuals’ psychological functioning. Future studies may keep digging the need satisfactions from the three unidimensional perspectives, and explore the compensatory association among the three need satisfactions, the neurological basis of each need satisfaction, and the basic psychological need frustrations in a unidimensional way.

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    Stability and variability of values: From the perspective of cognitive neuroscience
    YUE Tong, HUANG Xiting, XU Ying, PAN Sicun
    2020, 28 (12):  2091-2101.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02091
    Abstract ( 1376 )   HTML ( 80 )  
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    The issue of stability and variability of values has always been the focus of debate in this field. In recent years, researchers began to analyze the mechanism of the differences in the stability of values from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience. The existing neurophysiological evidence shows that when a certain value is constructed based on the absolute rules of deontology, or is consistent with the representation of self-concept, it tends to maintain a stable state. Otherwise, it may change fundamentally under the persuasion of others. In future work, it is necessary to further enrich and improve the cognitive neural processing model that explains the relationship between the stability and variability of values. Moreover, it is vital to explore the cognitive neural mechanisms that underlie the long-term changes in values, so as to promote the practice and application of theoretical research in the education of values.

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    Application of the CNI model in the studies of moral decision
    XU Kepeng, YANG Lingqian, WU Jiahong, XUE Hong, ZHANG Shuyue
    2020, 28 (12):  2102-2113.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02102
    Abstract ( 1846 )   HTML ( 72 )  
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    Moral decision-making is operationalized by the final choice making after weighing the advantages and disadvantages of behaviors and their following outcomes, when an individual faces a moral dilemma with conflicting moral values or needs. The traditional moral dilemma is though a classical and established paradigm for studying moral decision, however, still has been widely criticized for its unrealistic scenarios and lack of effective indicators to quantify utilitarian and deontological response, which strongly affect the accurate interpretation of moral decision-making. To overcome the shortcomings of traditional moral dilemma paradigm, the CNI model of moral decision-making uses multinomial modeling to quantify the individual sensitivity regarding consequences and moral norms, and general behavioral preference, and therefore can more clearly identify the factors that affect moral decision-making. Future research should focus on further factors that affect moral decision-making, the ecological validity of moral scenarios, and cross-cultural generalisability to optimize the CNI model, and the investigation of the underlying psychological mechanism of moral decision-making.

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    Intentional concealment of personal information: Secrecy and its consequences and coping
    DUAN Jinyun, SUN Hanbin, SUN Yinsi
    2020, 28 (12):  2114-2124.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02114
    Abstract ( 1201 )   HTML ( 68 )  
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    Secrecy is quite common in daily life. However, the non-public nature of secrecy remains a large obstacle to the development of secrecy research. The exiting literature mainly centered on the negative effects of secrecy such as the sense of burden and self-punishment, while the positive impacts of secrecy (e.g., social protection and prosocial lies) lack attention. Scholars have proposed several frameworks such as inhibition model of secrecy, preoccupation model of secrecy, perseverative thinking model and shared reality theory that can be used to explain the mechanism of secrecy’s negative effects. Furthermore, the present research findings demonstrated that individuals can mitigate the negative influence of secrecy by means of confiding secrets, exerting creativity, training emotional markers and self-awareness. Having recognized the critical role of secrecy, future research can be improved with a more accurate and consistent conceptualization as well as a precise measurement and manipulation. In addition, the empirical research could be intensified by focusing more on the positive impacts and the mechanism of secrecy and enhancing its application in different fields.

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    Understanding social class disparities in health and education from a sociocultural perspective
    DENG Ziqian, CHEN Xiaochen, WEI Qingwang
    2020, 28 (12):  2125-2136.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02125
    Abstract ( 1355 )   HTML ( 93 )  
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    How to reduce social class disparities in health and education and improve social equality has drawn widely concerns across the world. Among current approaches in social class psychology, the sociocultural perspective emphasizes on how social class contexts shape the self and corresponding patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting. Starting from the class-specific self, sociocultural perspective further provides systematic explanations on how social class culture is produced and maintained (i.e., social class cycles), as well as difference education as a means to improve the adaptations of the lower-class. These theoretical perspectives incorporate and extend previous key tenets of the individual and structural models of behavior. In addition, the sociocultural perspective provides new tools for developing social-psychological interventions which aim at reducing social class disparities in health and education. Future research from the sociocultural perspective could focus on sinicization of the theory and corresponding interventions, integration with other approaches in social class psychology and social justice perspective, and examining the effects of social mobility and cultural change on social class psychology.

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    The cognitive perspective of cultural evolution: Exploring cultural dynamics from the view of social learning
    CHEN Weiyang, XIE Tian
    2020, 28 (12):  2137-2149.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02137
    Abstract ( 942 )   HTML ( 30 )  
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    Cultural evolution is a topic of concern for multiple disciplines. The cognitive perspective is a way for psychologists to enter into this domain. It focuses on individual cognition in the social and cultural environment, while studying the processing, change, memory, and extraction of cultural information in individual social learning. Drawing on Darwin’s theory of biological evolution, it involves cultural inheritance, cultural innovation, and cultural selection, additionally it proposes three principles of cultural evolution, i.e. inheritance, variation, and selection. The paths of cultural inheritance include imitation and teaching, as well as the specific types of instrumental cultural inheritance and conventional cultural inheritance. Cultural innovation is hierarchical, and cumulative cultural evolution, which is peculiar to human beings, is based on cultural innovation and reflects the intergenerational transmission of cultural innovation. Cultural selection based on behavioral ecology and the human cognitive mechanism would result in differential adaptation of cultural information. Future studies could explore higher levels of cultural innovation, expand the antecedent variables of cultural evolution, and deepen the understanding of cultural evolution with new technologies. In addition, future research could promote the study of cultural psychology, study the influence of cultural mixing, and the effect of personality on cultural evolution.

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    Present Buddha with borrowed flowers: Customer-oriented deviant behaviors
    LI Pengbo, ZHOU Ying, WANG Zhen, SUN Yuqing
    2020, 28 (12):  2150-2159.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02150
    Abstract ( 1419 )   HTML ( 78 )  
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    Customer-oriented deviant behaviors (CODB), refer to frontline employees’ behaviors aiming to service customers while breaking organizational rules and norms. CODB has received increasing attention and has become an emerging research topic in academia. By reviewing the literature, we found that CODB studies vary in its theoretical basis and evolution pattern across the organizational behavior domain and the service management domain. Four aspects of factors have been found to predict CODB, including employees’ individual differences, job characteristics, organizational context, and customer behaviors. CODB has shown a double-edged sword effect on both customer and employee outcomes and the organization as a whole. Future research should take a more comprehensive lens to advance CODB research, including clarifying its concept and measurement, exploring employees’ motives behind these behaviors, identifying how these behaviors are influenced by organizational policies and managerial behaviors, and examining both the benefits and costs of CODB and their associated boundary conditions.

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    Research Method
    Item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing
    TANG Qian, MAO Xiuzhen, HE Mingshuang, HE Jie
    2020, 28 (12):  2160-2168.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.02160
    Abstract ( 863 )   HTML ( 30 )  
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    Dual-objective cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT), which considers knowledge status and ability simultaneously, has become more and more popular with the theoretical and practical development of CD-CAT. Item selection methods play a key role in CD-CAT. This paper systematically reviews existing item selection methods on traditional and dual-objective CD-CAT, and summarizes the types, characteristics, relations, and performance of these methods. Furthermore, several future research directions were illustrated. First, it is necessary to study item selection strategy with general cognitive models and under complex test conditions. Second, it is important to develop indexes representing items and test characteristic of dual-objective diagnostic testing. Finally, it is meaningful to conduct research on non-parametric item selection methods and practical applications of CD-CAT.

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