ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conceptual Framework
    The effect mechanism of sleep deprivation on risky decision making
    PENG Jiaxi, ZHAO Lumimg, FANG Peng, CAO Yunfei, MIAO Danmin, XIAO Wei
    2020, 28 (11):  1789-1799.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01789
    Abstract ( 2633 )   HTML ( 294 )  
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    In many industries, it is possible and sometimes inevitable for decision makers to make choices and decisions under the state of mental fatigue due to insufficient sleep. Sleep deprivation, as the laboratory model of insufficient sleep, has been proved to have significant influence on risky decision-making, while the internal mechanism remains unclear. A hypothetical model was suggested based previous studies that that the feedback processing, risk perception, inhibition control, and priority of heuristic system could mediate the influence of sleep deprivation on risky decision-making. Using laboratory study and field study, the current study planed to adopt Simple gambling task, Adult decision-making competence scale, Probability discounting task, two choice oddball paradigm, and other tasks and measurements, and compare participants’ performance in these tasks before and after sleep deprivation. Meanwhile, the connections between executive control network and reward network were compared, and the changes of task-induced FRN and other EEG components were compared as well before and after sleep deprivation. The results might present scientific explanations about how sleep deprivation influences risky decision-making, and provide theoretical basis for further exploration to avoid errors in decision-making due to insufficient sleep.

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    Multi-level mechanism of ethical human resource management practice: Based on social context and social cognitive theory
    CHEN Silu, ZHANG Guanglei, LIU Wenxing
    2020, 28 (11):  1800-1813.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01800
    Abstract ( 1194 )   HTML ( 112 )  
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    Ethical crisis fundamentally challenges business operation. Existing literatures have mainly focused on examining ethical behavior from a micro perspective, overlooking the practice of business ethics from a meso perspective. As a result, feasible and effective ethical practice has yet been developed. Human resource management practice (HRMP), as one of the practices of business ethics from the meso perspective, is critical to manage ethical issues. Grounded on the intersection of human resource management and business ethics, we develop the research framework of ethical HRMP by addressing three important issues: (1) on the basis of social context theory, we examine the impact of ethical HRMP on organizational ethical performance and its mechanism; (2) on the basis of social cognitive theory, we examine the cross-level impact of ethical HRMP on group ethical voice and its mechanism; (3) on the basis of social cognitive theory, we examine the cross-level impact of ethical HRMP on individual ethical voice and its mechanism. The present research will not only expand the theory of human resource management, but also offer valuable implications for organizations to effectively implement ethical HRMP.

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    The double-edged sword effect of leadership empowerment behavior
    XIANG Shuting, ZHAO Kai, NING Nan
    2020, 28 (11):  1814-1835.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01814
    Abstract ( 1872 )   HTML ( 110 )  
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    In the era of rapid development of the digital economy, leadership empowerment behavior is an important practice with which to motivate employees. However, prior studies have shown inconsistent findings regarding its effectiveness. To deeply investigate the impacts of leadership empowerment behavior on employees, we aim to systematically examine the mechanism of the “double-edged sword” impact of leadership empowerment behavior on employees based on conservation resource theory (COR). First, from the perspective of resources, empowerment is regarded as a kind of resource that leaders provide to their employees. Then we thoroughly analyze the “enabling” and “burdening” mechanisms induced by leadership empowerment behavior. The regulatory focus of employees is considered the boundary condition that influence the “double-edged sword” impact. Second, leadership empowerment behavior is thought to be dynamically changing. We explore the ways in which daily leadership empowerment behavior and the fluctuation of leadership empowerment behavior cause the “double-edged sword” effect. Third, we consider the organizational context in which leadership empowerment behavior plays a dynamically changing role. We explore how the relative dynamic situation, namely, work events, moderates the “double-edged sword” effect of leadership empowerment behavior. We aim to combine static and dynamic perspectives to systematically explore the mechanism of the “double-edged sword” impact of leadership empowerment behavior on employees, contributing to both academic research and practical implications.

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    The relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction: A meta-analysis
    ZHANG Yali, LI Sen, YU Guoliang
    2020, 28 (11):  1836-1852.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01836
    Abstract ( 5673 )   HTML ( 671 )  
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    Loneliness and mobile phone addiction are common phenomena in our daily life, seriously affecting our physical and mental health. Recently, numerous empirical studies have discussed the relationship between these two constructs based on different theoretical perspectives. However, the reported effect sizes of this relationship based on cross-sectional designs are far from consistent. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the strength and moderators of the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction. One hundred and thirty-one studies consisting of 134 independent samples involving 73, 543 participants were identified and a random-effects model was selected to conduct this meta-analysis. The results of the funnel plot and Egger’s intercept illustrated no publication bias. Furthermore, the results of the main-effect test indicated that there was a moderate and positive correlation between loneliness and mobile phone addiction (r = 0.25, 95% CI = [0.23, 0.27]). Additionally, the moderation analyses revealed that the strength of the relationship was moderated by the type of participants, but not by gender and measurement tools of loneliness and mobile phone addiction. The results supported the compensatory Internet use theory and the deficient self-regulation model. Longitudinal or experimental studies are needed in the future to further explore the direction of the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction.

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    Regular Articles
    The important time parameters and related evidences from dual perspectives of temporal information processing and temporal processing of information
    YIN Huazhan, CUI Xiaobing, BAI Youling, CAO Gege, DENG Jinxin, LI Dan
    2020, 28 (11):  1853-1864.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01853
    Abstract ( 1563 )   HTML ( 78 )  
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    Time is not only the object of human information processing, but also the factors that affect the processing of non-temporal information. The duration between tens of milliseconds and seconds is closely related to human life, for example, subjective timing, performance and speech activities. In this time range, 20~60 ms, 1/3~1 s and 2~3 s are the important time parameters concerned by researchers. It can be seen from the previous literature that whether these parameters really exist is still one of the major disagreements in the academic circle. Firstly, this paper introduces the important time parameters from the two perspectives of temporal information processing and temporal processing of information, Then, the evidence of 1/3~1 s and 2~3 s boundaries from the perspective of “temporal information processing” is reviewed in the fields of behavior, brain injury, pharmacology, EEG, brain imaging, trans cranial magnetic stimulation and trans cranial direct current stimulation, Then, from the perspectives of Montessori synchronization, subjective rhythmic, speech act, reversals of perception, inhibition of return and mismatch negativity, the paper reviews the evidence of 20~60 ms and 2~3 s time windows from the perspective of “temporal processing of information”. On the one hand, future research should build a theoretical hypothesis based on the stronger explanatory power of the demarcation region and time window, on the other hand, it should clarify the relationship and difference between the demarcation region and time window.

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    The behavioral immune system: A multi-level reconsideration
    YANG Ying, ZHU Hui-Jun, ZHOU Wan, ZHANG Ming-Yang, XIE Yi-Ping, BAO Han-Wu-Shuang, SU Zhan, WANG Xiao-Ou, JING Yi-Ming, YANG Zi-Yan, CAI Hua-Jian
    2020, 28 (11):  1865-1879.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01865
    Abstract ( 1615 )   HTML ( 83 )  
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    The theory of Behavioral Immune System (BIS) posits that to cope with pandemic stress, human beings have evolved a series of behavioral responses, including vigilance to and disgust of disease cues, preference for healthy mate and collectivism, prejudice against out-groups and so on. For the first time, the existing studies were reviewed according to research level (individual vs. group). A large body of supportive evidence for BIS at both levels was identified, though many inconsistent and/or conflicting findings exist. Reasons leading to such inconsistencies include inadequacies of research methods, theory basis, and applicability in modern society. Future research should examine the boundary conditions of existing findings and theory; extend the scope of the current research; explore the underlying biological and physiological mechanism of BIS.

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    Selflessness and eudaimonia: Self-based processes of wisdom
    WEI Xindong, WANG Fengyan
    2020, 28 (11):  1880-1889.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01880
    Abstract ( 2249 )   HTML ( 182 )  
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    Wise people are both selfless and eudaemonic. Research adopting the social-ecological approach has found individual’s ability to reason wisely across interpersonal and societal conflicts can be fostered by ego-decentering mindset, while research grounded in the person-centric approach has demonstrated the positive relation between wisdom and eudaimonia. Based on the integration of the two approaches, a model of self-based processes of wisdom was proposed. This model is characterized by a self-reinforcing circle. More specifically, selflessness boosts practical wisdom in daily life, which will bring the state of eudaimonia. In turn, this state of mind linked with eudaimonia will reinforce the selflessness. Lastly, the influence of different types of self across cultures and dynamic relationship between eudaimonia and wisdom are needed to be further investigated.

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    The self-other distinction in interpersonal interaction: A multi-level exploration
    TAN Cheng-hui, MA Shan-shan, ZHU Chuan-lin, ZHAO Yuan, WANG Xuan-yi, SHU De-ming, LIU Dian-zhi
    2020, 28 (11):  1890-1900.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01890
    Abstract ( 1763 )   HTML ( 118 )  
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    The fundamental problem with interpersonal interaction is how we can understand others’ mental and emotional states while characterizing our own concurrent thoughts and feelings to navigate the complex social world efficiently. Recent studies have showed that individuals understand others mainly by simulating self-processing processes; however, such self-processing and mental simulations confuse the self with others to some extent. Therefore, the brain needs to be able to differentiate between the representation of self and others flexibly to carry out successful interpersonal interactions. This ability is known as self-other distinction (SOD). In the present study, various cognitive operations at different processing levels that require SOD, such as perception, action, cognition, and emotion, as well as the research paradigm applicable to the corresponding field, were reviewed. The study of SOD may be more conducive to comprehensively understand the interpersonal interaction process. Furthermore, it can be a useful intervention to improve social cognition, affective disorder, and people with autism. In addition to focusing on the paradigm, internal mechanism, and influencing factors, this study puts forward the prospects for further research emphasizing interventions for special populations.

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    Motives of altruistic punishment
    CHEN Sijing, YANG Shasha
    2020, 28 (11):  1901-1910.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01901
    Abstract ( 2662 )   HTML ( 174 )  
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    The altruistic punishment is proposed as an important mechanism for the existence of social norms. The motives for punishing altruistically, however, are not entirely altruistic from the individual perspective. In addition to maintaining the principle of fairness, the pursuit of a good reputation, the aversion of potential losses, or the elimination of negative emotions also drive, to varying degrees, altruistic punishment. In addition, the sensitivity to the amount and form of sanction costs also shows that strategic motivations based on the cost-benefit principle play a significant role in driving altruistic punishment. Further exploration of the interaction between different motivations in the implementation of altruistic punishment is an important issue that deserves more attention in the future research.

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    Ego depletion impedes rational decision making: Mechanisms and boundary conditions
    MA Yu, XIAO Chenjie, CHE Jingshang, WANG Haixia, LI Aimei
    2020, 28 (11):  1911-1925.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01911
    Abstract ( 1850 )   HTML ( 144 )  
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    Ego depletion leads to preference for immediate interests and goals, which is likely to induce irrational decision making. Based on systematic literature reviews, ego depletion impedes rational decision making through two mechanisms. In regard to the attention mechanism, depleted individuals are more likely to be attracted by immediate rewards but ignore the importance of long-term benefit (i.e., failure of “focusing on the future”). In terms of the execution mechanism, depletion impairs individuals’ abilities of planning and executing (i.e., failure of “sticking to the future”). Moreover, two critical boundaries affect such processes: (1) individual characteristics, including susceptibility to resource depletion and internal moral restraint; (2) situational characteristics, including external provocation, social norms and decision costs. Future research should adopt eye tracking technology to extend the research in attention mechanism and explore other boundary conditions, which helps to nudge rational decision making.

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    Time preferences for public health and health behavior
    WU Xiao-Ju, CHEN Jun-Fang, FU Jia-Hui, LI Shu, LIANG Zhu-Yuan
    2020, 28 (11):  1926-1938.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01926
    Abstract ( 1654 )   HTML ( 118 )  
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    Time preference for health is omnipresent and important at both individual and national levels. For a long time, research in this field has been limited to following inter-temporal choice models and methods in the traditional monetary domain of time preference studies. Given the domain-specificity of time preference in the health domain, these indiscriminately theoretical models led to inconsistent measures and results in the field. In the past few decades, researchers in this field have focused on the behavioral consequences of time preference for health. Most studies reported that lower temporal discount rates and higher future time perspectives are positively related to health protection behaviors and negatively related to health risk behaviors. Researchers also found that features of both decision-making objects and decision makers are key impact factors for time preference for health. Future studies should develop theoretical models and measurements that are more suitable to the time preferences for health domain, identify the relationship between healthy behaviors and time preference, and investigate the mechanism underlying the decision-making process. Future researchers should also explore interventions for health behaviors and their application to formulation of healthcare policies.

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    The distinction between promotive and prohibitive voice
    LI Fangjun, ZHONG Xupeng
    2020, 28 (11):  1939-1952.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01939
    Abstract ( 1448 )   HTML ( 52 )  
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    This paper systematically reviews the distinction between promotive and prohibitive voice. The theoretical foundation of their distinction includes planned behavior theory, regulatory focus theory, goal-oriented theory, socially desirable responding theory, conservation of resources theory, attribution theory, self-depletion theory, transactional theory of stress, and affect events theory. Corresponding to the theories, their antecedents differ in characteristics of voicer (e.g. personality, motivation), leadership style and behavior, leader-member exchange, and organizational factors (e.g. organizational politics, organizational justice); their consequences differ in work attitude and behavior (e.g. performance, job satisfaction), manager's endorsement, team performance. Promising research directions include how the two types of voice coexist in team and the cultural differences between them.

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    Nudging in field interventions of anti-poverty based on randomized controlled trials
    XU Fu-ming, HUANG Long, ZHANG Hui
    2020, 28 (11):  1953-1960.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01953
    Abstract ( 900 )   HTML ( 55 )  
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    The eradication of poverty is a top priority for developing countries and the most important goal of the Millennium Development Goals all over the world. Behavioral economists and development economists are employing the randomized control trials and nudge techniques to help the poor get rid of poverty within the globe. The current nudge action that uses randomized control experiments to help poor people overcome behavioral deviations is mainly manifested in helping poor people improve their current material conditions and enhance future security. The research and practice of random control experiments and nudging technologies in China have also effectively helped poor farmers improve their physical and mental health, and economic income. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the external validity test of randomized control experiments and nudging techniques, the similarities and differences among them, and combine with the endogenous power of poverty alleviation to formulate more simple, efficient, and strict poverty alleviation policies and projects.

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    Research Method
    Equivalence testing: A new perspective on structural equation model evaluation and measurement invariance analysis
    WANG Yang, WEN Zhonglin, FU Yuanshu
    2020, 28 (11):  1961-1969.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01961
    Abstract ( 1694 )   HTML ( 74 )  
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    There are some limitations in the commonly used fit indices of structural equation model. For example, χ 2, which is set up to reject the traditional null hypothesis, cannot be used to endorse a model, while descriptive fit indices such as RMSEA and CFI do not have inferential statistical properties. Equivalence testing can effectively compensate for the limitations mentioned above. In this paper, the way to use equivalence testing in evaluating the fit of a single model and its difference from the null hypothesis testing were introduced first. Then the approach to analyze measurement invariance by equivalence testing was described. Furthermore, empirical data was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of equivalence testing in single model evaluation and measurement invariance test, and to compare equivalence testing with traditional model evaluation method.

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    Online calibration based on computerized adaptive testing: Design and method
    ZHANG Xueqin, MAO Xiuzhen, LI Jia
    2020, 28 (11):  1970-1978.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01970
    Abstract ( 661 )   HTML ( 24 )  
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    Item replenishment is essential for item bank development and maintenance, where new items’ parameter calibration plays a significant role. Two core techniques of item replenishment under the circumstances of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are: 1) online calibration design; 2) online calibration method. The former investigates the administration way of new items, while the later explores parameter estimation methods. This paper aims to clarify the development ideas and contexts of online calibration design and online calibration method. Additionally, their characteristics, relations and performance were illustrated and evaluated in details. At the end, several future research directions were pointed out. It is important to further study online calibration design based on different information indicators and online calibration methods based on joint estimations and error corrections. Moreover, future study could explore the online calibration technique in cognitive diagnostic CAT (CD-CAT) and multidimensional CAT (MCAT), as well as the empirical applications of item replenishment.

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