ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    The psychological change of the Chinese people over the past half century: A literature review
    CAI Huajian, HUANG Zihang, LIN Li, ZHANG Mingyang, WANG Xiaoou, ZHU Huijun, XIE Yiping, YANG Ying, YANG Ziyang, JING Yiming
    2020, 28 (10):  1599-1618.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01599
    Abstract ( 5267 )   HTML ( 430 )  
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    China has undergone unprecedented societal transformations over the past decades. A large body of research has examined the impacts of the rapid societal change on Chinese culture and psychology, including values, personality, self, emotion, motivation, parenting, trust, Guanxi, happiness, mental health, and other social attitudes and behaviors. On the one hand, individualism in general was on the rise. On the other hand, while collectivism in general is declining, as manifested in diverse values, self-construals, personalities, parenting styles and social attitudes, some traditional values persist (e.g. filial piety). Some specific findings include that 1) general trust declined; 2) negative emotions, motivation to avoid failure, and the importance of Guanxi were on the rise; 3) mental health overall was on the rise but it was getting worse for some specific groups (e.g. students in elementary and middle schools); 4) subjective well-being was decreasing in 1990s and started to rise recently. Many changes, however, varied across time and people with different demographic and social backgrounds, suggesting co-existence of multi-cultures. These findings have important theoretical and practical implications. Future study needs to extend the current research scope and examine the causes, outcomes, and mechanisms of the changes.

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    Conceptual Framework
    Deception detection based on memory-response conflict: A cognitive load approach
    LIANG Jing, RUAN Qiannan, LI He, MA Mengqing, YAN Wenjing
    2020, 28 (10):  1619-1630.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01619
    Abstract ( 1717 )   HTML ( 157 )  
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    Deception detection is an important topic in psychology. The cognitive approach to deception detection is based on the premise that lying is more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Increased cognitive load is hypothesized to result in greater behavioral differences between truth tellers and liars. By manipulating cognitive load through different interfering task of various difficulties during the concealed information test, the influence of cognitive load on memory-response conflict was investigated to better illustrate the cognitive mechanism of deception detection. Second, behavioral and physiological cues for memory-response conflict based deception detection were examined in both noncriminal and criminal group. Finally, machine learning algorithms were employed to predict liars and truth tellers via behavioral and physiological cues. These findings will serve to aid in deception detection in the fields of judicial security and human communication.

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    The impact of demographic characteristics on public service motivation: Evidence from meta-analysis
    XU Yan, LI Chaoping
    2020, 28 (10):  1631-1649.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01631
    Abstract ( 1340 )   HTML ( 85 )  
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    The method of meta-analysis was utilized to analyze the influence of demographic characteristics on public service motivation (PSM). 138 documents and 492 independent samples (N = 1078442) in total meet the criteria of meta-Analysis. Results showed that gender, age, education, organizational tenure, job tenure, position level and income were correlated with PSM positively. However, the linkages between demographic characteristics and PSM varies with dimensions of PSM, and there is no obvious correlation between marital status and PSM. In addition, the relationships between some demographic characteristics and PSM are moderated by PSM measurements, waves of data collection and cultural backgrounds. The results provided not only accurate estimates for how PSM is affected by demographic characteristics, but also insights for future research of PSM and management of public employees.

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    Regular Articles
    Estimating the time-to-collision with a threatening object
    LI Caiwen, ZANG Fenying, XUAN Yuming, FU Xiaolan
    2020, 28 (10):  1650-1661.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01650
    Abstract ( 1082 )   HTML ( 63 )  
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    Estimating the time-to-collision (TTC) of approaching objects is crucial for organism survival. Researchers have proposed the constructivist approaches, the ecological optics theory and the tau hypothesis to explain how humans estimate TTC and which factors may affect the estimation. Recently, a few studies examined how the emotional content of stimuli impacts TTC estimation, by comparing TTC judgements between threatening and nonthreatening stimuli. Their findings suggest that natural threatening stimuli (e.g., images of snakes) lead to underestimation of TTC compared to natural nonthreatening stimuli (e.g., images of rabbits). However, other findings suggest that TTC underestimation of social threatening stimuli (e.g. pictures of angry faces) is smaller or absent. Underestimated TTC of threatening stimuli may be due to 1) a specific response to threatening stimuli, 2) high emotional arousal of threatening stimuli, and 3) a perceptual bias causing threatening stimuli to appear closer and move faster than typical. We suggest that future studies should (1) further investigate the reasons why TTC underestimation of social threatening stimuli is smaller or absent, (2) explore the autonomic physiological response patterns and neural correlates of TTC estimation of threatening stimuli, (3) examine TTC estimation of threatening stimuli in virtual reality (VR) environments, and (4) experimentally test the effects of individual differences (e.g., gender and personality traits) on TTC estimation.

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    Sound-induced flash illusion in multisensory integration
    WANG Aijun, HUANG Jie, LU Feifei, HE Jiaying, TANG Xiaoyu, ZHANG Ming
    2020, 28 (10):  1662-1677.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01662
    Abstract ( 1529 )   HTML ( 82 )  
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    Sound-induced Flash Illusion (SiFI) is an auditory-dominated multisensory integration phenomenon that occurs when flashes presented in conjunction with an incongruent number of auditory sounds results in the flashes being perceived as equal in number to the auditory sounds. Here we summarize several factors that could impact on SiFI: (1) Bottom-up variance factors comprising physical properties (i.e., spatial characteristics of stimuli, differences in stimulus intensity, and time interval between audiovisual stimuli), top-down variance factors comprisingcognitive processes (i.e., attention, feedback patterns, and cognitive expectations), and between-subjects variance factors, such as the dependence for audiovisual stimuli, the ability to integrate audiovisual stimuli, and perceptual sensitivity to audiovisual stimuli; (2) Cognitive processing stages and neural mechanisms of SiFI (i.e., related brain regions). Future studies should focus on the effects of cognitive processes such as attention, reward, audiovisual integration on SiFI. The effects of SiFI on memory and learning should also be explored in future research. In addition, future studies combining computational models and neuroscience should further explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms of SiFI.

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    The effect of taste on judgment and decision-making and its mechanism
    CHEN Yinfang, XIE Jiaquan, YANG Wendeng
    2020, 28 (10):  1678-1687.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01678
    Abstract ( 1952 )   HTML ( 225 )  
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    Taste is one of the indispensable feelings for human survival, and has substantially extended beyond the direct feeling of “tongue tip.” Taste affects individual perceptions and judgment of interpersonal relationship and ethics, and changes individual decision-making on risk-taking and consumption. Emotional intermediary, embodied metaphor, evolutionary, and social construction hypotheses are different perspectives used to explain the influence of taste on judgment and decision-making. The existing research has some limitations, such as individual differences in taste perception, difficulty in ensuring the validity of taste measurement, lack of unified research paradigm in taste experiment. Hence, future research should continue to verify the taste metaphor and apply it to the fields of sensory marketing and psychological therapy. The current study intensively analyzes taste from the aspects of physiology, psychology, and society, and discuses all facets of the mechanism and effects of taste on judgment and decision-making.

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    The cognitive mechanisms of decoy effect in decision making
    LI Jiahui, LIU Qing, JIANG Duo
    2020, 28 (10):  1688-1696.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01688
    Abstract ( 1843 )   HTML ( 146 )  
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    Decoy effect refers to a phenomenon that individuals tend to shift their preferences between two options when a third option is added to the choice set. The similar decoy, compromise decoy, attraction decoy and phantom decoy were applied to achieve the goal of selecting the option of target. Cognitive mechanisms of the decoy effect have been explored by many previous studies, some of which were conducted based on the perspective of heuristic or analytical processing, others were carried out from the perspective of the comparison process with either the attribute-based rule or the alternative-based rule. The cognitive processing of the decoy effect was affected by varied factors, such as age, the emotion of regret, the form of decision-making, the time pressure, and so on. In the future, related researches may focus on four aspects: (1) constructing a general cognitive processing model of all kinds of decoy effect; (2) exploring the role of perception in the cognitive mechanism of the decoy effect; (3) investigating the influence of decision-making styles on the decoy effect; and (4) exploring the ways to apply the decoy effect to nudge positive social development.

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    Testosterone and human aggression
    NAN Yu, LI Hong, WU Yin
    2020, 28 (10):  1697-1712.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01697
    Abstract ( 3073 )   HTML ( 126 )  
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    Testosterone is an androgen synthesized and secreted by the Leydig cells of the testes in men, the thecal cells of the ovaries and placenta of women. It can mediate various physiological, morphological, and behavioral processes, and is vital to human survival and reproduction. A large number of studies have shown that there is a bidirectional relationship between testosterone and social behavior. Testosterone can regulate various social behaviors, which in turn feedback and affect the testosterone level. Early research showed that individuals with high testosterone level are more aggressive. According to the challenge hypothesis and the biosocial status model, recent studies have revealed that testosterone is highly responsive to competitive interactions. In addition, by reviewing these studies, we suggest that changes in testosterone can affect aggressive behavior by enhancing the reactivity of the amygdala or reducing PFC-amygdala functional coupling. Future research could consider the potential role of other hormones (such as cortisol) and personality traits in regulating the relationship between testosterone and human aggressive behavior, as well as related biological mechanisms.

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    Relationship between chronotype and depression and its mechanism
    CHEN Yongjin, HUANG Huizhen, ZHI Kuiyun, ZHANG Shangxian, LIN Qiuyun, WANG Qingya, AN Wei
    2020, 28 (10):  1713-1722.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01713
    Abstract ( 2391 )   HTML ( 392 )  
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    As a worldwide public health challenge, depression negatively affects personal health and substantially increases the public burden of medical care. Prior research found a strong association between disrupted circadian rhythm and depression, suggesting the important role of chronotype in depression research. Individuals can be categorized into three general chronotypes: evening types (E-Types), morning types (M-Types), and neither type (N-Types). Most of studies show that evening types are independently associated with severe depressive symptoms, while morning types are a protective factor against depression. Behavioral mechanisms (such as emotion regulation) and neural mechanisms of amygdala and cingulate cortext may help us understand the effects of chronotype on depression. Future research should explore the sub-dimensions of chronotype, apply the prospective cohort design, and assess the proposed psychological and physiological mechanisms. In addition, the study has important implications to develop effective interventions to reduce depression.

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    The pain perception of infant
    LIU Huichen, CHEN Jian
    2020, 28 (10):  1723-1732.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01723
    Abstract ( 3177 )   HTML ( 88 )  
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    Pain perception in infants is of great significance to the growth and development of infants, which has aroused increasing interests of researchers. Pain is essentially an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that is acquired through early injury-related experiences. From the perspective of psychology, it is meaningful to systematically demonstrate the effects of pain perception on infant growth and development on the basis of understanding the concept of infant pain, its neurophysiological mechanism and evaluation tools. Subsequent research should continue to improve the measurement tools of pain perception in infants, and to investigate the differences in pain responses among different cultures and groups.

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    The “double-edged sword” effect of grandparenting on grandchildren and grandparents
    LU Furong, SONG Yujing, LIU Lupei, FANG Xuanzhi, ZHANG Cai
    2020, 28 (10):  1733-1741.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01733
    Abstract ( 2443 )   HTML ( 192 )  
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    Grandparenting refers to the upbringing and education provided by grandparents to their grandchildren. With the development of economy and society, “grandparenting” has become an important supplementary form of “parenting”. Grandparenting has a “double-edged sword” effect on the physical and mental health of grandparents and grandchildren. Biological evolution theory, social exchange theory and family system theory provide theoretical support for understanding the impact of grandparenting on grandchildren. In addition, role strain theory and role enhancement theory can deepen the understanding of the impact of grandparenting on grandparents. With the aim of achieving a deeper comprehensive research and promoting the localization of grandparenting research, it is necessary for the future study to clarify the definition and types of grandparenting and to control the boundary factors.

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    Marriage education based on the three-stage preventive model
    WANG Xiaoping, ZHU Tingting
    2020, 28 (10):  1742-1750.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01742
    Abstract ( 1383 )   HTML ( 76 )  
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    Marriage education (ME), based on empirical research, is a preventive-oriented psychological education model, which has been widely studied and promoted in the past four decades. As a way of universal prevention, the formation and development of ME mainly target middle-class higher-functioning couples in the pre-marital stage. The current research focuses on the selective prevention of couples in poverty and other disadvantage situations and indicated prevention of couples in the early stages of depression. As ME, based on the three-stage preventive model, still has many deficiencies in the theoretical basis and research methods, further development of ME should focus on in-depth research in theory and research, project design and implementation.

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    The relationship between self-concept consistency and well-being: The moderating effect of culture
    DU Jian
    2020, 28 (10):  1751-1761.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01751
    Abstract ( 2551 )   HTML ( 256 )  
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    It has been demonstrated that self-concept consistency improves hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. However, culture may influence the relationship between them. Westerners are not only individualistic but also possess independent self-construal and low-level dialectical thinking. Therefore, their self-concept consistency is high and more predictive of their well-being. In contrast, Easterners are collectivistic, and they tend to have interdependent self-construal and high-level dialectical thinking. In this manner, their self-concept consistency is low and less predictive of their well-being. Future research should be conducted on other levels of personality besides dispositional traits and investigate different kinds of self-concept consistency and well-being. Moreover, they should also explore other cultural factors functioning in this process and investigate the comprehensive mechanism through which self-concept consistency and culture can influence well-being.

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    The interpersonal effects of fake emotion and the way it works
    FENG Roujia, BI Yanling, FU Xiaoli, WANG Jia, LI Mengzhu
    2020, 28 (10):  1762-1776.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01762
    Abstract ( 2938 )   HTML ( 206 )  
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    Fake emotion refers to the process of emotional interaction that people show positive or negative emotions in disguise to amplify or suppress the original emotions. Fake emotion is the result of a strategic choice. The emotion displayed may not happen at the moment, but sometimes it can be persuasive. Fake emotions are common in daily life, but the present research on it is relatively scattered, and there are still some disputes about the interpersonal influence of fake emotion as well as its mechanism. The existing literature mainly concerns four aspects of the interpersonal effect of fake emotion, including the game process, pro-social behavior situation, organizational situation, and leadership effect. The related mechanisms include the affective reaction of the emotion receivers and the inner process of “speculating others’ emotions by their own standard”. Future research can focus more on the deep and systematic study of fake emotion on the emotional receiver, group fake emotion, the valence of fake emotion, cognitive neural mechanism, culture background, and so on.

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    Research Method
    Lasso regression: From explanation to prediction
    ZHANG Lijin, WEI Xiayan, LU Jiaqi, PAN Junhao
    2020, 28 (10):  1777-1788.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01777
    Abstract ( 2724 )   HTML ( 124 )  
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    Regression analysis, a method to evaluate the relationship between variables, is widely used in psychological studies. However, due to its highly focus on the interpretation of sample data, the traditional ordinary least squares regression has several drawbacks, such as over-fitting problem and limitation on dealing with multicollinearity, which may undermine the generalizability of the model. With the rapid development of methodology research, a shift from focusing on interpretation of the regression coefficients to improving the prediction of the model has emerged and become more and more important. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) regression has been emerged to better compensate for the limitations of traditional methods. By introducing a penalty term in the model and shrinking the regression coefficients to zero, Lasso regression can achieve a higher accuracy of model prediction and model generalizability with the cost of a certain estimation bias. Besides, Lasso regression can also effectively deal with the multicollinearity problem. Therefore, it is helpful for the construction and improvement of psychological theory.

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