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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    15 May 2006, Volume 14 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Mental Representation of Locations and Spatial Relations of Objects

    Zhao Mintao
    2006, 14 (03):  321-327. 
    Abstract ( 1202 )   PDF (763KB) ( 3178 )  

    How are the locations and spatial relations of objects in the environments represented in memory has been a hot issue investigated and disputed in spatial cognition research. Previous works on four features of spatial representation including spatial reference frames, orientation specificity, structure of organization, and represented contents are reviewed in this paper. The ecological validity problem in laboratory research and the trends of incorporating virtual reality (VR) and neuroimaging techniques in spatial representation research are discussed based on the review

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    The Neural Basis of Attentional Blink
    Zhu Xiangru, Liu Chang
    2006, 14 (03):  328-333. 
    Abstract ( 1839 )   PDF (774KB) ( 3125 )  
    It is believed that the human cognitive system is fundamentally limited in deploying attention over time. Directing attention to a target prevents accurate report of a second target presented within approximately 500 ms of the first. This impairment has been termed the attentional blink (AB). The AB paradigm has been primarily in the focus of investigations of the time course of attention. In this paper, we provide an overview of recent cognitive neuroscience studies devoted to analyze the neural process underlying the AB and their temporal dynamics. The research results support the idea that the interaction between top-down and bottom -up maybe contribute to the AB
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    Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms of Visual Perceptual Learning
    Song Yan,Qu Zhe,Guan Yijie,Gao Dingguo,Ding Yulong
    2006, 14 (03):  334-339. 
    Abstract ( 1863 )   PDF (765KB) ( 2710 )  
    Perceptual learning refers to the robust gains in performance on basic perceptual tasks that are induced by sensory experience and are dependent on practice. Moreover, many perceptual skills, once acquired, are retained over long time intervals. During recent two decades, the results of many studies indicated that all areas of the brain, including the primary sensory cortex, are plastic even in adults. Based on the recent advances on visual perceptual learning, issues such as where in the brain, when and how practice-related changes occur were reviewed. Visual perceptual learning involves multiple brain areas and can occur in different time courses. Slow learning following fast learning may be a rule of perceptual learning. As results of perceptual learning, the representations of complex objects will shift from higher brain areas to lower areas, and the task will be performed more automatically
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    The Saccades and Its Mechanism in the Process of Visual Search
    Ren Yantao,  Han Yuchang,  Sui Xue
    2006, 14 (03):  340-345. 
    Abstract ( 1732 )   PDF (764KB) ( 2366 )  
    his paper holds a retrospective and global view on several aspects regarding the saccades in the process of visual search, including of its timing process, its nerve mechanism, and related theory and model as well. The research found that most attentions are paid to the endogenous saccades and exogenous saccades. But there are many disagreements in the research of eye movement memory, inhibition of return (IOR) and saccades timing process. As far as the nerve mechanism of saccades is concerned, it’s said that the frontal eye fields (FEF) and superior colliculus (SC) are the sensitive area and instruction senders of saccades respectively. Although different theory and model have different explanations respectively, all these explanations cannot be ideal. As a result, to modify and integrate these theories and propose a new one becomes urgent and necessary. At last, this paper put forward to a direction for future research
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    Technique Models and New Views of Studies of Text Reading
    Wang Ruiming, Mo Lei, Yan Xiumei
    2006, 14 (03):  346-353. 
    Abstract ( 2296 )   PDF (776KB) ( 1803 )  
    The study of text reading has been a focus in psychology. The research methods and technique models have reached great improvements since the first strict text reading experiment in 1930s. What’s more, related theories and application of these studies are on the increase. So far, a huge system with respect to text reading has been established. This article provides a general view of the usual technique models in text reading study, and then introduces two new views: dual processing model and perceptual symbol system. Finally, prospects on future development of studies of text reading are offered in this article
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    Deaf People’s Phonological and Morphological Awareness of Written Words and their Conceptual Structure
    Li Degao,Zhang Jijia
    2006, 14 (03):  354-359. 
    Abstract ( 2117 )   PDF (762KB) ( 1746 )  
    Individuals with pre-lingual deafness seem to have no phonological awareness, they have a slower development of skills for written words identification than a hearing person and they recognize written words mainly by means of visual strategies. The development of these individuals’ cortical structure is profoundly affected and their general knowledge is organized in an asymmetric structure, as a result of the lack of phonological experiences. Early SL (Sign Language) education is not only helpful for a deaf to improve his SL phonological awareness and his written words recognition skills but also helpful to enhance his cognition development
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    Diversity Effect and It’s Mechanism of Inductive Reasoning
    Li Fuhong,  Li Hong,  Chen Antao,  Feng Tingyong,  Long Changquan
    2006, 14 (03):  360-367. 
    Abstract ( 2307 )   PDF (774KB) ( 1924 )  
    The conclusion of inductive reasoning is uncertain because the range of conclusion is broader than the range of premise. One approach of increasing the certainness of induction is searching diversiform premise. By the methods of searching evidence, giving judgement, extending feature, and choosing host, researcher found that the mechanism of diversity can explained by the much category coverage, rule of probability。In fact, the diversity effect is the consequence of implication of and the law of large numbers, which include distinguishing the difference of premise objects, detecting category information and abstracting numerical difference between diverse premise and non-diverse premise, using large number in increasing strength of conclusion
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    Cognitive Processing of the Children with Reading Comprehension Difficulties
    Yang Shuang,Liu Xiangping,Wang Bin
    2006, 14 (03):  368-374. 
    Abstract ( 1564 )   PDF (765KB) ( 2128 )  
    Reading comprehension difficulties is a main type of reading disability which have been much studied in recent years. The core of cognitive processing in the course of reading comprehension is semantic processing. Poor comprehenders are difficult in both words processing and text inference and integrating. the possible reasons of information inference difficulties are two parts, the first part is the deficit of working memory, and the second part is the deficit of reading metacognitive which consist of reading purpose and comprehension monitoring
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    Emotion Regulation Theory: A Mental Health Perspective
    Hou Ruihe,Yu Guoliang
    2006, 14 (03):  375-381. 
    Abstract ( 3251 )   PDF (774KB) ( 5837 )  
    This article is a review on the emotion regulation(ER) theory from the perspective on the relationship of ER and mental health. Early psychoanalytic theory didn’t attach importance to ER and take it as the passive defensive mechanism, and psychopathy was viewed difficulties with ER. Situation-oriented approach took ER as instant psychological reaction to emotion situation, and the use of different ER strategies were related closely to different mental health state. Process -oriented approach considered ER to be extending during emotion generative process, and the use of ER strategies in different period resulted in different mental health state, some later researchers posited psychological resilience theory, which focused on durations of emotional reactivity to situation, and the length of durations were considered to be related to different mental health level, this theory extended the process of emotional regulation. Structure-oriented approach assumed that ER consisted of different components, instead of different processes, and different combinations of ER components resulted in individual’s variety of mental health level. The perspective of mental health promises new insights into the development of ER theory
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    Features of the Development of Theory of Mind for Deaf Children and Its Influencing Factors
    Chen Youqing,Guo Benyu
    2006, 14 (03):  382-388. 
    Abstract ( 1027 )   PDF (785KB) ( 2512 )  
    The current study of the theory of mind (ToM) in regard to the development of deaf children is mainly conducted from three perspectives. Firstly, the difference of the ToM development between normal, deaf and autistic children is analyzed. Secondly, the comparison of the development of the ToM among deaf children whose parents are also deaf, only oral deaf children and deaf children from normal families is measured. Thirdly, the cognitive level of deaf children in multifarious mental states is investigated. Besides, the study on the influencing factors of the development of the ToM for deaf children generally focuses on their communicative competence, their language ability, related training programs, etc
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    Collective Teacher Efficacy Theory and Its Application
    Shi Leishan
    2006, 14 (03):  389-393. 
    Abstract ( 2262 )   PDF (750KB) ( 2052 )  
    Collective teacher efficacy is an extension of individual teacher efficacy to the organizational level. Perceived collective efficacy refers to the judgment and beliefs of teachers in a school that the faculty as a whole can organize and execute the courses of action required to have a positive effect on students, and the mean of perceived collective efficacy is a strong positive predictor. Perceived collective teacher efficacy have strong effects on student achievement, school organization variables and teacher’s mentality or behavior. But compared with teacher individual efficacy, the research of collective teacher efficacy still has obvious deficiencies on the whole
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    Family Factors On Juvenile Delinquency
    Jiang Suo,  He Shanshan,  Zou Hong
    2006, 14 (03):  394-400. 
    Abstract ( 2047 )   PDF (775KB) ( 6050 )  
    With the development of the theories (social control theory, attachment theory, social learning theory and problem behaviour theory), the studies of family factors on juvenile delinquency have experienced a process in which they first focused on the structural factors, and gradually expanded into the functional factors and family members’ behavior. Current researches also explored deeply into the moderate effects such as adolescents’ cognitive process between family factors and juvenile delinquency, and the interactive effects on juvenile delinquency between personality, community or biology and family factors. Finally, the latest trend and the shortcoming in this research field were present
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    Brain Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorde
    Cai Houde
    2006, 14 (03):  401-407. 
    Abstract ( 1044 )   PDF (797KB) ( 2064 )  
    The phenomenological explanation for symptoms of OCD emphasized the malfunctioning processes involving in error recognition, as well as emotional and motivational functions in a special situation. The evidences from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, especially recently from neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies of OCD suggest that: the functional overactivities in OFC and ACC could be responsible for the increased functions of error recognition and evaluation of emotion and motivation; the functional hypoactivity in DLPC could result in the lack of cognitive integration of the consequence of action. These cortical informations are converged by the caudate nucleus, which controls behavioral programs. Dysfunctions at one or several stages of the networks formed by these structures could lead to the emergence and maintenance of repetitive thoughts and characteristic OCD behaviors
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    Reference Point Effect in the Decision Making Process
    He Guibing, Yu Yongju
    2006, 14 (03):  408-412. 
    Abstract ( 2599 )   PDF (758KB) ( 2176 )  
    Proposed by Kahneman and Tversky, “reference point effect” explained cognitive coding and the mode of information integration in human decision making process, and challenged the traditional rational decision making theory. Recently, much attention has been concentrated on reference point effect. This paper commented on relevant concepts of reference point and the latest researches, also brought forward four points that we should concern in future: 1) the study of multiple reference points effect; 2) the transformation mechanism of reference point effect in dynamic decision making process; 3) reference point effect in group decision making process; 4) testing and developing the theory of reference point effect in decision making tasks in real life
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    The Sound of Silence: Remaining Silent in Organization
    He Quan,  Ma Jianhong,  Hora H Tjitra
    2006, 14 (03):  413-417. 
    Abstract ( 2655 )   PDF (749KB) ( 2484 )  
    Despite their knowledge on the problems of the business process in their organization, for some special reasons – in many cases employees just decide to remain silent. Researchers define this phenomenon as organizational silence. In this article, the authors briefly review the definitions, dimensions and assessment of this special organizational behavior from the current research. Organizational silence is a behavior with multiple causes. So from the leadership and organization, fellow, and individual character, the authors expatiate on the factors that influencing the organizational silence. Further the authors discuss the negative consequences of organizational silence, especially for the organization learning process. Finally the importance and the future research of organizational silence are proposed
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    Advances in Job Analysis Studies
    Li Wendong,Shi Kan1
    2006, 14 (03):  418-425. 
    Abstract ( 2784 )   PDF (798KB) ( 2281 )  
    The influences of changing social and organizational context on the nature of work and law issues have brought great challenges to traditional job analysis. This article first introduced future-oriented job analysis and strategic job analysis, which give more concern to future demands of work and organization specific requirements. Then studies on the relationship between job analysis and competency modeling was illustrated, suggesting that competency modeling and job analysis need to be combined. After that, the authors reviewed the studies on sources of variance in job analysis ratings and new psychometric theories used in these studies. Lastly, as an example of new job analysis system, the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) developed by U.S. Department of Labor was briefly addressed and new study directions in this field were suggested
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    The Construct Validity of Assessment Center
    Wang Zhongjun,Long Lirong
    2006, 14 (03):  426-432. 
    Abstract ( 1420 )   PDF (771KB) ( 1950 )  
    Despite evidence of high predictive validity, research has shown less support for the construct validity of assessment center rating. Low convergent validity and low discriminant validity were consistently found in most studies. Many factors influence construct validity of assessment center, eg. rating dimension factor(number and types), assessor factor(types of assessor and training), assessment method factor(situational specificity, trait-activation potential, assessment exercises), systematic observation and evaluation procedures. This article review related researches about all those factors mentioned above, and summarize recommendations to increase construct validity of assessment center. New perspectives for future research are described
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    Relationship between Product Classification and Online Shopping Decision-Making Process
    Zhang Mo,  Chen Yiwen
    2006, 14 (03):  433-437. 
    Abstract ( 2388 )   PDF (757KB) ( 2518 )  
    The article introduced many kinds of product classification schemes. In online shopping environments, the widely applied scheme is classified product into three groups: convenience goods, shopping goods and specialty goods. While in traditional shopping environments, the widely applied scheme is classified product as convenience products, shopping products and specialty products. Most of the findings of the literature supported the hypothesis that the decision-making process including information searching, shopping intention and preference was different, when consumer purchased different types of products on the Internet. Finally, the advice for future research had been given
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    Decision Support System in B2C E-commerce
    Li Shuangshuang,  Chen Yiwen
    2006, 14 (03):  438-442. 
    Abstract ( 2174 )   PDF (763KB) ( 2129 )  
    Generally, expert system, recommendation system, intelligent-agent-based system, or different combinations of them, are all identified decision support system. Under the circumstance of B2C e-commerce, decision support system can help consumers efficiently find and clarify their needs, search and compare information, filter what they need, or give suggestions. It reviews literature about online consumer decision support system. The authors discuss application prospect and future development directions of decision support system in B2C E-commerce
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    An Introduction of Researches and Theory of Organizational Innovation Climate
    Wang Yanfei, Zhu Yu
    2006, 14 (03):  443-449. 
    Abstract ( 2036 )   PDF (777KB) ( 2712 )  
    organizational innovation climate is the perception employees hold about innovation in the organization and it consists of workers’ feelings, attitudes, and behavioral tendencies measured by their perceptions. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some important aspects about the theory and research of organizational innovation climate, presenting the origin of the concept,formation procedure, construct and measurement, summarizes some drawbacks in this field, several interesting directions for future research are raised
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    The Theory about the Mentoring Relationship in the Western
    Yang Ying,Long Lirong
    2006, 14 (03):  450-455. 
    Abstract ( 2198 )   PDF (776KB) ( 2162 )  
    In recently thirty years, many scholars paid attention to the field of the mentoring relationship, however there were few introductions in the domestic. On the basis of reviewing abundant overseas literatures about this topic, the author introduced in detail the definitions、functions、phases and types of the mentoring relationship. Nowadays more and more researchers cared about the factors which might influence mentoring effective. Considering the feature of domestic corporation, some suggestions on the future study works were given
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    Psychological Mechanism of Maintaining Gender Stereotypes

    Liu Xuan,  Zuo Bin

    2006, 14 (03):  456-461. 
    Abstract ( 1389 )   PDF (760KB) ( 3505 )  
    Gender stereotypes influence people’s mind and behavior widely. Gender-counter stereotypic behavior violates people’s expectations and acquirements to gender roles. In order to maintain gender stereotypes, people will take different strategies as reactions to gender-counter stereotypic behaviors. This article introduced the psychological mechanism of maintaining gender stereotypes, and explored the people’s cognitive process and behavioral reactions to maintain gender stereotypes when people encountered gender-counter stereotypic behavior. Moreover, a few evaluations and possible approaches to further study on maintenance of gender-stereotype were discussed
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    Virtual Social Relationship Research from Psychological Point of View
    Wang Defang, Yu Lin
    2006, 14 (03):  462-467. 
    Abstract ( 1000 )   PDF (769KB) ( 2214 )  
    With the development and popularization of the computer and network, the virtual social relationship, a new social relationship different from the traditional face-to-face communication is growing up. From the psychological point of view, this paper discusses the motivation of virtual communication, the factors influencing the development of the virtual social relationship and the relationship between the virtuality and reality. Moreover, the authors also give some prospects about the psychological research and the psychological base and the mental mechanism of the virtual social relationship formation would be well worth researching in the future
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    “Overconfidence” and Its Cross-Cultural Variation
    Yu Yao,Li Shu
    2006, 14 (03):  468-474. 
    Abstract ( 957 )   PDF (782KB) ( 2505 )  
    Overconfidence refers to that subjects’ average probability judgments exceed the proportions of items they answer correctly over a wide range of conditions. A series of cross-cultural researches indicate that respondents in Asian cultures (e.g., Chinese) are more risk-seeking and more overconfident than respondents in other cultures (e.g., in United States) and that the reciprocal predictions are in total opposition. This paper presents recent researches on overconfidence from traditional and alternative frameworks. The implications for cross-cultural variations in overconfidence were discussed
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    Social Identity Theory and It’s Development
    Zhang Yingrui,  Zuo Bin
    2006, 14 (03):  475-480. 
    Abstract ( 4117 )   PDF (760KB) ( 10579 )  
    Social identity theory, developed by Tajfel and Turner et al.,which made new explanations to the group behavior, has become the most influential theory in the field of intergroup relation. The social identity theory developed from the explanations for intergroup behavior, it proposed that group identity is the fundamental cause of intergroup behavior. Recent research provides much evidence for the theory, The social identity theory is important achievement of European psychology localization and has important contributions to the social psychology. At the same time it also waits for further consummates
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