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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 15 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Experimental Paradigms for Inhibition of Return

    Zhang Ming;Liu Ning

    . 2007, 15 (03): 385-393.  
    Abstract   PDF (925KB) ( 3282 )
    This review will discuss experimental paradigms used in previous IOR researches. In their visual attention experiment, Posner and Cohen first found IOR effect, which refers to slower responding to stimuli at previously occupied spatial location, and the paradigm they used was regarded as the typical IOR experiment. After that, a great deal studies were made, and two basic paradigms are formed, which are cue-target paradigm vs. target-target paradigm. In cue-target paradigm, according as how to present the cue, using which target and whether the stimulus is dynamic or not, and so on, it could be compartmentalized to many modes. And target-target paradigm was mostly used in the experiments with discrimination task and with crossmodal
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    Evidence and Mechanism of Dissociation
    in Human Visuo-spatial Working Memory
    Luo Liang;Liu Zhaomin;Lin Chongde
    . 2007, 15 (03): 394-400.  
    Abstract   PDF (937KB) ( 1851 )
    Dissociation and dissociative mechanism in visuo-spatial working memory was an issue that psychologists were extremely interested in. Dissociation in visuo-spatial working memory was proved by numerous findings of neuropsychology study, latent- variable study, double dissociation study, developmental study, and brain imaging study. Furthermore, some study found that difference in recoding mode and mechanism participated in by attention lead to dissociation in visuo-spatial working memory. The present paper summarized several problems existed in these study, and prospected the developmental tendency in this research area in the future
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    The Neural Mechanisms Underlying Successfully Encoding Episodic Memories: Evidence from the Subsequent Memory Paradigm
    Qin Shaozheng;Han Buxin;Luo Jing
    . 2007, 15 (03): 401-408.  
    Abstract   PDF (1169KB) ( 2354 )
    Episodic memory formation can be investigated by segregating neural responses according to whether the experience is later remembered or not on a subsequent memory test. Based on this kind of subsequent memory paradigm by multimodal cognitive neuroimaging techniques, many previously studies had extensively suggested that neural responses of some distinct regions within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) could predict whether events or experiences would be subsequently remembered or forgotten. The subsequent memory paradigm can investigate how the neural differential of those regions based on subsequent memory performance are modulated by variously interactive factors, thereby it helps further deepen the neural mechanisms underlying episodic memory formation: (1) to dissociate the specific contributions of relevant regions in MTL and PFC to episodic memory formation, (2) and to explore how those regions are integrated to support the successful encoding episodic memories
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    Functional and Structural Changes
    in the Cerebral Cortex by Language Learning
    Li Yanyan;Ding Guosheng
    . 2007, 15 (03): 409-415.  
    Abstract   PDF (879KB) ( 2181 )
    Technical innovations for measuring brain activity are shedding new light on the neural basis of language learning. In this report, we reviewed the advanced researches on functional and structural changes in the Cerebral Cortex by language learning, especially those using neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, PET and so on. 1) The results demonstrated the key role of the age of acquisition on the neural basis of L2 grammatical processing, but language proficiency on the neural underpinnings of L2 word learning; 2) Studies devoted to Language learning at laboratory showed a large variability, decrease or increase of activation at particular brain areas, or recruitment of new areas have been found as result of language learning. 3) Learning L2 increases the density of grey matter in the left inferior parietal cortex and that the degree of structural reorganization in this region is modulated by the proficiency attained and the age of acquisition. We also illustrated typical experimental paradigms usually used in these researches. Furthermore, we proposed some critical issues that need to be addressed in further researches
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    Two Theories in Counterfactual Thinking:
    Norm Theory Perspective and Goal-Directed Perspective
    Chen Jun;He Xiaoling;Zhang Jijia
    . 2007, 15 (03): 416-422.  
    Abstract   PDF (859KB) ( 2725 )
    Counterfactual thinking is mental representations of alternatives to the past to the individual. This article synthesizes plenty of foreign researches of the definition, the categories and also two theories of counterfactual thinking: Norm Theory Perspective and Goal-Directed Perspective. In Norm Theory Perspective, counterfactual thinking is activated automatically and several determinants assumed to evoke it, such normality, outcome valence, closeness to alternative outcome, mutability of antecedents, salience of antecedents. In Goal-Directed Perspective, the counterfactual thinking is also activated by some cognitive factors, such as focus, emotion control and attitude.

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    Cross-Linguistic Differences in Children’s Early Word Acquisition
    Chen Jie;Twila Tardif;Meng Xiangzhi
    . 2007, 15 (03): 423-428.  
    Abstract   PDF (854KB) ( 2291 )
    Children’s early word acquisition differs such that the number of nouns that children acquire is higher than verbs in many languages. This led some researchers to propose a “noun bias” as a cognitive principle for word learning. However, studies of Chinese- and Korean-speaking children found that the ratio of verbs was as high if not higher than nouns in these languages and that the ratio of verbs in both of these languages was higher than in English. To explain these language-specific phenomena, researchers examined the structural characteristics of language and adult-to-child input including factors such as frequency, word order, morphological complexity, and pragmatics. In addition, differences in the methods and contexts in which vocabulary was sampled as well as operational definitions of word class and children’s total vocabulary size could also contribute to differences in estimates across studies. However, to date, those studies that use comparable methods across languages have found consistent differences across languages and this is a rich area for further exploration
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    Underconfidence-with-Pratice Effect for Judgments of Learning
    Jia Ning;Bai Xuejun
    . 2007, 15 (03): 429-435.  
    Abstract   PDF (857KB) ( 1448 )
    As an important metacognitive judgment, judgment of learning (JOL) is the prediction about future performance of learned materials. JOLs made during multiple study-test trials underestimate increases in recall performance across those trials, an effect that has been dubbed the underconfidence-with-practice (UWP) effect. Based on lots of experiment results, several theoretical explanations for UWP effect have been proposed, such as cue-utilization model, retrieval-fluency hypothesis, and anchoring-and-adjustment account. But, Koriat et al (2006) found these results did not point to a single mechanism that could account for the occurrence of the UWP effect, which suggesting that this effect might be multiply determined. Thus, they proposed a mnemonic debiasing account. The limitations of the precious studies and the suggestions for future research are put forward
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    Children’s Theory-of-Mind and Language Development
    Wu Nan;Zhang LIjin
    . 2007, 15 (03): 436-442.  
    Abstract   PDF (857KB) ( 2388 )
    Plenty of studies have revealed that there is a clear evidence for a link between ToM and language, but what exactly they are is still left unknown. The latest researches about their relations have been introduced and two dominant views are presented in this paper: (1) There is a certain causal link between theory-of-mind and language, of which 2 points are included, one is the causal link from language to theory-of-mind, language plays a fundamental role in ToM development, the other is the causal link from theory-of-mind to language ability. (2) Theory-of-mind and language both depend on some other factors, such as executive function and living environment, but how do those factors work needs further discussion. The future trends and new approaches are discussed, including research on across-culture, comparative study in various language ability, life-span research of their relations etc
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    The Development and Prospect of Personal Epistemology Researches
    Yu Ping;Tang Jianlan
    . 2007, 15 (03): 443-450.  
    Abstract   PDF (941KB) ( 1509 )
    Personal epistemologies are personal beliefs about knowledge and knowing. These beliefs affect or mediate knowledge-acquisition and knowledge-construction process. Student’s epistemic beliefs have become one of critical components of understanding student’s learning. This paper synthesized three research paradigms regards personal epistemology: epistemological development paradigm, epistemology as a system of independent beliefs paradigm, metacognitive process paradigm, and all of these paradigms are confronted with new problems and challenging prospect for future research
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    Individual Difference of Intelligence: Why and Where
    Zhao Xiaomei;Chen Yinghe
    . 2007, 15 (03): 451-457.  
    Abstract   PDF (855KB) ( 1805 )
    Intellectual individual difference is an important aspect of individual differences. In recent years, with the relative development of cognitive study, researchers have put forward four approaches about individual differences of intelligence: factor approach, parameter approach, strategies approach and adaptive strategy approach. On the basis of discussing the meaning and the historical context related to the four approaches, current research is reviewed. In general, there are some disagreements about aspects of intellectual individual difference. Future study should improve the theoretical construct; relate the brain- mechanism with the cognitive process; and focus on the non-cognitive factor
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    New Techniques in Measuring Implicit Motive
    Du Jianzheng;Li Ming
    . 2007, 15 (03): 458-463.  
    Abstract   PDF (870KB) ( 2506 )
    The TAT measure of motive and its coding system represent the traditional method in measuring motivation. Although they have been suspected for the metrical issues, they indeed caused the discrimination between the concepts of implicit and explicit motives. Further more, the researcher’s also established sufficient reliability and validity. However, new techniques are still continuously being developed. The emerging of MMG has inspired the measurement of implicit motives; and the test battery Work Style gives us another way to make the measurement more objective by observing behavioral performance; while the introduction of the IAT in to implicit motive measurement presents us a more effective, easier, and more accurate method, which was regarded as a milestone in measuring motivation
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    Ambivalent Sexism and Its Influence to Social Cognition of Women
    Cen Zhixia;ChenJianfeng
    . 2007, 15 (03): 464-469.  
    Abstract   PDF (949KB) ( 3534 )
    This thesis introduced and gave comments on the concept and measure of ambivalent sexism and its influence to social cognition of women. While hostile sexism reflect a sexist antipathy attitude toward women, benevolent sexism is a set of interrelated attitudes toward women that are sexist in terms of viewing women stereotypically and in restricted roles but that are subjectively positive in feeling tone of the perceiver. Both of hostile sexism and benevolent sexism encompass 3 sources of male ambivalence: Paternalism, Gender Differentiation, and Heterosexuality. Different model of sexism have great impact to the perceiver’s social cognition of women
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    Bereavement Research: New Perspectives and Integration
    Liu Jianhong;Li Xiaowen
    . 2007, 15 (03): 470-475.  
    Abstract   PDF (856KB) ( 2991 )
    In a long time bereavement researchers followed “Grief Work Hypothesis”, which lacking clarity in definition and emphasis “detachment from the deceased” were challenged by positive researches after 80s. New perspectives, including coping, attachment, emotional social function and trauma perspectives, were introduced into bereavement research. They broadened and deepened researchers’ eyesight. Recently, new integrated theoretical models were formed based on these perspectives. “Attachment and Dual-Process Model of bereavement”, a representative one of them, was introduced herewith. Also, the “Grief Work Hypothesis” was reconsidered in the new sphere of bereavement research
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    Quantitative Analysis on Literatures of Self-disclosure in SSCI
    Liu Zengya;Li Linying
    . 2007, 15 (03): 476-481.  
    Abstract   PDF (860KB) ( 1712 )
    Based on bibliometric approach, the authors make a statistical analysis of the literatures on self-disclosure from 1975 to 2005 in SSCI, and reveal the main subject areas, sources, researchers and development trends in this specific research area, especially those of the 38 domestic academic papers by experts from Hongkong, Taiwan and China mainland, which focus on the influence of Chinese culture and on some similar hot issues, research subjects, and methods compared with the foreign studies. From the perspective of research history, it deserves to point out that the domestic scholars should strengthen the studies on the theories of self-disclosure
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    Review of Psychological Capital Research
    Zhong Lifeng
    . 2007, 15 (03): 482-487.  
    Abstract   PDF (850KB) ( 4943 )
    In the context of the profound changes of the condition in and out of corporations, systematical researches of psychological capital are the important means of knowing the characteristics and construct of human resource of organization and establishing relevant management countermeasure. Firstly, the present article reviewed the conceptualization, components of psychological capital. Then summarized the empirical research results of the effects of psychological capital on leader and employee, explained some of the approaches of the development and management of psychological capital, and finally indicated the future research domains and trends of psychological capital
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    Review of Foreign and Domestic Studies on Career Commitment
    Wang Xiaxia;Zhang Jinfu
    . 2007, 15 (03): 488-497.  
    Abstract   PDF (969KB) ( 2495 )
    First, starting with the difference of occupation and career, we reviewed and anylized the operational definition, the measure instruments, the form processing, the models and cause and effect variables of career commitment. Then the studies also suggested that career commitment had remarkable relations with some important effect variables, such as career satisfaction, job involvement, job performance. In the end, the paper pointed out some problems and future research direction, for example, the definitions of career commitment were too messy, lots of measurement instruments were relatively narrow, so it is needed to re-integrate the defination and explore deeply the inventory in reliability and validity
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    Proactive Personality in I/O Psychology
    Ye Lianhua;Ling Wenquan
    . 2007, 15 (03): 498-504.  
    Abstract   PDF (892KB) ( 2265 )

    Proactive personality is defined as a disposition of being relatively unconstrained by situational forces, and toward taking action to influence one’s environment. Studies have indicated that proactive personality is related to a host of outcome variables, including individual work-related outcomes, career outcomes, team effectiveness, leadership effectiveness, newcomer adjustment, and entrepreneurship. This paper summarized the theories and studies on proactive personality in the domain of I/O psychology, and pointed out some prospects for the future research such as the cross-cultural studies of proactive personality and the moderating effect of organizational factors. ersonality, proactive behavior, measurement, consequences

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    Organizational Citizenship Behavior Researches in the Context of Chinese Organizations

    Xu Duo;Zhang Xiaolin

    . 2007, 15 (03): 505-510.  
    Abstract   PDF (854KB) ( 4063 )
    This article reviewed the researches on organizational citizenship behavior in the context of Chinese organizations. It analyzed the contents and structure of Chinese OCB and summarized its characteristics as role-enlargement, stressing on interpersonal relation and individual initiative. Then the article discussed the antecedents and outcomes of OCB from the individual level and organizational level, compared the features of studies on Chinese OCB with that in western setting. Finally, it gave some suggestions on the directions of future research
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    Negotiation Behavior: Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Issues
    in Cold and Hot Perspectives
    Li Yanmei;Liu Changjiang;Li Shu
    . 2007, 15 (03): 511-517.  
    Abstract   PDF (860KB) ( 2359 )
    Negotiation -- a discussion between two or more parties about differences of interest, is one of main procedures for dealing with opposing preferences and conflict. Cognitive, motivational and affective factors influence information processing, judgment and inference of negotiators. These factors may both bias or improve decision making in negotiation. The cognition perspective dominated within negotiation research of social psychology in last two decades although a growing number of social psychologists argued that “human behavior is better understood when cognition and motivation are considered together”. As a basic step to further the understanding of the interplay of cognition and motivation in negotiation, this paper presented an overview of the recent literature of cognition and motivation (including affect) perspective on negotiation behavior
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    The Contextual and Process Variables Influencing Integrative Negotiation Achieving
    Zhang Zhen;Huang Fugang
    . 2007, 15 (03): 518-523.  
    Abstract   PDF (860KB) ( 2172 )
    This paper reviewed the two categories of factors researchers found that had influence on the achievement of integrative negotiations: contextual variables and process variables. Contextual variables refer to the pre-existed ones at the beginning of negotiations which include: (a) negotiators’ cultural values, that is, what is more important in the culture, e.g., collectivism vs. individualism, power distance, and communication context; (b) how the strategies used and the outcome of negotiations vary according to the motivation compositions of dyads and groups; and (c) how different emotions exert influences on the integrative achievements respectively. And the studies on process variables examined how the frequency and sequence of the strategies, as well as the strategies used in different phases of negotiation affected the ultimate agreements
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    The Research Actuality of the Sport Mental Fatigue
    Lin Ling;Zhang Liwei
    . 2007, 15 (03): 524-531.  
    Abstract   PDF (861KB) ( 2091 )

    By summing up and discussing to the domestic and international present research condition about the problem of the sport mental fatigue concepts and examination methods, and its limits and shortages etc, the author analyzes and points out that the relevant research results about sport mental fatigue problem can’t satisfy the demand of the training practice under Chinese training system, puts forward it’s necessary to carry on systemic research to the sport mental fatigue problems. About the research ways and research cut-in points of the sport mental fatigue, the author thinks that should synthetically develop exploring researches on physical mechanisms and psychological mechanisms of the sport mental fatigue. The study cut-in points include: 1)researches and sets up the conception about the sport mental fatigue that adapts to Chinese training system and condition, forms the conception model of the sport mental fatigue; 2)based on the model, researches and builds up the multi-dimensions test method system and the questionnaire of the sport mental fatigue .In the process, it should be processed to measure in-phase that combines with the neurophysiology methods and psychology scales and behaviour observe methods, and the all-round demonstration researches with the portrait trace experiments and landscape orientation surveys should be put up in the training practice

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    Discourse Analysis in Psychology: Position and Method
    Yang Liping
    . 2007, 15 (03): 532-538.  
    Abstract   PDF (855KB) ( 2591 )
    “Discourse” is primarily defined in two ways in current Psychology. The widespread definition is a descriptive model, which comes from structuralism and defines discourse as “a system of meanings, representations or statements to construct an object”. The other is a functional model, which is connected closely with post-structuralism and explains discourse as either “doing things” or actions or social practice. As an academic position, discourse analysis has laid aside many basic psychological constructs including “mind” and “identity” etc., deconstructed the criterion of “objectivity” in positive psychology, and changed the aim of psychological research. As research methods, discourse analyses cover a variety of studies including rhetoric research, metaphor research, and narrative research, etc
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    How to Abstract Developmental Variations: Latent Growth Mixed Model
    Liu Hongyun
    . 2007, 15 (03): 539-544.  
    Abstract   PDF (873KB) ( 4053 )
    Developmental research involves the identification of individual differences in change as well as understanding the process of change itself. The contemporary approach to the analysis of change, as Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) and Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM), has focused on growth curve modeling that explicitly considers both intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change, but treats the data as if collected from a single population. This assumption of homogeneity in the growth parameters is often unrealistic. If heterogeneity is ignored, statistical analyses and their effects can be seriously biased. This paper presents a procedure that accounts for sample heterogeneity---Latent Growth Mixed Model (LGMM)---and their application to longitudinal data. In addition, the difference of HLM and LGMM, and the difference of LGCM and LGMM were discussed briefly
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    Delta Plot Analysis and Its Use in Conflict Control Studies
    Zhang Dexuan;Zhou Xiaolin
    . 2007, 15 (03): 545-551.  
    Abstract   PDF (1071KB) ( 1544 )
    In recent years, the reaction time (RT) distribution analysis was used in conflict control researches. The delta plot could depict the difference of RTs between incongruent and congruent conditions as a function of mean RT. This analysis method was used to examine some hypothesis while the traditional mean RT and error rate could not. This paper introduced the method of this analysis and its relative theoretical model, and overviewed the studies using this analysis method
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    Application of CHi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector
    in Segmenting Subgroups
    Zhang Hongtao;Wang Erping;Chen Yiwen
    . 2007, 15 (03): 552-558.  
    Abstract   PDF (895KB) ( 1697 )
    CHi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) algorithm model is applied in social surveys and market segmentation. It is mainly used to classify cohorts by determining the characteristics of several predictors based on a dependent variables. This review article introduces the core concepts, operational precede, and development of the CHAID algorithm model. Compared with Logit model, this article also discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and restrictions of CHAID model. Furthermore, this article points out some questions for further research for the model
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    The Person-Fit Researches in Psychological Tests
    Wang Zhao;Guo Qingke;Yue Yan
    . 2007, 15 (03): 559-566.  
    Abstract   PDF (898KB) ( 1364 )
    Person-fit research which based on Guttman model, Item response theory and Nonparametric Item Response Theory is a new kind of method to discriminate the aberrant responses behaviors in psychological tests. Traditional person-fit statistics were used to discriminate the abroad aberrant behaviors but current person-fit researches are more special and visual. The researches of specialized statistics, graph and regression analysis have become the focus of current study. However, all kind of person-fit statistics are influenced by many irrelevant factors. How to control these factors and improve the practical value of person-fit statistics will become the main research tendency in this area
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    Item Parceling Strategies in Structural Equation Modeling
    Bian Ran;Che Hongsheng;Yang Hui
    . 2007, 15 (03): 567-576.  
    Abstract   PDF (888KB) ( 3239 )
    Item parceling could be defined as a technique of composing two or more items assessing the same construct to a new manifest indicator. Although item parceling was controversial all the time, it attracted more and more researchers’ attention since this technique had been widely applied in structural equation modeling procedures. The purpose of this article is to discuss some important aspects about the research in this field, especially the rationale, the advantage and disadvantage, and the methods of parceling practice. On this base, we give some advice about how to construct item parcels, including (a) choosing to parcel or not to parcel according to the research goal and situation; (b) ensuring the dimensionality before parceling; and (c) building parcels on certain theories etc. Future research can focus on the impact of various parceling methods on the model fit and estimates, or the application of parceling in advanced SEM procedures and other measurement theories
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