“Putting a price on time” means thinking about time in terms of money and endowing time an economic value. Many studies showed that putting a price on time will have effects on individual’s overwork, volunteer behavior and happiness experience. We analyze the psychological mechanisms of the influences in cognition and emotion perspectives. Many questions should be further explored: (1) The double effect of “putting a price on time” on happiness; (2) The enlightenment of “putting a price on time” on organizational management; (3) The exploration of the neurophysiologic mechanism of “putting a price on time”.
How to boost organizational creativity in the complex and dynamic environment is of theoretical significance. For the Chinese family businesses in transition society, however, there is a trade-off between differential leadership which is based on a family logic and innovational requirement of a business logic. How to balance these two logics is extremely important for the growth of Chinese family businesses. This study attempts to unpack the dynamic process between differential leadership and employee and team creativity from the perspectives of employee psychology and team interaction. We make four contributions to the existing literatures. First, by using a multilevel and longitudinal design, we reveal the underlying mechanisms that how differential leadership influence employee and team creativity as well as the growth of Chinese family businesses. Second, from the motivation, cognitive and emotional perspectives, and also by focusing on the Chinese indigenous concepts of “Ren” and “Pao”, we unpack the psychological dynamics between differential leadership and employee creativity. Third, besides interactionism, we also investigate the relationship between differential leadership and team creativity from the network structure perspective. Finally, this paper clarifies the contextualized factors that differential leadership affects employee creativity. It provides managerial implications for Chinese family businesses.
The concept of unconscious emotion has developed from addressing subliminal emotional stimulus to emphasizing unawareness of emotional experience. To integrate the two different paths to explore unconscious emotion, Wiens model, an information-processing model of emotion was introduced. According to Wiens model, there exist two parallel approaches to understand unconscious emotion, which are “stimulus-focused approach” and “experience -focused approach“. The core ideas, empirical studies, theoretical debates, methodological challenges and the essences of unconscious emotion along the two separate ways were then reviewed. It is implied that by nature consciousness and unconsciousness of emotion might be complementary rather than contradictory to each other based on Wiens model. And the new approach to study unconscious emotion might be the “experience-focused approach“.The application and future direction of research on unconscious emotion were also discussed.
A large number of research has confirmed the psychological reality of two types of spatial- temporal metaphoric systems: the ego-moving metaphor and the time-moving metaphor. They are often used to represent the way how time move and also represent two perspectives people used to comprehend the relative motion between self and time. In daily life, many factors such as spatial motion experience, emotion, language and culture as well as individual differences can influence the individual choice between the two perspectives, which further reflects the flexibility of its cognitive process. Research focusing on detecting further factors explaining which metaphoric system a speaker uses not only enhances our comprehension of the relationship between language and thought, emotion, and sensorimotor experience, but also provides further experimental evidence to embodiment cognition.
Humans are capable of extracting statistical information from multiple stimuli and forming statistical summary representation (SSR), in which central tendency and variability of the stimuli are represented. According to the use of attentional resource, the mechanisms of SSR could be categorized into ensemble processing under distributed attention and individual processing under focused attention. Both mechanisms interact in the working memory, constructing the representation of multiple stimuli. SSR occurs across different stimulus types in both low-level and high-level processing, suggesting that it may be a common encoding method in perception. Future work on SSR may focus on its neural substrates and its impact on decision making.
The functional researches of autobiographical memory have been developed mainly in clinical, personality, and cognitive psychology. These researches are different from each other in their research subjects, terminology, methodology, and results. The clinical researchers concern and abstract many special functions of reminiscence of the elderly via clinical observation and administrations of Reminiscence Functions Scale. The personality psychology concerns the role of narrative in personality growth, especially the role of which in identity development, with the Coherence as an important indicator measured by various measures. Cognitive psychology emphasizes the basic functional categories and fundamental processing mechanisms of autobiographical memory. With its theoretical framework and cognitive models, researches of autobiographical memory may give us some deeper enlightenment for integration of autobiographical memory functional researches from different domains. Prospects on the experimental approach, ecological validity, life-span and cross-cultural perspective, measurement, and integration approaches are also provided.
Compared with non-human primates, human beings show widespread reciprocity in their social life. This is due to the existence of calculated reciprocity. The current article compares cognition and motivation related with calculated reciprocity in children and non-human primates. It is expected that we can provide an explanation for complicated reciprocity in human by analyzing species’ performance from the aspect of proximate mechanism. To investigate human reciprocity from proximate mechanism, future researches should (1) explore the effect of cognition and motivation on calculated reciprocity both from human ontogeny and individual difference; (2) differentiate and analyze impact factors from the perspective of actors and recipients respectively.
Landmark learning refers to the process of analyzing and acquiring the landmark information. Path integration is the process that navigators keep updating the representations of their positions via integrating self-motion information (vestibular, proprioceptive, visual, etc.). Both landmark learning and path integration are key issues in the current human spatial navigation research. In the present study, we analyzed and compared the findings of the extent studies in the literature of landmark learning and path integration research. In particular, the following questions guided this study: 1) Whether, in normal spatial navigation, a navigator processes landmark learning and integrating self-motion information simultaneously? 2) Whether is it more efficient for the navigator to use both landmark information and self-motion information than using either information alone? and 3). What is the nature of the interaction between the two processes, i.e., whether landmark learning and path integration interfere with or enhance each other? Future research should pay more attention to the effects of spatial clues on navigation behaviors, and use virtual reality technology or other tools to delve into the appropriate information processing mechanisms.
Recent studies of depression model animals or patients with major depressive disorders have found substantial evidence of hypothalamic abnormalities, such as changes in the hypothalamus volume and the number of neurons, dysfunctions in hypothalamic-pituitary-endocrine axis, hypothalamic-related hormone, receptors and their genes, neuropeptides, and alterations in the connectivity between hypothalamus and other brain regions. Most of this evidence, however, was obtained either from animal experiments, from indirect clinical indicators (such as peripheral blood hormone levels, etc.), or from brain autopsies of patients with depression. No direct evidence for abnormal hypothalamus in depressive disorders has been confirmed in vivo in humans. Future studies may use brain imaging methods to more directly explore the structural and functional characteristics of abnormal hypothalamus in depressed patients. The resulting biomarkers, along with measurements of their reliability, can provide the basis for objective diagnosis, and lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of depressive disorders.
In 2002, "Extreme Male Brain Theory of Autism" was proposed by Professor Baron-Cohen at the University of Cambridge. In his theory, autism is thought to be an extreme form of the typical male cognitive style. The female mentality, characterized by empathy, is usually deficient in autism, while male mentality, characterized by systematism, is greatly developed. This theory was established on the basis of the empathizing-systemizing theory, and then developed into the hyper-sensitizing theory. Although facing some challenges, the theory has gained support in many disciplines: psychological, neurological, biological, etc. In particular, a high intrauterine testosterone level was found in the fetus with autism, as demonstrated by digit ratio, handedness, play behavior, parental occupation, as well as islets of ability, etc. This theory provides us with a new perspective for understanding autism.
Previous neuroimaging researches proposed that one of the most important etiologies of depression is the impairment of structure and function of the prefrontal cortex. As a non-invasive technique, tDCS can alleviate depressive symptoms and improve impaired cognitive functions steadily and effectively by regulating cortical excitability through targeting at the prefrontal cortex. To achieve more extensive clinical application in the future, future studies should do more advanced researches from six orientations, such as the effectiveness of tDCS, individual differences, early prevention and intervention.
Self-perception and social cognition are foundations of human life. The concept of self includes physical and psychological aspects. Social cognition is broadly defined as a suite of social representation, social interaction and social understanding. The default mode network (DMN) mainly represents psychological features of the self and other people as well as the social-cognitive processing. Conversely, the mirror-neuron system (MNS) provides the link between physical representations of the self and physical representations of others. The DMN comprises three subsystems: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) which has a key role in social cognition, and two other subsystems that also have significance for social understanding. The DMN and MNS are functionally connected and dynamically support representations of the self, others and social interactions. Elucidating functional connectivity within and outside the DMN and MNS are critical issues for future research.
Consumer guilt is defined as the consumer's negative feeling when breaking the social norms or violating personal values. Consumer guilt is a double-edged sword for the enterprises. Being used improperly, it will have negative effects on the repurchase intention and loyalty of the consumers. The enterprise also can achieve its marketing objectives through the advertisement emotional appeal by using the consumer guilt properly. The paper first introduces the theoretical basis of consumer guilt including emotional dimensions, timing and types, and then analyzes the process of consumer guilt from its initiation to elimination. Finally the empirical studies of influencing factors of eliminating the consumer guilt, its applicable context and mixed emotions were clarified. The future studies were necessary to explore the consumer guilt in virtual environment, intensity of guilt, the moderators and empirical research methods.
Moral intuitive decision-making refers to making intuitive decisions in a moral situation. Moral intuitive decision-making includes at least three basic mental processes— unconscious processing, emotional processing and intuitive processing, which correspond to three possible brain circuits, neural systems for unconscious processing, for emotional processing and for intuitive processing. The present study analyzes, both objectively and subjectively, the general factors underlying moral intuitive decision-making—culture, moral situation, experience, emotion and moral intuition, in order to reveal the processing mechanism of moral intuitive decision-making. It is suggested that future studies should further consolidate the theoretical framework by designing more sophisticated experiments to explore the interaction of various factors in decision-making process and the relations among various brain areas.
Evolved from graphology, graphonomics is a multidisciplinary field about handwriting and related skills. Since handwriting is a cognitive ability and even a survival skill, the study of graphonomics contributes to psychologists, educationalists, children, and ordinary adults. While traditional graphologists could study only the two-dimension handwriting, graphonomics scholars have new software and hardware that allows them to delve deeply into new aspects of handwriting like velocity, acceleration, pressure, grip height, and grip force. Handwriting has the benefit of being objective and standardized, and researchers have studied how graphonomics is related to cognition, personality, disease, and so forth. Because digital writing tools are becoming more common, more attention will be paid to a comprehensive understanding of handwriting. Furthermore, handwriting, as a psychometrical tool, could be applied to teaching evaluation, criminal investigation, and artificial intelligence. Eventually, according to theories of embodied cognition, handwriting could also be used as an intervention to enhance cognition and personality.
There are three representative theory models about gene-environment interaction: diathesis-stress model, differential susceptibility model and vantage sensitivity model. Diathesis-stress model advocates that one who stays near ink gets stained black, vantage sensitivity model, however, suggests that one who stays near vermilion gets stained red, and differential susceptibility model is eclectic. To verify the above-mentioned model has been one of the focuses of research on gene-environment interaction. The grouping regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis are the traditional methods to test these three models, and the region of significance and the re-parameterized regression model are the newly emerging ones. Future research could focus on the issues of domain-specificity, the ethnic difference, developmental change and the underlying mechanism of the gene-environment interaction. The measurement and method to examine the interaction between gene and environment also remain improved.
Item Parameter Drift (IPD) refers to change in parameter value (s) of the anchor item across several sequential testing occasions or test levels. This concept is essentially different from the concept of Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Current research on IPD spans five aspects: the practical existence, reasons, detection methods, and linking effects of IPD, and the strategy to the outlier anchor item. With respect to horizontal IPD, further and more comprehensive research is needed; esp., we should study the contextual applicability of DIF detection methods in the detection of IPD and develop detection methods for IPD specially, and develop revised linking procedures. Systematic and deep investigations are called up on vertical IPD.