Identification and exploration of the genetic basis of creativity as well as the possible mechanism through which they interact with environmental factors to contribute to creativity has been a leading issue in creativity research. The overarching goal of this project is to investigate the effect of about 700 SNPs on 32 genes in dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) pathway on creativity in the Han Chinese population, and to explore and characterize the interaction of the above genetic polymorphisms and family environmental factors in contributing to creativity. It is designed that one thousand university students participate in this project and three specific aims are expected: (1) To examine associations between creativity and genetic polymorphisms in DA and 5-HT pathways through three levels of association analysis (single gene association analysis, pathway-based association analysis and gene-gene interaction association analysis). (2) To examine the moderating effect of family environmental factors (including family’s socioeconomic status, family atmosphere and parenting style ) on the relationship between the above genetic polymorphisms and creativity. (3) To examine the common and differential mechanism of creative thinking and creative personality. It is expected that this project will advance our understanding of creativity from the perspective of the interactions between genetic and environmental factors, and will further help to construct a theoretical model based on analysis of creativity individual differences and also help to provide some useful insight into creativity assessing and cultivating.
A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between self-esteem and mental health of Chinese college students.Analysis of 30 studies (N = 14673) met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The result of meta-analysis showed : self-esteem had medium negative correlation to the factors of SCL-90, and self-esteem had significant effect on mental health. There was a higher significant correlation between self-esteem and depression, anxiety and interpersonal sensitivity. moderator analyses revealed that geographical distribution have significant moderating effects on these relationship between self-esteem and the factors of SCL-90. The results suggest that self-esteem is an important influencing factor to mental health.In particular, self-esteem is also predictive significantly to depression, anxiety and interpersonal sensitivity of mental health.
Individuals’ attention and memory biases to untrustworthy faces, and the relationship between them were explored in this study. In encoding phase, one trustworthy face and one untrustworthy face were presented simultaneously to undergraduate participants, while their gaze behavior (i.e., fixation duration, number of fixations) during face viewing was assessed. After the encoding phase, the participants underwent a test of recognizing the previously presented faces. The test was not expected by the participants. The results showed that: (1) in the encoding phase, the participants were more likely to direct their initial fixation toward untrustworthy faces than trustworthy faces, and spend more fixations on untrustworthy faces than trustworthy faces; (2) in the recognition task, the participants were more accurate in recognizing untrustworthy faces than trustworthy faces; (3) regression analyses indicated that initial fixation preference to untrustworthy faces had a significant effect on advantage in recognizing untrustworthy faces. Our results indicated that people show attentional vigilance and attentional maintenance towards untrustworthy faces compared with trustworthy faces, and attentional vigilance to untrustworthy faces may account for enhanced recall of untrustworthy faces.
The superiority effect of dynamic facial expressions is a well established phenomenon in the face processing literature, whereby dynamic facial expressions are better recognized than static facial expressions. The psychological mechanisms underlying this superiority effect include the enhancement of configural processing, the compensatory role, and the ability of facial mimicry. In addition, its neural conduct the developmental research for the superiority effect of dynamic facial expressions. There is also a need to investigate the rigid features of facial motion, and focus on the superiority effect of dynamic facial expressions in virtual reality environments.networks consist of the core and extended system for face processing, the former is mainly responsible for the early perceptual code and motion processing of stimuli, while the latter is associated with the ability of facial mimicry and dynamic representation of stimuli. Future research should enrich the extended neural networks and psychological mechanisms, as well as
Because working memory and perception are primary cognitive constructs in human information processing system, elaborating interactions between the two is scientifically important to reveal the nature of human information processing. Working memory and perception are commonly believed to interact with each other on several levels. One important aspect of such interactions is the functional impact of working memory contents on visual perception. The present article reviews existing literature on the modulation of visual perception by working memory contents. It is concluded that the contents of working memory can guide perceptual selection, enhance perceptual sensitivity and alter perceptual experience. And it is suggested that the underlying mechanism of such memory effects on perception may be the top-down modulation during working memory maintenance.
According to Posner and Petersen (1990), the attention system is divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. The relationships among attention networks have been tested with attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions. Biochemical, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies have demonstrated the differentiated but integrated relation of attention networks. Specifically, the interaction between attention networks is supported by the evidence that different attention networks share functional brain regions and neurotransmitters, compete for attention resources, and are modulated by cognitive strategies. Urgent issues exist in measuring of attention networks and their relationships, such as the low reliability of the ANT and ambiguous definitions of attention networks. Future studies should focus on improving the ANT and take into account the influence of subcomponents of attention networks on inter-network relationships.
The question that there were quantitive or qualitative differences between L2 (second language) and L1 (first language) syntactic processing has been the focus of language processing research during the last decades. Studies showed that there were some important factors for L2 syntactic processing, such as the age of acquisition, proficiency, working memory, type of learning. And models on L2 syntactic processing mainly included the shallow structure hypothesis、the D/P model and the united competition model. Future researches would focus on the followed questions, such as the interaction between L2 proficiency and the age of acquisition of L2 in L2 syntactic processing, as well as the children’s ability to process L2 syntactic.
Based on the literature review on rational thinking, the current article examined two different approaches to measure rational thinking, and discussed the relationships between these two. One approach to measure rational thinking is to define the rational thinking as a thinking skill on which people adapt different strategies to respond to difference situation tasks. The other approach is to define it as a thinking style, measured usually by self-report scales to evaluate individual chronic and stable tendency. We proposed a theoretical model to synthesize the differences between these two approaches, suggesting the rational thinking style mediates the relationship between cognitive ability and rational thinking skill. That is to say, cognitive ability could predicts the performance of heuristic and thinking bias tasks only for individuals with high rational thinking style.
Recent research has shown that both sleep duration and sleep quality could affect the development of children’s executive functions. Under natural conditions, sleep quality tends to be a real-time influence factor, sleep duration has a delayed influence on the executive functions. While under experimental control, a small extension of sleep duration would improve children’s executive functions. Sleep-disordered breathing, which causes harm to children’s executive functions, has been most extensively researched in the area of sleeping disorders. However, there is no consistent conclusion so far due to the different research methods. The effects of sleep on children’s executive functions would gradually reduce with age. Furthermore, other factors could play a role, such as genes and family socioeconomic status. Future studies should pay attention to the shifting component of executive functions.
Along with the aging processing, the changes of sleep and sleep-dependent memory consolidation (SDC) become prominent in older adults. Although prior research indicated that the beneficial effect of sleep on procedural memory consolidation was reduced in older adults, it is still unclear whether they also show impairments on declarative memory. In addition, compared to normal controls, individuals who have neurodegeneration disorders showed impaired SDC effect on episodic memory. Future studies need to consider using both EEG and fMRI data to explore the neural pathway of aging effects on memory through sleep and to investigate the interaction among aging, sleep and memory. Also, it is important to examine the intervention effects on older adults' memory through sleep.
Processing of a fear memory can be divided into four distinct phases: acquisition, consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction. Sleep deprivation has been shown to impair the process of fear acquisition as it affects activity of the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, as well as the functional connectivity between them. Sleep deprivation also weakens fear memory consolidation by interfering with activities of the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex, as well as the functional connectivity among them. In addition, sleep deprivation can attenuate fear memory reconsolidation, not only by impairing the synthesis of proteins and enzymes closely related to memory consolidation, but also by affecting activity in the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Finally, sleep deprivation can impair extinction of a fear memory as it can alter activity patterns of the hippocampus and amygdala. Future studies should focus on the cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of sleep deprivation on processing of a fear memory as well as the relationship between sleep deprivation and fear-related disorders.
Cognitive bias, the core cognitive characteristic in anxious patients, refers to a processing style that heightened the negative or threatening information. Attentional bias and interpretative bias is the most frequently studied in this area and have been proven to be alterable through the laboratory task. Recently, researchers have shown interest to apply the cognitive bias modification task to the clinical intervention for anxiety patients, and the results were mixed. The present article has reviewed different methods. Researchers attempted to manipulate the cognitive bias in clinical practice, as well as the mixed results including self-reported effect, behavioral and physiological effect, and absent effect studies. The authors also tried to interpret the mixed results from the perspective of demanding effect, participant feature, effect indicators, and other potential parameters. Possible directions for future studies in this promising and disappointing area have been discussed.
阈下自闭特质是正常人群表现出来的, 自闭症谱系障碍(Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD)阈限以下温和的社会性、交流能力损伤以及与ASD相关的人格和认知特征。其研究有助于ASD的干预及对ASD实质的更好理解。研究者用共情–系统化理论对其进行了理论解释。近来研究表明阈下自闭特质的结构与ASD核心行为维度类似, 且遗传、性别、认知风格等因素影响阈下自闭特质水平。未来研究应更有效地对阈下自闭特质进行评估, 并进一步探讨其可能存在的病理性质、与ASD的理论界限等问题。
Social pain refers to a special negative emotional reaction to perception that one is rejected by desired relationships or devalued by desired partners or groups. According to the existing findings, social pain may be induced by certain neural activities, such as individual experience of social exclusion, witness of others’ being excluded, that is to say, empathy. Moreover, social pain could be mitigated by attachment, self-esteem, and the like. Further researches are expected to investigate the neural mechanisms of social pain in different ages, and explore the relationship between social pain and personality disorder.
The changes of brain reward system caused by chronic substance use are considered central to the development and maintenance of addiction, and those pathological changes adversely affect regulation of reward system, inducing deficits in cognitive performance and daily function. In recent years, numerous fMRI studies have suggested that there are progressive changes in the ventral striatum and reward circuitry related to monetary reward processing in people with history of substance abuse, and the change of reward-related activation of the striatum can be used as a predictor of treatment outcome, indicating the degree of functional recovery. It has been shown that drug-induced dysfunction in the reward processing system can be recovered to some degree following abstinence. Further research in this area should address the specificity of reward processing associated with substance use, and investigate reward processing of individuals with family history of substance dependent and the effects of monetary reward on executive function, using event related potentials (ERPs).
Time pressure has been identified as a pervasive societal problem. Researchers have been studying its influence on individuals for decades. Earlier researches concentrated mainly on the negative consequences of time pressure. Recently, however, many studies have revealed the motivating effects of it. This paper introduced the concept and measurement of time pressure and summarized its detrimental effects and motivating effects. The attentional focus model, activation theory, vitamin model and the challenge-hindrance model were used to explain the mechanism of the double-edged effect of time pressure. Future researches should have more concern on: (1) Examining the time pressure in different domains (working and nonworking) based on mental accounting theory of time; (2) The motivational and affective mechanisms underlying the positive effects of time pressure; (3) Exploring personal and situational factors which might alleviate the detrimental effects of time pressure.
Group identity has a direct positive effect on individuals’ willingness of participating collective action, and also it moderates the relationships of group efficiency and group-based emotions to action tendencies. Many special types of group identity such as politicized identity, common identity and dual identity could affect collective action in wide range. From the perspective of dynamic researches, undertaking collective action can strengthen protestors’ identification for ingroup. And strong group identity will exert a sustained impact on protestors’ behaviors. Further research should explore the complex work mechanism of group identity on the basis of the differences of collective action in contexts, behavior patterns and development stages.
Moral motivation is the internal motives to promote people to generate and complete the behavior that has the moral significance. Among the theories that illustrate the moral motivation, MMM is a considerably comprehensive theory. The MMM present a new six-cell Model of Moral Motives that applies a fundamental motivational distinction in psychology to the moral domain. The rows of MMM represent proscriptive morality and prescriptive morality. The columns of the model represent three primary contexts for morality, involving behaviors focused on the self, others, and group. Through the comparison between MMM with the Dual-System Framework for Morality and MFT, its comparative advantages are discovered such as altruism, moral motivation focusing on self and the relationships between group-focused moralities and ideologies. Nevertheless, considering the model was proposed on the base of western ethics, its applicability in China needs to be investigated deeply.
Intergroup helping refers to the helping behavior toward out-group members offered by representatives of one’s in-group. There are two forms of intergroup helping: autonomy-oriented help and dependency-oriented help. Autonomy-oriented help, which is motivated by the helper’s assimilation need, provides the recipient with the means to solve problems on their own. This in turn decreases the social disparity between the high-status helper and the lower-status recipient group; Dependency-oriented help, which is motivated by the helper’s differentiation need, provides the recipient with a full solution to the problem, thus maintain or enlarge the social disparity between them and leads to the low-status group’s chronic dependence on the high-status group.
Vitality refers to people's physical and mental energy, which is reflected on the vigorous mental outlook and powerful energy. When vital, people have a sense of enthusiasm, aliveness, and energy available to the self. Vitality refers specifically to energy that is perceived to emanate from the self and is characterized by the relaxed possession of liveliness. The typical components of Vitality are energy, alertness and aliveness. At present, scholars have found that vitality can effectively predict physical and psychology health, work and study achievements, happy life. The influence factors to vitality is mainly focused on physical activity, meditation, physical environment and interpersonal relationship. On the further research, it mainly includes theoretical construction of vitality, deeper empirical study, applied research and indigenous research.