It is known that emotion greatly affects creative generation. Most related studies on the relationship between emotion and creativity are based on individuals’ behavior performance. However, they have not reached a consistent conclusion. This program systematically examines the cognitive process of creativity under the influence of emotion. According to the notion that creative generation is a progressive low-high cognitive process, the generating process of creativity is divided into primary process and secondary process. Cognitive neuroscience technology and several improved experimental paradigms including novelty judgment task, remote association test and Chinese logogriph task are employed to investigate the time course and spatial pattern of the active cerebral region of creativity in this program.
Good situation awareness (SA) is highly important for air traffic controllers (ATCos) to maintain the safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic. If ATCos’ situation awareness can be accurately monitored and alerted before it has been lost, it will be highly possible to improve ATCos’ performance and prevent accidents. At present, many ways exist to evaluate ATCos’ situation awareness, but they are basically diagnostic and retrospective methods, early warning and forecasting cannot be achieved. ATCos’ situation awareness could be affected by many factors, but it can be demonstrated by some performance and physiological indicators. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of SA, multi-sensor data which are relevant to ATCos’ situation awareness will be collected by radar control simulation experiment, psychological measurement, and expert ratings. The ultimate aim of the research is to establish SA computational models by two different approaches, which address demonstration indicators and contributing variables of the above multi-sensor data respectively. An evaluation of the two prediction Models will also be made. The research results are expected to provide supports for monitoring ATCos’ situation awareness.
Focusing on thecharacteristic of trust heterogeneity that omitted by most of recent trust studies, we have studied the major challenges that mainly occurred in the global teamwork——trust asymmetry. As a conceptual research, it tries to explorea dynamic mechanism model in which the positive effect of trust asymmetry on teamwork performance (individual performance) through the certain intermediation process. The research result is expectedto help managers underscore the working mechanismof trust asymmetry on the team, andprovide a viable proactive intervention strategies for the organization; furthermore,through exploring the positive role of trust asymmetryin promoting the team’s effectiveness, the research is willing to provide a useful perspective which can enrich the trust asymmetry research and enlighten future research on trust asymmetry.
Meta-analysis was used to investigate the effects of interword space in Chinese text reading. In the present study, 18 retrieved literatures were used, including 186 pairs of data which met the meta-analysis standard (n = 756). The results indicated that: (1) the overall effect of interword space on mean fixation duration, total fixation count of the whole sentence, first fixation duration, gaze duration, total reading time of target word, and fixation count of target word was 0.65, -0.12, 0.26, 0.58, 0.67 and 0.64 respectively. (2) Significant differences were revealed in the subgroups analysis: the effect of foreign students group was strikingly higher than Chinese students group on mean fixation duration, first fixation duration, gaze duration, total reading time of target word, and fixation count of target word. The spaced group was remarkably higher than the highlighted group on mean fixation duration. The lower level group was significantly higher than the higher level group on gaze duration, total reading time of target word, and fixation count of target word. The true word group was dramatically higher than the pseudo-word group on gaze duration, total reading time of target word, and fixation count of target word. The primary school students group was significantly higher than the college school students group on the total reading time of the target word.
Rhythm perception is unique to human being. It plays a significant role in our everyday life. Auditory channel is privileged in rhythm processing to other sensation channels which could synchronize the body to a specific rhythm more easily. Meanwhile, visual and haptic senses are also associated with rhythm perception in their own way. There are completed interactions between channels. Rhythm stimulus in vision couldn’t trigger one a feeling of beat as strong as auditory rhythm dose. Vision rhythm perception could be captured in timing by a sound when they are displayed at same time. Visual rhythm could be enhanced when it is with some motion information or by accumulating relevant experience. Rhythm could regulate the time distribution of attention to make the attention synchronized with tempo. The regulation effect could happens in cross-modal way. Haptic sense is deeply connected with auditory sense, the audio-haptic integration could convey advanced rhythm information.
Obesity epidemic is regarded as an abnormal state of fat accumulation, caused by a long-term imbalance between energy intake and consumption. The latest research suggests that executive functions (EFs) relate closely with pediatric obesity. Compared with their healthy peers, obese children might be characterized by poor executive functions in terms of inhibitory control. Specifically, obese children can barely refrain from noticing food stimuli and easily respond to them, which indicates a shortage of attentional inhibition and response inhibition. Research on brain mechanism finds a close relationship between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and obesity. Facing food stimuli, obese persons show a low activation level in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) yet a high activation level in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The mesolimbic dopamine system could also cause obesity by a complex interaction with the PFC. There is a possible bidirectional relationship between obesity and executive functions. Low levels of executive functions are a risk factor for an increased BMI, and loss of weight will help, to some extent, improve one's executive functions. Some intervention studies suggest that EFs training might have some advantages in weight maintenance; therefore, to increase the validity of EFs training, inhibitory control training in particular, shall be the focus of future research in order to provide efficient solutions to the pediatric obesity epidemic by combining other interventions.
The differential susceptibility hypothesis maintains that children have differential susceptibility to rearing environments’ influence. Some children are not only more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of adversity, but also disproportionately susceptible to the beneficial effects of supportive and enriching rearing environment. Firstly, this article elaborated the basic theoretical perspectives of differential susceptibility theory and the statistical criteria for establishing differential susceptibility. Secondly, empirical research evidence consistent with differential susceptibility model in recent years was reviewed from behavioral, endophenotypic and genetic factors, namely, how these factors moderated the effects of rearing environments on the children’s development as moderators. Finally, the limitations of previous studies and the directions of future researches were summarized.
Rat maternal behavior is a complex instinct behavior, which can be used as an effective model to study how drugs influence social behavior. Humans and animals have many similar characteristics. Many clinically used antipsychotic drugs such as haloperidol, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and amisulpride disrupt maternal responses (e.g. pup retrieval, pup licking and nest building) to various extents. We present a summary of recent studies on the behavioral effects and neurobiological mechanisms of antipsychotic action on maternal behavior in rats. We also discuss the potential clinical implications of such preclinical studies for the understanding of the quality of human maternal care in schizophrenic patients who are treated with antipsychotic medications. We argue that antipsychotic drugs disrupt active maternal responses primarily by suppressing maternal motivation. Atypical drugs-induced sedation also contributes to their disruptive effects, especially that on pup nursing. Dopamine D2receptors and serotonin 5-HT2A/2C receptors are critically involved in the maternal disruptive effects of antipsychotic drugs, with D2 receptors contributing more to typical antipsychotic-induced disruptions, while 5-HT2A/2C receptors contributing more to atypical drug-induced disruption. The nucleus accumbens shell-related reward circuitry is an essential neural network in the mediation of the behavioral effects of antipsychotic drugs on maternal behavior. This line of research is not only important for enhancing our understanding of the neurochemical basis of maternal behavior, but also valuable for understanding the complete spectrum of therapeutic and side-effects of antipsychotic treatment. Studying the behavioral effects of antipsychotic drugs on maternal behavior could also help us understand the eAxtent and mechanisms of impacts of antipsychotic medications on human maternal care. This knowledge may facilitate the development of effective behavioral or other intervening strategies to help patients coping with such undesirable effects.
People often change their opinion and behavior to conform to others. Recent studies in social neuroscience, using social psychological theories and experimental paradigms, have begun to elucidate the underlying neurobiological bases of social conformity. Neuroimaging studies show that brain areas, such as medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, amygdala, and hippocampus, play key roles in social conformity and cognitive imbalance. Evidences from the molecular genetic studies show that some genetic factors, such as the COMT gene, oxytocin, and Methylphenidate can enhance reward saliency by increasing dopamine in the brain, thus indirectly modulating social conformity. These reward-based reinforcement-learning mechanisms can explain social conformity. Future studies need to adapt an experimental paradigm to include more diverse populations, such as adolescents and elderly samples as well as patients with various psychopathology and brain lesions. It would also be promising to integrate different methodologies to clarify the neurobiological basis of social conformity.
As the most widely used measure of implicit social cognition, Implicit Association Test (IAT) has been applied in many areas since 1998. Applications of IAT mainly involve seven areas: mental health and behavioral problems, development and education, employment, politics, forensics, consumer behavior and decision-making, and intimate relationships. Ample evidence showed that IAT can be used to assess a diversity of implicit constructs and to predict various outcomes over and beyond parallel explicit measures. Although many studies on IAT have also been done in China, applications are still limited. To fill the gap, Cloud Psychology Lab (www.cpsylab.com) provided a large number of free online IATs to facilitate the applications of IAT in China.
Intertemporal decision-making, which is vital for human beings, refers to the tradeoff between the benefit and cost of choices at different times. The self of the decision-maker greatly influences intertemporal decisions. Furthermore, cultural individualism-collectivism plays an important role in shaping the self. However, the relationship among the self, intertemporal decision-making, and cultural individualism- collectivism is vague in the context of cultural individualism-collectivism. Hence, we explore the influence of the self on intertemporal decision-making from the perspective of cultural individualism-collectivism. First, we introduce concepts of intertemporal decision-making and their theoretical development. Next, we summarize two theories of the self in intertemporal decision-making: multiple-self model and self-continuity model. Then, we review the relationship between cultural individualism-collectivism and self, and briefly summarize studies on the influence of culture on intertemporal decision-making and its psychological mechanisms. Finally, we come up with a research conjecture that taking cultural individualism-collectivism into consideration when studying the influence of self on intertemporal decision-making. Our research exploration aims to provide a new viewpoint for future research and deepen our understanding of the mechanisms of intertemporal decision-making.
It is an important issue about Leaders’ emotion and subordinates’performance in organizational behavior studies. Former studies put forward “symmetrical assumptions” to demonstrate the relation between the two factors; nevertheless, it is not always true in real management. Leaders’ negative emotional expression may produce positive results. By critically reviewing The Emotion as Social Information (EASI) model and former researches, we developed cognitive and emotional paths to systematically investigate the effect of mediator and moderator between Leaders’ emotion and subordinates’ performance. Future studies may focus on: (1) the timing and dosage of leaders’ negative emotional expression; (2) other kinds of leaders’ negative emotion on subordinates’ performance; (3) the difference of subordinates’ emotional reaction.
Story is a strong persuasion, which story persuasion effect carries narrative transportation as the main mechanism. Public-service ads are taken as example to introduce narrative transportation theory in this paper. Narrative transportation is a unique mental process that integrates attention, feeling and imagery. Besides, it changes people’s attitudes and beliefs by reducing negative cognition, liking and identifying story characters, creating immersive presence and triggering strong emotional reactions. The article indicates the enlightenment of narrative transportation on public-service ads from the aspects of dose- response effects, edutainment, matching with the national culture and meeting the aesthetic needs. Finally, future studies are advised conducting from narrative transportation with embodied cognition view, empirical comparison between narrative transportation and process analysis, narrative media matching with individual and the formulation of the stories.
Recent literature has focused on road traffic violations from the perspective of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Some studies extended the TPB by including the descriptive norm, moral norm, anticipate regret, past behavior and risk perception to improve prediction performance. Results of these studies showed that both the TPB variables (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control) and the added variables, such as the moral norm, reliably predicted traffic violations intentions and behaviors. Moreover, the interventions based on this theoretical model were proved to be effective at reducing road traffic violations. Future studies should explore other variables to improve this extended TPB and apply it in practice.
Laughter is an important communicative signal in human society. Researches on laughter focused on the fields of evolution and social interaction. From the viewpoint of evolution, laughter can help infant survive and improve adults’ sexual attraction. Meanwhile, it contributes to one’s physical and psychological health. From the perspective of social interaction, laughter can help human beings control aggression, enhance cooperation and promote favorable interpersonal relationship. Future studies should effectively distinguish laughter from humor, concentrate more on the cerebral mechanism of laughter, explore cross-cultural consistency and differences on laughter, and look into applied research and interdisciplinary cooperation.