ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

Advances in Psychological Science ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (10): 1746-1754.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.01746

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Mechanism of Calculated Reciprocity: Comparison between Species on Cognition and Motivation

XIONG Mingrui1,2; ZHANG Zhen1; SHI Jiannong1,3   

  1. (1 Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China)
    (2 University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100049, China)
    (3 Department of Learning and Philosophy, Aalborg University, Denmark)
  • Received:2014-11-17 Online:2015-10-15 Published:2015-10-15
  • Contact: ZHANG Zhen, E-mail:; SHI Jiannong, E-mail:


Compared with non-human primates, human beings show widespread reciprocity in their social life. This is due to the existence of calculated reciprocity. The current article compares cognition and motivation related with calculated reciprocity in children and non-human primates. It is expected that we can provide an explanation for complicated reciprocity in human by analyzing species’ performance from the aspect of proximate mechanism. To investigate human reciprocity from proximate mechanism, future researches should (1) explore the effect of cognition and motivation on calculated reciprocity both from human ontogeny and individual difference; (2) differentiate and analyze impact factors from the perspective of actors and recipients respectively.

Key words: non-human primates, children, calculated reciprocity, cognition, motivation