ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (4): 542-555.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00542

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


姜英杰(), 马潇潇, 姜元涛, 任吉梅, 龙翼婷   

  1. 东北师范大学心理学院, 长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-25 发布日期:2022-12-30 出版日期:2023-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 姜英杰
  • 基金资助:

The effect of after-encoding rewards on agenda-based learning: The role of reward expectation and reward outcome

JIANG Yingjie(), MA Xiaoxiao, JIANG Yuantao, REN Jimei, LONG Yiting   

  1. School of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2021-05-25 Online:2022-12-30 Published:2023-04-25
  • Contact: JIANG Yingjie


基于ABR模型考察奖赏预期和奖赏结果对不同难度词对记忆与元记忆的影响。结果发现:(1)限时学习条件下, 奖赏结果促进不同难度词对记忆成绩和学习判断, 奖赏预期仅提高简单词对的记忆成绩。(2)自定步调学习条件下, 定时学习判断时奖赏结果仅影响学习判断; 奖赏预期促进高难度词对的学习时间分配, 从而提高记忆成绩和学习判断。(3)在自定步调学习时, 奖赏预期超越难度成为影响学习时间分配的因素。以上结果表明, 个体会综合奖赏预期、奖赏结果和难度构建学习议程, 足够大的奖赏预期会超越难度成为议程构建的主导因素。但奖赏预期和奖赏结果对记忆成绩、学习时间分配和学习判断的影响受学习条件调节。

关键词: 奖赏预期, 学习判断, 学习时间分配, 元记忆, 记忆


Metamemory monitoring is a process in which individuals subjectively evaluate or judge the memory process and state, and the common indicator is judgments of learning (JOLs). Metamemory control is the regulation and control of memory processes carried out on the basis of metamemory monitoring, and the study time allocation during self-paced learning is a central component of metamemory control. According to Agenda-Based Regulation Model (ABR), individuals in the learning process will comprehensively analyze various factors such as task objectives, task constraints to construct the learning agenda, which is used to prioritize the study items and the amount of time needed to study. However, the main concern of the previous studies is the value presented as a reward outcome (reward obtained after successfully memory), leading to a lack of valid examination of whether reward expectation (prediction of reward outcome) affects the agenda construction and memory performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to supplement the reward expectation into the ABR model by verifying whether a sufficiently high reward expectation can replace difficulty with exerting a dominant influence on JOLs and time allocation in an agenda construction.

Experiment 1 added a control group on the basis of Soderstrom and McCabe's (2011) to examine the effect of reward expectation and difficulty on JOLs and memory rates under a time limited learning condition by presenting the reward posteriorly. Experiment 2, which abolished the limited time learning to self-paced learning, was designed to examine the effect of reward expectation and difficulty on the study time allocation. To go a step further, Experiment 3 controlled reward expectation in the test by manipulating the value gradient, and was designed to examine the effect of the size of the gradient of reward expectation.

The current study found that: (1) under the limited time learning condition in Experiment 1, reward outcomes facilitated the memory performance and JOLs of both easy and hard word pairs, and reward expectation only improved the memory performance of easy word pairs without significant effects on JOLs. (2) in self-paced learning in Experiment 2, reward outcome only affected the JOLs rather than memory performance, but reward expectation promoted both JOLs and study time allocation thus improving the memory performance, what’s more, JOLs and study time allocation of hard word pairs in condition with reward expectation are higher than with no reward. (3) in self-paced learning in Experiment 3, the influence of difficulty on study time not significant any more, reward expectation beyond difficulty becomes the main factor affecting the study time allocation.

The above results proved that reward expectation is a contributing factor in ABR model. Individuals synthesize reward expectation, reward outcome and difficulty while constructing a learning agenda, and reward expectation overrides difficulty as the dominant factor in agenda construction when it is sufficiently large. However, the effects of reward expectation and reward outcome on memory performance, study time allocation, and JOLs were modulated by the learning conditions.

Key words: reward expectation, judgments of learning, study time allocation, metamemory, memory