ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (4): 513-528.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00513

• 研究报告 •    下一篇


赵春宇, 郭春彦()   

  1. 首都师范大学心理学院, 北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 北京 100048
  • 收稿日期:2022-07-04 发布日期:2022-12-30 出版日期:2023-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 郭春彦
  • 基金资助:

The relationship between associative encoding and item encoding in the multiple-component character unitization and compound word unitization

ZHAO Chunyu, GUO Chunyan()   

  1. Beijing Key Lab of Learning and Cognition, College of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2022-07-04 Online:2022-12-30 Published:2023-04-25
  • Contact: GUO Chunyan


本研究通过考察合体字和复合词加工过程中联结记忆和项目记忆的变化, 探究了在将不同项目绑定为整体的过程中联结编码和项目编码间的关系, 并结合脑电技术比较了合体字和复合词的加工过程在神经机制上的差异。行为结果显示: 与不能组成字或词的编码条件相比, 合体字和复合词编码条件下的联结记忆成绩有显著提升, 且项目记忆成绩没有下降; 与复合词编码相比, 合体字编码条件下的联结记忆和项目记忆成绩都显著更好。脑电结果显示: 复合词编码时晚期负成分(LNC)主要位于额区且发生较早, 而合体字编码时的LNC主要位于枕区且发生更晚; 合体字编码比复合词编码在α/β频段的神经振荡去同步化更强。这些结果表明, 将不同项目绑定为整体的操作可以强化大脑对联结信息的加工, 同时不会损害对项目的加工, 支持了“只有收益”的观点。本研究也从实证的角度为汉语学习材料的编排提供了参考。

关键词: 项目编码, 联结编码, 合体字, 复合词, 项目记忆, 联结记忆


Unitization refers to the manipulation that can integrate two or more items into a single entirety. Previous studies found that unitization facilitated associative memory, however, the effect of unitization on item memory was controversial. Some researchers argued that unitization promoted associative recognition at the cost of item recognition (the view of “benefits and cost”), others held that unitization could promote associative recognition without impairing item recognition (the view of “benefits-only”). These two views seemed to be arguing the impact of unitization on item memory, but in fact, they were discussing the relationship between associative encoding and item encoding during unitization.

The present study intended to explore the relationship between associative encoding and item encoding in the process of unitization through two experiments, by examining the effects of words unitization and characters unitization on associative memory and item memory as well as the differences of neural mechanisms between the two unitization strategies. In experiment 1, we used associative recognition paradigm to explore the unitization effects on associative memory. In the study phase, participants were asked to judge whether the character pairs could form to a multiple-component character (characters unitization) or a compound word (words unitization) or couldn’t (non-unitization). In the test phase, participants were asked to judge whether the character pairs were old or rearranged. In experiment 2, the item recognition paradigm was used. The procedure of the study phase was the same as in Experiment 1. In the test phase, participants were asked to judge whether the characters were old or new. In addition, the EEG signals were recorded during the task to explore the neural mechanism during memory encoding.

The behavioral results showed that: i) the encoding process of characters unitization was more difficult and had longer response time compared to words unitization; ii) the performances of associative recognition was significantly higher for the words and characters unitization conditions than the non-unitization condition, and their performances of item recognition was not decreased; iii) the performances of associative recognition and item recognition was significantly higher for the characters unitization condition than words unitization condition. The EEG results showed that: iv) the LNC during words unitization encoding was mainly distributed in the frontal area and occurred earlier than characters unitization encoding, while the LNC during characters unitization encoding was mainly located in the occipital area and occurs later than words unitization encoding; v) the desynchronization of neural oscillation within α/β band was stronger for characters unitization condition compared to words unitization condition, and the desynchronization of neural oscillation within α/β band during encoding was significantly correlated with the hit of item recognition during retrieval.

These results indicate from the perspectives of memory encoding and retrieval that the manipulation of unitization does not damage the processing of items while strengthening the processing of associative information, supporting the view of “benefits-only”. This research has deepened our understanding that the brain processes multiple-component Chinese characters and compound words, and also provided a reference for the arrangement of Chinese learning materials from the perspective of empirical evidence.

Key words: item encoding, associative encoding, multiple-component characters, compound words, item memory, associative memory