ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (12): 1433-1442.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.01433

• 研究报告 •    下一篇


马小凤(), 李甜甜, 贾瑞红, 魏婕   

  1. 西北师范大学心理学院, 甘肃省行为与心理健康重点实验室, 兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2021-11-20 发布日期:2022-09-23 出版日期:2022-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 马小凤
  • 基金资助:

The forward testing effect in spatial route learning

MA Xiaofeng(), LI Tiantian, JIA Ruihong, WEI Jie   

  1. School of Psychology, Northwest Normal University, Provincial Key Laboratory of Behavioral and Mental Health, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2021-11-20 Online:2022-09-23 Published:2022-12-25
  • Contact: MA Xiaofeng


空间路线信息学习中的前向测试效应及其机制有待检验。研究以虚拟背景下的住宅小区为实验材料, 要求被试学习同一场景4个方向的路线信息(实验1)以及4个不同场景(实验2)的路线信息。结果表明, 在路线1~3的测试中, 同一场景下路线信息相似性高, “隔离”干扰的难度大, 在测试过程中的干扰率高于不同场景的路线信息。在路线4的测试中, 两个实验中测试组的回忆正确率均显著高于重学组, 干扰率则显著低于重学组, 出现了前向测试效应。这些发现表明, 测试可以通过“隔离”来自先前学习信息的前摄干扰来增强后续空间信息的学习。研究结果揭示了空间路线学习中的前向测试效应及其机制, 支持前摄抑制减少理论, 证实了前向测试效应在生活中具有广阔的应用性。

关键词: 提取练习, 前向测试效应, 空间记忆, 路线信息


The forward testing effect describes how testing previously learned material could improve participants long-term memory for later learning of new material when continuously exposed to various information. This has been verified using different language materials. However, the effect of forward testing on spatial path learning requires further study.

This study selected 112 participants randomly and conducted two experiments to explore the forward test effect of visuospatial route learning in different directions in the same scene (Experiment 1). Further, it investigated the forward test effect of visuospatial route learning in various settings (Experiment 2). The spatial route information memory method was adopted based on the extensive experimental procedure formed by the forward test effect. Through a sequence of sites in a virtual route setting, participants were required to comprehend and recollect the structures that passed on the route. Furthermore, the exercise ended with a sequential recall test. A total of 52 participants were randomly assigned to the test and repeated study groups in Experiment 1. Eight common landmark buildings, such as hospitals and schools, were selected to form four different route information. After learning approximately 1~3 pieces of route information, the repeated study group re-learned the route information. Further, the test group recalled the order of the buildings passing through the route information as required. When learning about Route 4 regarding either the test condition or the re-learn condition, it was necessary to recall the order in which the route passed through buildings. The forward test effect of memorizing route information in different scenarios was explored in Experiment 2 with 60 participants. Unlike Experiment 1, the participants in Experiment 2 learned four different routes, each containing a different building. The experimental procedure was the same as that used in Experiment 1.

Experiment 1 showed that the recall accuracy of spatial path information in the test group was significantly higher than in that the repeated-learning group. Moreover, the active interference generated when recalling the fourth path information was considerably lower than that in the repeated-learning group. The results of Experiment 2 showed that there was a positive test effect for different scene background information. This further proves that the application background of the forward test effect in route-information learning was extensive. More importantly, by comparing the two experimental results horizontally, it was found that different interference levels of previous information have different effects on learning following new information. This is manifested in the difference in the interference rate caused by the difficulty of “isolation” among materials, including the trend that the correct rate decreases when the interference rate increases and the correct rate increases when the interference rate decreases. All of these directly reveal the forward direction-the importance of counteracting proactive interference in testing the effects.

In summary, this study verified the existence of the forward test effect in the path learning of different directions in the same scene and the path learning in various settings. Extending the study of the forward testing effect on learning visuospatial path information will enrich the exploration of the forward testing effect in spatial memory. Additionally, this study found that different levels of interference from previously learned information affect the subsequent learning of new information. The findings provide direct experimental evidence for proactive interference reduction theory.

Key words: retrieval practice, forward testing effect, spatial memory, route information