ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (8): 849-859.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00849

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  1. (西北师范大学心理学院学生学习研究中心, 兰州 730070)
  • 收稿日期:2012-10-22 发布日期:2013-08-25 出版日期:2013-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 马小凤

The Advantage Effect of Retrieval Practice on Memory Retention and Transfer: Based on Explanation of Cognitive Load Theory

ZHOU Aibao;MA Xiaofeng;Li Jing;CUI Dan   

  1. (Research Center on Student Learning, School of Psychology, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China)
  • Received:2012-10-22 Online:2013-08-25 Published:2013-08-25
  • Contact: MA Xiaofeng

摘要: 提取练习比建构概念图更有利于记忆保持和迁移的研究结果尚存在争议。依据认知负荷的3个成分, 设计两个实验探究前期知识水平与策略复杂性对以上两种学习策略有效性的影响。结果表明:(1)前期知识水平的主效应不显著, 但是与学习策略之间存在交互作用:在提取练习策略条件下, 高前期知识水平的被试与低前期知识水平的被试在记忆保持和迁移上的正确率没有显著差异, 但是在建构概念图策略条件下, 高前期知识水平的被试在记忆保持和迁移上的正确率显著地高于低前期知识水平的被试; (2)当降低概念图的难度后, 被试使用建构部分概念图策略产生的认知负荷与使用提取练习策略相比显著降低, 并且其在学习阶段学习到的知识量显著地高于使用提取练习策略的结果, 但是在最终测试上, 其记忆保持与迁移的正确率与使用提取练习策略并没有显著差异, 策略的复杂性增加了学习者的额外负荷, 但是对策略有效性的发挥却不具有决定性影响。以上结果说明提取练习策略之所以比建构概念图策略更具优势, 不是因为其策略本身更易掌握, 而是因为其与建构概念图策略相比不受学习者前期知识水平的影响。这意味着认知负荷理论可以很好地解释提取练习在记忆保持与迁移中产生优势效应的内部机制, 并进一步证实提取练习与精细编码不同, 具有独特的加工机制。

关键词: 提取练习, 建构概念图, 认知负荷, 前期知识水平, 精细加工

Abstract: A wealth of researches has indicated that retrieval practice can be used as an effective means to improve memory. Recently the effects of retrieval practice have captured the attention of contemporary researchers who are interested in educational applications of retrieval practice. Some researchers have examined the effectiveness of retrieval practice relative to elaborative studying with concept mapping, and found that practicing retrieval produces greater gains in meaningful learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping which has received comment and query by researchers advocating constructivism who thought, compared with practice retrieval, concept mapping is too complex to master. In view of these criticism, the current research examined the effectiveness of retrieval practice and concept mapping from the perspective of cognitive load, it is hypothesized that the intrinsic load of study task which depends on learners’ prior knowledge level has different influence on retrieval practice and concept mapping, and the concept mapping strategy is more complex than retrieval practice, so it could produce more extraneous load on learner and influence the effectiveness. Two experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses. In experiment 1, 120 college students were engaged in a 2 (prior knowledge level: high vs. low) × 3 (study strategy type: retrieval practice vs. concept mapping and repeated study) between-subjects design of experiment, which was aimed to study the different influence of prior knowledge level on the effectiveness of three types of strategies. In experiment 2, 43 college students participated in a within-subjects design of experiment, each student completed a partial concept mapping of one science text and practiced retrieval of a second text which was designed to study the influence of strategy’s complexity on strategy’s effectiveness. The results indicated that on correct rate of memory retention and transfer, the main effect of prior knowledge level wasn't significant, but there was an interaction between learning strategies and prior knowledge level: under the condition of retrieval practice strategy, there is no significant difference on the correct rate of retention and transfer between participates with high prior knowledge and participates with low prior knowledge; as the concept mapping strategy concerned, the participates with high prior knowledge were significantly higher than participates with low prior knowledge on the correct rate of retention and transfer. In addition, the complexity of the strategy would increase learners' extraneous load, but it didn't have decisive influence on the effectiveness of the strategy. In terms of result, it was concluded that the reason why retrieval practice could produce more memory retention and transfer than concept mapping is not because of that its strategy is easier to be master, it is that the concept mapping strategy was very dependent on learner's prior knowledge level. Relatively, retrieval practice is not dependent on learner's prior knowledge level. The results have some important implications. Firstly, retrieval practice is an effective tool to promote retention and transfer, it indeed can enhance subsequent recall more than concept mapping. Thus, educators should pay more attention to the effectiveness of retrieval practice rather than view it as an assessment device to measure what a student knows. Secondly, the findings support the theory that retrieval practice enhances learning by retrieval-specific mechanisms rather than by elaborative study processes.

Key words: retrieval practice, concept mapping, cognitive load, prior knowledge level, elaborative study processes