ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (7): 928-938.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00928

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (西北师范大学心理学院学生学习指导中心, 兰州 730070)
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-24 出版日期:2015-07-25 发布日期:2015-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 周爱保, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

    西北师范大学青年教师科研能力提升一般项目(自然科学类, 项目编号:NWNU–LKQN–13–25)资助。

Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning in Multiple-list Tests with Higher-Order Skills

ZHOU Aibao; YANG Tiancheng; CHENG Chen; MA Xiaofeng; ZHAO Jing   

  1. (Guidance Center on Student Learning, School of Psychology, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China)
  • Received:2014-09-24 Online:2015-07-25 Published:2015-07-25
  • Contact: ZHOU Aibao, E-mail:


采用多篇章学习方式, 结合测试效应研究的经典范式, 设计两个实验探究提取练习策略对高阶技能的影响。结果表明:(1)连续学习3篇文章后, 在最终测试阶段学习策略主效应显著, 提取练习组高阶技能的成绩更优:提取组在每篇文章学习间隔中插入即时测试, 无论是概念型知识还是高阶技能, 最终测试中的成绩都显著高于重学组, 但其反应时却低于重学组。在提取练习组中, 概念型知识与高阶技能成绩均有提升, 但概念型知识比高阶技能提升幅度明显; (2)将篇章数扩展至5篇后, 最终测试中, 提取练习组的成绩仍显著高于重学组。对高阶技能4个维度作以分析后发现, 两组在应用与分析维度上差异显著, 但在评估与创造维度上, 提取练习组成绩虽有提升但差异不显著。结果证实了提取练习是高效学习的有效策略, 不仅体现在单独内容的记忆保持, 也可扩展到连续学习中高阶技能的发展与促进。研究支持了情景语境解释对提取练习内部机制的阐述, 并进一步验证了前摄抑制干扰理论和上下文内容转换假说的观点。

关键词: 提取练习, 多篇章学习, 高阶技能


Learning is usually thought to occur during episodes of studying, while the retrieval of information on testing simply serves to assess what was learned. Test-enhanced learning, or the use of tests and quizzes to engage retrieval processes, has been widely demonstrated as an effective strategy for facilitating fact learning. Retrieval practice can not only promote single content learning but also be beneficial for multiple-context. However, the impact of testing effects on sequential item learning remains unclear. According to Bloom’s taxonomy of knowledge and skills in education, which Anderson revised, training of higher-order skills has been increasingly valued. To this end, current research has established the generality of test-enhanced learning as well as pointed to conditions under higher-order skills are manifested. We examined whether retrieval practice facilitates higher-order learning in multiple-article test format. Across two experiments, participants engaged in either retrieval practice or restudied with basic concept questions and higher-order questions. In Experiment 1, 60 college students studied three passages in the initial learning conditions and then answered concept and higher-order multiple-choice questions. After five minutes, participants were administered both concept and higher-order tests that were intended to examine the type of skill differences. In Experiment 2, 60 college students studied five passages in the initial learning conditions and then answered higher-order short-answer questions. After five minutes, participants were administered higher-order tests. In both experiments, higher-order skills were considered to comprise the ability to understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create categories of a revised Bloom’s taxonomy of knowledge and skills in education. Experiment 1 indicated a significant main effect for learning strategies. Results also revealed that for each taxonomy level, the retrieval practice group’s performance and reaction time were better than those of the restudying group. An in-depth analysis showed that retrieval practice greatly contributed to concept question performance. Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 with five articles for reading and more appropriate short-answer questions. Thus, Experiment 2 extends the findings of Experiment 1. Results reflected differences in the final test between the groups, especially for the apply and analyze dimensions. Nonetheless, we found no significant difference in the evaluate and create categories. Results suggested that retrieval practice is an effective method for learning, not by merely embodying the memory of single content but also broadening multiple contexts and promoting the development of higher-order skills. To some degree, it effectively reduced the memory load in learning. The current study explored the relationship between retrieval practice and multiple-list learning. Results of the analyses of internal mechanisms support the episodic context account. The episodic context account explains the finding that retrieval practice is more likely to be beneficial for more difficult retrieval tasks. In addition, combining the context-change hypothesis and proactive interference theory suggests the superiority of testing effects in multiple-list learning. The development of higher-order skills is a desired outcome of education. Practice testing is one of the most well-established strategies for improving student learning.

Key words: retrieval practice, multiple-list learning, high-order skills