ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2010, Volume 18 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Embodied Cognition: A New Approach in Cognitive Psychology
    YE Hao-Sheng
    2010, 18 (5):  705-710. 
    Abstract ( 4519 )   PDF (622KB) ( 10500 )  
    The embodied cognition approach in cognitive psychology is featured as the emphasis it places on the role the body plays in an organism’s cognitive processes. Its central meanings include the following claims: (1) steps in a cognitive process might emerge from the physical attributes of the body; (2) it tries to account for the content of cognition by appeal to the nature of the body; (3) cognitive processes or states might be extended into the environment in which the cognition takes place. At first, the study of embodied cognition is only a kinds of philosophical thinking. But now, It has already extended to the experimental study of cognitive psychology. However, there are still some burning problems before it.
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    Training On Working Memory: A Valuable Research Field
    ZHAO Xin; ZHOU Ren-Lai
    2010, 18 (5):  711-717. 
    Abstract ( 2156 )   PDF (642KB) ( 5036 )  
    The researchers adopted different working memory training methods to practice different groups. The results showed that working memory ability could be raised by training. The individual reading ability and intelligence level could be enhanced according to practice. The training could change brain activity and it had certain action for relieving special children clinical symptom. It gave a challenge to primary cognitive theory and relevant theoretical mode; moreover it provided effective assistance for education and clinical treatment. The research opened up a new trend in working memory. The further research should be devoted to improve training contents\evaluation and explore a working memory training system for clinical treatment.
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    Analysis of the Factors Influencing Intervention of Conditioned Fear Memory
    WANG Hong-Bo; AN Xian-Li; LI You-Hong; ZHENG Xi-Geng
    2010, 18 (5):  718-724. 
    Abstract ( 1179 )   PDF (638KB) ( 1536 )  
    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a kind of anxiety disorders developed from severe traumatic events. The key of treatment for this disorder is to extinguish conditioned fear memory. However, acquired fear memory is hard to be extinguished and extinguished fear memory is liable to recover in certain situations. Therefore, it is of great importance for PTSD theory and clinical practice to highlight the ways that persistently extinguish fear memory. In this review, we discuss two emotional regulation techniques that have been investigated as means to control fear: extinction and reconsolidation. Clinical PTSD treatment may be benefit from these pre–clinical methods which effectively extinguish fear memory.
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    Self Identity’s New Model: Dual-Cycle Model
    XU Wei; KOU Yu
    2010, 18 (5):  725-733. 
    Abstract ( 3999 )   PDF (662KB) ( 4476 )  
    Self identity has been a crucial phenomenon in the study field of developmental psychology since Erikson first proposed the concept. Empirical study concerning self identity has been largely based on Marcia’s identity status model. Further researchers like Luyckx try to integrate identity status model with its criticism and modification, thus propose the theory of self identity’s dual-cycle model. According to dual-cycle model, self identity is a construct comprised of five dimensions: exploration in breadth, exploration in depth, ruminative exploration, commitment making and identification with commitment. The dimensions constitute two cycles: "commitment-formation cycle" and "commitment-evaluation cycle", and the dynamic interaction of the two cycles prompts the process of identity formation and development, thus results in six identity statuses: identity achievement, identity foreclosure, ruminative moratorium, carefree diffusion, diffused diffusion and undifferentiated.
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    The New Development of Forgiveness Studies Based on Three Forgiveness Models
    MA Jie; ZHENG Quan-Quan
    2010, 18 (5):  734-740. 
    Abstract ( 1161 )   PDF (630KB) ( 2181 )  
    It has commonly agreed that forgiveness is a prosocial change in the motivations. We introduced three forgiveness models here; this is Stress–and–Coping Model of Worthington, Interpersonal Forgiveness Model of Koutsos and Self–Forgiveness Model of Hall and Fincham. These three models support the prosocial change theory from three different aspects. Through these three models, we also made a thorough analysis of the recent research of forgiveness cognitive progress, interpersonal variables with forgiveness and self-forgiveness. In the end, We reviewed the history of forgiveness research and pointed out the existing problems in the studies both in China and in the West.
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    The Development of the Training Models of American Clinical Psychology
    YANG Wen-Deng; YE Hao-Sheng
    2010, 18 (5):  741-751. 
    Abstract ( 1367 )   PDF (808KB) ( 1959 )  
    For American clinical psychology, because of the influences from the society, psychological organizations, and its own factors, there exist different training models in different eras. The paper chooses five representative models, including the“scientist-practitioner” model, the “practitioner-scholar” model, the “clinical psychological scientist” model, “local clinical scientist” model, and the “evidence-based practioner” model. It has introduced the characteristics and developing rules of the training models of American clinical psychology since 1949. It points out that the “evidence-based practioner” model has avoided the other four training models’ tendency of individualism. This model divides the “scientist-practitioner” group to be two separate groups: “scientist” and “practioner”, stresses that the practioners should obey the best evidences provided by scientists and take the patient’s charicteristics, culture and value into consideration and practice under the supervising of the managers. This model represents the developing trend of the training models of the contemporary clinical psychology.
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    An Effective Path for Promoting Work Motivation: The Self-determination Theory Perspective
    ZHANG Jian; ZHANG Jian-Bing; LI Yue; Edward L. Deci
    2010, 18 (5):  752-759. 
    Abstract ( 1765 )   PDF (637KB) ( 8685 )  
    Self-determination Theory focuses on the motivation of human behaviors and the conditions within organizations that promote optimal motivation. This review discusses the philosophical basis of SDT, which uses organismic and dialectical assumptions. It also summarizes research on work motivation in organizations that has been guided by SDT. The research confirms the SDT perspective which suggests that organizational factors that support satisfaction of employees’ basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness will promote intrinsic motivation and the internalization of extrinsic motivation, which will in turn promote effective performance and psychological health in organizations.
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    Employee Creativity: Conceptualization, Formation Mechanism and Future Directions
    WANG Xian-Hui; DUAN Jin-Yun; TIAN Xiao-Ming; KONG Yu
    2010, 18 (5):  760-768. 
    Abstract ( 1338 )   PDF (650KB) ( 2385 )  
    Employee creativity is the generation of new and potentially valuable ideas concerning new products, services, manufacturing methods, and administrative processes. The direct outcomes that employee creativity and team creativity bring are organizational innovation. Based on the early research framework and the cognitive evaluation theory, the paper emphasized that those such as job characteristics, personal characteristics and organizational supportive climate would affect employee’s inner creative motivation and creativity. Later on, a general analysis of all factors that can accelerate or inhibit employee creativity was conducted, combining with the perspective of the identification of individual creativity and team creativity, creative self-efficacy model and social network theory. Based on that, an integrative model was built, and future studies were discussed as well.
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    Research on Followership: Review and Prospect
    YUAN Tao; LING Wen-Quan
    2010, 18 (5):  769-780. 
    Abstract ( 1480 )   PDF (671KB) ( 3978 )  
    Followership refers to the characteristics of followers, including their working capability, work-related attitude, and personal relationship skills. There are three issues of followership research according to different contents, namely leader-focus leadership theory, follower-focus leadership theory and followership theory. Previous oversea literatures provide classifications of follower, follower’s psychological construct, and integration of followership and leadership. Meanwhile, most of Chinese studies address analysis of followers which is concentrated on leaders. It will be necessary that the researchers emphasis other issues, such as analysis tool, relationship between followership and personal characteristics, besides which, matching among followership, leadership style and organization characteristic in future.
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    Impact and Its Mechanism of Intragroup Conflict on Team Effectiveness
    XIANG Chang-Chun; LONG Li-Rong
    2010, 18 (5):  781-789. 
    Abstract ( 1511 )   PDF (657KB) ( 4579 )  
    Conflict is one of the major challenges encountered by teams to work effectively. Researches on relationship between intra-group conflict and team effectiveness showed inconsistent results academically, which triggered discussion on mechanism of intra-group conflict on group effectiveness. Previous studies have revealed that group characteristics (mood, diversity, group norms and cultural value), group process (conflict management and trust) and task characteristics moderates the effect of conflict on the team effectiveness. It is recommended that future research should draw on following topics: (1) Impact of intra-group conflict on team effectiveness from causes of conflict perspective; (2) Conflict dynamics; (3) the activation effect of new group members’ conflict; and (3) Localization research based on Chinese culture.
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    The Psychological Effect of Internet Advertising and Its Theoretical Discussion

    ZHOU Xiang-Xian; SUN Peng-Zhi

    2010, 18 (5):  790-799. 
    Abstract ( 1487 )   PDF (677KB) ( 3289 )  
    The significance of internet advertising has been widely recognized by businessmen. Studies show that the psychological effect of internet advertising is influenced by the features relevant to advertising itself, such as the format and interactivity of internet advertising, the animation of advertising elements, emotions, product types, and the expectations, involvement, prior experience and gender of the audience, the environment of internet, and so on. Scholars have proposed theoretical explanations for the effectiveness of this type of advertising such as the Modified Elaboration Likelihood Model and the Interactive Advertising Model. However, there still exist some problems. For example, the exploration of other influential factors, the application of new methods of study, further specification of the dependent indexes and the improvement in the power of theoretical explanation.
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    The Research Approaches, Formation Mechanisms and Influential Factors of Illusion of Control
    CHEN Xue-Ling; XU Fu-Ming; LIU Teng-Fei; JIANG Duo; ZHANG Jun-Wei
    2010, 18 (5):  800-809. 
    Abstract ( 1809 )   PDF (656KB) ( 2621 )  
    Illusion of control is defined as a judgment bias that individuals overestimate control over environment or events results when uncontrollable conditions or where actual control was possible. Illusion of control refers to gambling, lottery, health care, mental health, investment and other fields. The research approaches of illusion of control include indirect measure, self-report and laboratory tasks. Then we summarize two formation mechanisms of illusion of control: control heuristic theory and regulatory focus theory. The influential factors on illusion of control contain personality, motive, power, feedback, relevance between event and individual, instruction and so on.. Finally, some issuses should be research further, such as multiple variables and interaction research on illusion of control, cross-culture research and regulation stratege and so on.
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    The Psychological Mechanism and Influence Factors of Herd Behavior of Investors in the Capital Market
    Jiang Duo; Xu Fu–Ming; Chen Xue–Ling; Liu Teng–Fei; Zhang Jun–Wei
    2010, 18 (5):  810-818. 
    Abstract ( 1465 )   PDF (641KB) ( 2323 )  
    The herd behavior acted by investors is a typical phenomenon in capital market. It refers to the behavior that a decision-maker follows others’ investment decision at the same time under the uncertain situation. By comparing, it has been found that the herd behavior is different from the conformity in essence. A great number of researches have been done to explore the reasons of herd behavior from three aspects which are social influence, cognitive mechanism of investors and evolution mechanism. In addition, some factors like uncertainty, investment environment, degree of group consistence, and individual emotion and motivation may influence the herd behavior as well. According to the prior research, herd behavior has its own unique information processing model. Moreover, future research on herd behavior should focus on the following five aspects, which are tracing the information processing model of professionals, improving the external validity of research, exploring the neural cognitive mechanism, carrying out cross-cultural research and seeking the relationship between the herd behavior and personality.
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    Strategies of Coping with Stigma: A Critical Review

    YANG Liu; LIU Li; WU Hai-Zheng

    2010, 18 (5):  819-830. 
    Abstract ( 1564 )   PDF (673KB) ( 2749 )  
    Stigmatized people have a vast array of coping strategies towards stigma-related stressors resulting from their devalued social status, including emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses. There is an increasing interest in theorizing these coping strategies in generally, and coping strategies towards HIV/AIDS related stigma in particular. According to different academic criteria, strategies of coping with stigma have been categorized as follows: problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, engagement and disengagement strategies, proactive and reactive strategies. People with concealable stigma always adopt the coping tactics of disclosure/concealment. Qualitative methods have been increasingly employed in the field. More attention should be paid to coping environment, coping strategies in relation to different forms of stigma, the multiple dimensional nature of coping responses, and appraisals on the effects of diverse coping strategies.
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    Intergroup Contact Theory: Theory for Refining Intergroup Relationship

    LI Sen-Sen; LONG Chang-Quan; CHEN Qing-Fei; LI Hong

    2010, 18 (5):  831-839. 
    Abstract ( 2622 )   PDF (674KB) ( 6742 )  
    Intergroup Contact Theory, which is formed on the base of Intergroup Contact Hypothesis, indicates that intergroup contact has functions of improving intergroup relationship and reducing intergroup bias. Nowadays, the related studies expand the research subjects and explore intergroup contact’s functions of reducing both explicit and implicit bias. More and more researchers begin to pay close attention to the function of indirect contact. The mechanism that intergroup contact reduces bias includes functional relations, interaction with out-groups, emotional factors and cognitive factors. After analyzing the prerequisite conditions of contact, which contains equal status, common goals, intergroup cooperation and support of authorities, law, or custom, more and more researches focus on the importance of intergroup friendship. We should pay more attention to improving the ecological validity, refining the theory system of Intergroup Contact Theory in the future, as well as take notice of the intergroup contact that leads to negative effects.
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    Cultural Frame Switching Amongst Biculturals: Its Influencing Factors and Outcomes
    YANG Xiao-Li; LIU Li; ZHANG Xiao-Xiao
    2010, 18 (5):  840-848. 
    Abstract ( 1514 )   PDF (655KB) ( 3544 )  
    Cultural and cross-cultural psychology has moved from documenting cultural differences towards exploring the interaction of culture and psyche. Based on a dynamic constructivist approach, Hong and her colleagues proposed a model of cultural frame switching (CFS) which assumes bicultural individuals could navigate between their ethnic and host cultures. CFS is affected by lay theory of race and bicultural identity integration (BII). Multicultural experience, which is accumulated by CFS, can enhance an individual’s creativity and cognitive complexity, and may lead to cultural stereotyping and cultural exclusion. Future studies should pay much attention to the applicability of CFS for majority groups. The implications of CFS model to investigating the multicultural identities and their conflict of ethnic minorities in China are discussed.
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    The Researches of Western Psychology on Meditation’s Effect
    XIONG Wei-Rui; YU Lu
    2010, 18 (5):  849-856. 
    Abstract ( 1351 )   PDF (651KB) ( 3586 )  
    Meditation is a kind of methods of spiritual practices. In recent years, the meditation, particularly the research of the effect of the meditation has become more and more popular. This paper summarizes the research finding of the meditation effect of western psychology in this decade. The research of the meditation effect focuses on the meditation of the mental effect, physiological effect and the clinical effect. A lot of researches indicate that the meditation is not only religion phenomena, but also science phenomena. The meditation will play a more and more important role in the western psychology in the future, and become a new trend in the field of the psychological therapy.
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    Meditation Studies: the View from Psychology
    REN Jun; HUANG Lu; ZHANG Zhen-Xin
    2010, 18 (5):  857-864. 
    Abstract ( 1796 )   PDF (656KB) ( 5252 )  
    Meditation can be conceptualized as a family of complex mental and behavioral regulatory training regimes developed for various ends, including the cultivation of a special attention mechanism and mental improvement. Besides a series of measuring scales, recent researches also use instruments such as EEG, fMRI and SPECT, which mainly focus on the brain mechanism of meditation and its functions. Based on the standardization of training processes, future researchers should place more emphasis on the comparison among various kinds of practices and then track the potential impacts for a long period.
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