ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2010, Volume 18 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Remembered Utility in Decision Making
    ZHANG Zi-Chun;FAN Chun-Lei;WANG Xiao-Jia
    2010, 18 (6):  865-870. 
    Abstract ( 1170 )   PDF (629KB) ( 1814 )  
    Remembered utility is the extent of pleasure or contentment to which people have when a global evaluation based on the information retrieved from memory is made of a past episode, or a collection of episodes. Previous studies about remembered utility revealed that people often failed to maximize their utility when they were asked to provide a global evaluation of past episodes. Main findings of existing studies proposed three rules: peak-end rule, duration neglect and violations of monotonicity. Although these rules can be explained from the perspective of judgment by prototype, further investigations are needed to understand whether there is any other internal mechanism of remembered utility.
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    Intentional Forgetting of Emotional Memory
    YANG Wen-Jing;ZHANG Qing-Lin;WU Ze-Lian;JIA Lei
    2010, 18 (6):  871-877. 
    Abstract ( 1656 )   PDF (637KB) ( 3056 )  
    Intentional forgetting of emotional memories refers to the phenomenon that people attempt to actively put the unwanted memories which are emotionally disturbing out of awareness. Directed forgetting and suppression forgetting, two types of intentional forgetting, have triggered a bunch of studies so far. The item method and the list method are used to explore the mechanisms of directed forgetting, while the TNT task and the white bear task are mainly used to investigate suppression forgetting. In this article, we reviewed laboratory studies in this area, posing some important questions for the future studies, such as the interaction of different paradigms and cognitive systems, individual differences, the separation of emotional responses from the emotional events, and so on.
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    Contextual Effects of Object Identification in Scene Perception
    TIAN Hong-Jie;WANG Fu-Xing;XU Fei-Fei;SHEN Ji-Liang
    2010, 18 (6):  878-886. 
    Abstract ( 1477 )   PDF (651KB) ( 1887 )  
    The context effect had been obtained in many visual search and object detection studies. Three models were corresponded to the explanation of the context effect: Functional isolation model, interactive model and contextual guidance model. In the interactive model, two theories, scheme activated theory and visual representation, were developed to explain interactive processing. As far as the materials is concerned, context effect showed more significant in real-world scenes than in man-made scenes, as real-world scene could provide more information and the reference for position, and the regions played role to these two kinds of scene were different. In addition, physiological studies of scene perception and contextual effect in scenes were introduced and summarized. Further studies were also suggested in this article.
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    The Effect of Length on Mechanism of Duration Processing
    YIN Hua-Zhan;LI Zuo-Shan;LI Dan;HUANG Xi-Ting
    2010, 18 (6):  887-891. 
    Abstract ( 982 )   PDF (626KB) ( 1225 )  
    Length effect indicated that the duration cognitive or neural mechanism would be different with the difference of duration. “Same” mechanism hypothesis viewed the same processing mechanism was used, and it could be explained by Scalar Timing Theory, while “different” mechanism hypothesis viewed the different processing mechanism was used, 2-3 seconds, 1 second, 1/2 second, and 1/3 second etc. could be used to label different mechanism. Future research seems to investigate four kinds of issues, e.g. reliability of previous evidences, diversity of standard, determinacy of boundary location, and applicability of theories.
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    The Orthographic Neighborhood Effect in Word Recognition
    ZHANG Jie-Wei;WANG Quan-Hong
    2010, 18 (6):  892-899. 
    Abstract ( 1183 )   PDF (657KB) ( 2008 )  
    The orthographic neighborhood effect (N effect) is the phenomenon that words with more neighbors (other words than can be formed by changing one letter) are identified faster. Lexical decision task, semantic category task, and speeded naming task, etc., have been used to investigate the N effect. Affecting factors of the N effect, such as the frequency of the target words, the language of the stimuli, and the neighborhood site, were summarized. An early component in 150~300ms window and larger N400 amplitudes reflect the N effect. The semantic activation in the left hemisphere and the executive control processes in the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are related to the N effect. The major models of the N effect include the Multiple Read-Out Model, the Interactive-Activation Model, and the Dual-Route Cascaded Model. In conclusion, future research should be focused on experimental materials, research method, etc.
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    The Influence of Ovarian Hormones on Fear Processing in Women

    CHEN Chun-Ping;HUANG Rui-Wang;LUO Yue-Jia

    2010, 18 (6):  900-906. 
    Abstract ( 1297 )   PDF (639KB) ( 3312 )  
    The sexual dimorphism in structure and function of the brain causes gender differences in fear emotion processing. Fear emotion processing is affected by estrogen and progesterone in women. Recently, the research combination of the human brain mapping technology, genetic and animal molecular biology methods found that the neural mechanism of fear emotion processing under the influence of ovarian hormone in women. Particularly, increasing level of estrogen leads to intense amygdala activity then enhanced the fear face recognition accuracy in women, while the effect of the progesterone level is opposite. They are related to the demands for social interaction and self-protective mechanism in the different phases of the women’s menstrual cycle.
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    A Neuroimaging-Based Review of the Teen Brain Development
    JU En-Xia;LI Hong;LONG Chang-Quan;YUAN Jia-Jin
    2010, 18 (6):  907-913. 
    Abstract ( 1421 )   PDF (653KB) ( 4122 )  
    Brain maturity is a dynamic process, the development of higher nervous activity lies mainly in the second decade: the period of adolescence. Adolescence is a period of rapid development in one’s behavior, cognition and brain. The enhancement of teenagers’ cognitive capabilities is based on the maturity of nervous system, e.g. attention, impulse-controlling, planning, decision-making, etc. Neuroimaging studies indicated that the development of teen’s brain undergoes synaptic pruning and myelinization. The maturity of white matter and gray matter has different development track in adolescents. The maturity sequence of the teen’s cerebral cortex is associated with the development of cognitive function which, however, is completed in adolescent. In this process, the development of one’s brain will be affected by emotion, experience, environment and other factors.
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    The Influence of Family Microsystems on Children’s Theory of Mind: Factors, Process and Mechanism
    SHANG Chong-Chen;MO Shu-Liang
    2010, 18 (6):  914-923. 
    Abstract ( 1809 )   PDF (653KB) ( 4395 )  
    Based on research about the influence of family on children’s theory of mind at home and abroad, the family microsystems can be divided into three sub-microsystems: (1) family demography sub-microsystem that includes family socioeconomic status and sibling number and type, (2) parent-child interactive sub-microsystem involving attachment type, parenting style, emotional expression and parent-child play, and (3) sibling-child interactive sub-microsystem including cooperation-conflict and pretend play. The mechanism model of family microsystems’ impact on child’s theory of mind can be assumed as follows: the family socioeconomic status and the sibling number and type in the family demography sub-microsystem influence the child’s ToM through the parent-child interactive sub-microsystem and the sibling-child interactive sub-microsystem respectively, all the factors in these two sub-microsystems influence the child’s ToM through the mediator of Mind-Mindedness. This mechanism model should be tested in the future.
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    A Review of Overseas Study on Parent-Child Autobiography Narrative
    HU Rui-Heng;CUI Xiao-Wen;QIN Jin-Liang
    2010, 18 (6):  924-931. 
    Abstract ( 1246 )   PDF (647KB) ( 1801 )  
    The parent-child autobiography narrative which means that parent and child talking about the past experiences, is a part of social function of autobiographical memory. The social function of parent-child autobiography narrative showed the education for child and keeping in intimacy. From the perspective of the style, construct and content of parent-child autobiography narrative, this paper expounded the influences of parent-child autobiography narrative on the cognition, social emotion, and the representation of children’s autobiographical memory. The future research trends could pay more attention to the type of cued materials and integrate theory of mind, social classes, longitudinal design into it.
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    The Approaches of Survey and Observation Applied in Research of Parent-child Communication
    CHI Li-Ping;YU Guo-Liang
    2010, 18 (6):  932-939. 
    Abstract ( 1327 )   PDF (644KB) ( 3234 )  
    There are two main methods for collecting data in studies of parent-child communication: survey and observation. The present paper reviewed the advances as well as limitations of the existing literature from the development of measurement instruments and the design of experimental tasks and analyzing of data. It was found that there were some shortcomings in constructing model, developing scale, and analyzing data, the trend of parent- child communication patterns studies was analyzed.
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    Intergroup Emotions Theory and the Researches
    LIU Feng;ZUO Bin
    2010, 18 (6):  940-947. 
    Abstract ( 2257 )   PDF (653KB) ( 3621 )  
    Intergroup emotions theory holds that intergroup emotions are emotional reaction to ingroup and outgroup by individuals experienced when they identify with a social group, making the group part of the psychological self. Intergroup emotions theory takes the notion of a socially collective self as its starting point, borrowing directly from the social identity approach. Intergroup emotions theory is part of a cognition-affect-action tendencies triad. Intergroup emotions is distinct from the same person’s individual-level emotions. Intergroup emotions depend on the person’s degree of group identification. Intergroup emotions are socially shared within a group. Intergroup emotions contribute to regulating intragroup and intergroup attitudes and behavior. Recent researches provide much evidence for the theory, Intergroup emotions theory provides an innovative framework for attempts to reduce prejudice and improve intergroup relations.
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    Referent Selection in Justice Studies
    ZHOU Hao;LONG Li-Rong
    2010, 18 (6):  948-954. 
    Abstract ( 1119 )   PDF (637KB) ( 2095 )  
    Based on Adam’s equity theory, it can be referred that employees’ perception of justice is mainly depended on whom they compare with. Therefore, the referent selection is critical to understand the mechanism of justice formation. This review firstly made a brief introduction to the classification of referent and its characteristics, and discussed the stability of referent selection. And then, individual and situational factors that influence referent selection, such as demography, motivation, cognition and environment, were introduced. Finally, the limitations of previous studies were analyzed and future research orientations were given. It was suggested that in previous questionnaire studies, priming effect would exist and therefore misguiding the actual psychological process of referent selection. As the result, qualitative method would be a better way to understand and analyze referent selection. And it would be valuable to discuss the topic that Chinese employees prefer to compare with referent group rather than referent individual.
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    Improve or Hinder:Influence of Affect on Creativity at Work

    ZHANG Jian;DONG Li;TIAN Yi-Fan

    2010, 18 (6):  955-962. 
    Abstract ( 1422 )   PDF (646KB) ( 1841 )  
    The influence from affect on work behaviors has long been neglected in organizational research. Workplace affect seems to influence creative performance on the job. However research examining the relationship between affect and creative performance has yielded inconsistent and contradictory results. Based on systematic review of existing research on this topic, an integrative model is presented, which explains how positive and negative affect, affect intensity and other affective variables influence creative performance. Organizational contexts (task characteristics, leader support etc.) as moderators, and cognitive resources as well as motivational factors as mediator can be found in this model. Implications for future research are discussed.
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    Subconscious Work Motivation: Concept, Model and Research Directions

    PENG He;XU Qian-Li

    2010, 18 (6):  963-970. 
    Abstract ( 1168 )   PDF (640KB) ( 1784 )  
    Subconscious work motivation is defined as an unaware automatic process, which is activated by external environmental features and in turn leads to efforts. The automatic processes include automatic evaluation, nonconscious behavioral mimicry, attitude activation, automatic trait and stereotype activation, and subconscious goal pursuit. In terms of internal mechanism, mirror neurons theory can explain nonconscious behavioral mimicry, and nonconscious behavioral choice model can explain subconscious goal pursuit. Future studies should distinguish the relationship between subconscious and conscious work motivation, develop new research methods, and explore more deeply the internal mechanisms of subconscious work motivation.
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    The Impacts of Emotion Regulation on Job Burnout
    CHENG Hong-Ling;CHEN Wei-Zhen
    2010, 18 (6):  971-979. 
    Abstract ( 1870 )   PDF (671KB) ( 3565 )  
    Emotion regulation is a key predicator of burnout. Empirical studies show that suppressing negative emotions and surface acting contribute much to burnout; emotional intelligence and job autonomy moderate the relationship between emotion regulation and burnout. Recent researches have also focused on the theoretical explanation how emotion regulation impacts on burnout based on the theories of facial expression, conservation of resource and social function accounts of emotion. This article reviews the literature and provides an integrated framework to improve the understanding of the impacts of emotion regulation on burnout. Moreover, organizational support, leaders’ behavior and emotional culture are proposed to be new moderators of relationship between emotion regulation and burnout. HRM practices are presumed to be interventions to alleviate burnout.
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    Overview of Individual Negative Performance in Extreme Environments
    GAO Li;PAN Xiao;YAN Jin;LIU Wei–Zhi;TANG Yun–Xiang
    2010, 18 (6):  980-986. 
    Abstract ( 1302 )   PDF (643KB) ( 1066 )  
    Extreme environments refer to complexity harsh environmental conditions which require demanding psychological and physiological functions, such as space, deep sea, under competition pressure. The interaction between the individual and the environment has a certain impact on the performance. Combining with the latest cognitive neuroscience research, the article reviews the previous relevant studies of negative performance in extreme environments.
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    New Understanding of Consumer Attitude: Dualistic Attitudinal Ambivalence
    HUANG Min-Xue;FENG Xiao-Liang;XIE Ting-Ting
    2010, 18 (6):  987-996. 
    Abstract ( 1365 )   PDF (653KB) ( 3303 )  
    Consumer ambivalence is the simultaneous or sequential experience of conflicting emotional states to an attitudinal object, which is different from prior studies on bipolar attitude. Ambivalence is an ubiquitous phenomenon. However, interest in ambivalence as descriptive and explanatory construct, and empirical research on ambivalence are relatively rare in the domain of psychology and marketing. The differences between ambivalence of social psychology and consumer ambivalence occur in several aspects such as stability and changeability.
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    Consumer’s Context Effects Based on Choice Set
    SUN Hong-Jie;ZHOU Ting-Rui
    2010, 18 (6):  997-1003. 
    Abstract ( 1267 )   PDF (667KB) ( 2880 )  
    Consumer context effect based on choice set has undermined the traditional theory on rational choice, which manifests that the context has systematic effects on the consumers’ preferences and choice. This paper first introduces the concepts and types of context effect (attractive effect and compromise effect), and then explores such internal mechanism of context effect as perceived bias, avoidance of risk and negative emotions, and information reasoning. Meanwhile, it touches on the impacts of such factors as the structure and characteristics of choice set and consumer on context effect and the influence of context effect on the construction of consumers’ preferences. Finally, the paper points out that the future research on context effect will focus on such aspects as the combination of complex property, complex purchase situations and the discovery of new context effect.
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    An Analysis of the Indigenization of Leader-Member Exchange Concept
    REN Zhen;YANG An-Bo;WANG Deng-Feng
    2010, 18 (6):  1004-1010. 
    Abstract ( 1161 )   PDF (639KB) ( 2663 )  
    Chinese indigenized Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) refers to vertical relationship based on work between supervisor and subordinate. The controversies on LMX’s concepts and measures in western literature are found to be the conflicts between single dimension and multiple dimension, “relationship” and “exchange”, vertical dyad relationship and social network relationship. The indigenized LMX in China largely consists of the incomplete indigenization and the indirect indigenization of LMX theories. There are six typical scales of LMX, which are LMX-7, LMX-MDM, Supervisor-subordinate Guanxi Scale, Subordinate-supervisor Relationship Type Scale and so on. To sum up, the indigenous LMX concept includes the definition, classification standards, basic dimensions, quality evaluation of LMX and so on. The measuring approaches of LMX are therefore recommended to start from the analysis of cultural differences, psychometric adequacy, and validity examination.
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    A Review of Networking Behavior
    WU Jing-Shan;WANG Cai-Kang
    2010, 18 (6):  1011-1017. 
    Abstract ( 1116 )   PDF (649KB) ( 1337 )  
    Networking behavior refers to a wide array of behaviors, taken by individuals to develop and maintain informal relationships with others who possess the (potential) benefit to their work or career. Research indicated that demographic background, personality differences (e.g. work motivation) and environmental factors (e.g. career safety) were significant predictors of networking behavior; it also suggested that networking behavior brought profits both to individual (e.g. career success) and organization (e.g. organizational performance). Future research on networking behavior should work further on improving its measurement, expanding related research, developing training courses, and assessing its costs and profits.
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    Formation and Development of Brand Community:
    the Perspective of Social Identity and Theory of Planned Behavior
    SHEN Jie;WANG Yong
    2010, 18 (6):  1018-1024. 
    Abstract ( 1293 )   PDF (652KB) ( 2777 )  
    A “brand community” is a specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relations among admirers of a brand. By mainly employing the social identity theory and the theory of planned behavior, existing studies try to reveal how brand community forms, develops and functions. Findings indicate that factors such as consumers’ attitude toward brands and perceived subjective norms will influence their community participations. In turn, community participation can result in brand identity, and consequently maintain and improve brand loyalty. Authors argue that more relevant variables, such as self-esteem, self-awareness and social identity threat, should be incorporated into the research of brand community. Authors also caution that cultural differences need to be taken into account in indigenous research.
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