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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    Conceptual Framework
    Computational modeling and experimental validation of Chinese lexical and semantic processing
    LI Xingshan, ZHANG Qiwei, HUANG Linjieqiong
    2024, 32 (9):  1379-1392.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01379
    Abstract ( 73 )   PDF (586KB) ( 156 )   Peer Review Comments
    Chinese is a writing system widely used by Chinese people worldwide and has many distinct characteristics. Due to its uniqueness, theories and models of alphabetic languages cannot be directly applied to Chinese. Previous Chinese studies lack systematic computational models for lexical and semantic processing. This research proposal focuses on the Chinese lexical and semantic processing, aiming to innovate theoretical hypotheses through the meta-analysis, computational modeling, and experimental validation. The research addresses three theoretical problems through model simulations, including the mechanism of Chinese compound word processing, the interaction between orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing of words, and the impact of contextual cues on word processing during sentence comprehension.
    The first study conducts a meta-analysis of prior research on Chinese compound word processing. It aims to estimate the effect sizes of morphemes, phonology, and context in compound word processing. The meta-analysis will determine an overall effect size, from which a single experimental study—whose effect size closely approximates this overall measure—will be selected as a representative study for subsequent model fitting.
    The second study aims to develop a computational model for isolated Chinese word processing, focusing on holistic and local competition and module processing perspectives. This model explores the roles of morphological semantics and phonological pathways in lexical semantic processing. The model is built on two primary assumptions: One is that feedforward and feedback connections are supposed between orthographic, phonological, and semantic modules, with both the direct pathway (i.e., orthography-to-semantics) and the mediated pathway (orthography-phonology-semantics) being activated during Chinese word processing. The other assumption is that during compound word processing, the model posits that both embedded single-character words and whole compound words are activated at the orthographic, phonological, and semantic levels, and that these activations engage in competitive interactions. Model simulations will examine the dynamic changes in activation levels of different nodes over time, providing a basis to test these hypotheses.
    The third study integrates the isolated word processing model developed in Study 2 with the eye movement control module from the Chinese Reading Model (Li & Pollatsek, 2020). It considers the effects of phonological and semantic processing, as well as sentence context, introducing new assumptions to construct a model of word semantic processing during sentence reading. This integrated model aims to accurately simulate word processing during sentence reading and its relationship with eye movement control. The new assumption suggests that the activation of semantic units primarily determines when to start a saccade. Furthermore, the semantics of a recognized word could maintain the highest activation and constrain the processing of subsequent words.
    The fourth study contains two empirical experiments to verify the competition mechanism between single-character words and whole compound words proposed in the above models. Two experiments will respectively examine the potential competition when processing Chinese compound words in isolation and embedded in sentences. If the assumptions of models are confirmed, it will provide empirical support and deepen our understanding of Chinese word processing. If the experimental results deviate from the predictions of models, necessary revisions will be made to the model.
    This research leverages the precision, systematics, and dynamic process descriptions afforded by computational models to enhance the understanding of the cognitive processes involved in Chinese word processing. The established model can guide experimental research and has theoretical significance. Meanwhile, the research combines empirical experiments with computational modeling, using experiments to validate the assumptions and predictions of the model. The outcomes of these experiments will, in turn, drive iterative improvements in the model.
    In conclusion, through the integration of meta-analysis, computational modeling, and experimental studies, the current research project aims to reveal the dynamic processes involved in Chinese lexical and semantic processing, including the processing of words presented in isolation and in sentences. The findings of the current project and the models to be constructed will not only reveal the dynamic procedure of compound word processing, but also clarify the specific and general cognitive mechanisms of Chinese reading.
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    The relationship between attentional bias toward neutral infant faces and uncertainty in facial expressions
    JIA Yuncheng, CHENG Gang, DING Fangyuan, CHEN jia, LONG Nv, CHEN Yurong, LIN Nan
    2024, 32 (9):  1393-1407.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01393
    Abstract ( 85 )   PDF (706KB) ( 143 )   Peer Review Comments
    Adults’ attentional bias toward infant faces plays a crucial role in forming early parent-child relationships. During interactions between adults and infants, infants express their physiological and psychological states through facial expressions. Adults, in turn, interpret these expressions to understand the infant’s needs. Previous studies have primarily focused on how infants’ positive or negative facial expressions influence adults’ attentional bias toward infant faces. However, the unique impact of neutral infant faces, which often convey ambiguous emotional signals, has been largely overlooked in attention processing studies. In fact, compared to neutral adult faces, neutral infant faces remain highly biologically relevant stimuli. Adults tend to pay close attention to them, demonstrating an attentional bias. This attentional bias, to some extent, helps caregivers avoid missing or misinterpreting crucial signals from infants, ultimately promoting infant survival.===Based on previous research, our studies further found a salient effect of the attentional bias toward neutral infant faces, that is, the attentional bias toward neutral infant faces in adults was the strongest when adults viewed infant faces with different expressions. Meanwhile, this salient effect was influenced by the uncertainty in expressions. Although the salient attentional bias toward neutral infant faces has been confirmed, the attention processing course behind this effect and the impact of uncertainty in expressions remain largely unexplored. Therefore, this research primarily aims to outline the attention processing course and its neural mechanisms, which underline the salient effect of attentional bias toward neutral infant faces. Second, it seeks to reveal how the change of uncertainty in expressions influences the attention processing course and its neural mechanisms concerning the salient effect of attentional bias towards neutral infant faces. To achieve these objectives, this research designed two studies with a total of eight experiments.
    The first study aims to shift the research focus from the overall attention bias toward infant faces in adults to analyze the different stages and components of the attention processing in the salient effect of the attentional bias toward neutral infant faces. Specifically, this study first investigates the temporal characteristics of different attention processing stages using eye tracking technology (Experiment 1) and its neural mechanisms using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology (Experiment 2). Then, within these attention processing stages, it further explores the unique performance of specific attention processing components using a dot-probe paradigm (Experiment 3) and their electrophysiological mechanisms using event-related potential (ERP) technology (Experiment 4). This study will help reveal the specific processes and mechanisms of dynamic attention processing in response to uncertainty in infant emotional expressions, deepening understanding of the parental brain and advancing the development of social affective neuroscience. Simultaneously, this study holds significant value in guiding the enhancement of the public’s ability to recognize and comprehend infants’ emotions, thereby optimizing parenting behaviors. It also provides a new approach and empirical foundation for designing intervention programs for parents struggling with forming early parent-child relationships, ultimately improving their parenting quality.
    The second study aims to regulate the degree of uncertainty in expressions using the face morphing technique to further investigate how the change of uncertainty in expressions influences the attention processing of the salient effect of the attentional bias toward neutral infant faces. Specifically, under the condition where the degree of expression uncertainty is regulated, this study first investigates how the change of uncertainty in expressions influences the temporal characteristics of different attention processing stages using eye tracking technology (Experiment 5) and its neural mechanisms using fMRI technology (Experiment 6). Then, within these specific attention processing stages, it further explores how the change of uncertainty in expressions influences the unique performance of specific attention processing components using a dot-probe paradigm (Experiment 7) and its electrophysiological mechanisms using ERP technology (Experiment 8). This study will shed light on adults’ dynamic attention processing mechanisms in response to varying degrees of uncertainty in infant emotional expressions. This understanding will enrich knowledge of adult responses to infant emotional faces and the social adaptive implications of these responses. Simultaneously, a deeper understanding of how adults process infant emotional faces, especially those with uncertain expressions, can offer valuable insights for scientific parenting advice. This can help the public better comprehend and manage infants’ emotional responses, thereby improving parenting quality and fostering healthy infant development.
    In conclusion, this research provides a fresh perspective for exploring how the degree of uncertainty in other types of emotional signals impacts the attention processing of human beings to these emotional signals. This not only expands theoretical understanding of emotional signal processing, but also offers insightful guidance for dealing with emotionally complex social situations such as interpersonal communication and conflict resolution in practice.
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    Investigating differential cognitive aging with eye movement
    HUANG Jing, LIU Licong, LI Mingyu, LONG Yiming, LI Xiaoli
    2024, 32 (9):  1408-1415.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01408
    Abstract ( 91 )   PDF (573KB) ( 128 )   Peer Review Comments
    Cognitive decline with aging places significant economic and psychological burden on the elderly, their families, and society. Promoting healthy and successful aging is a critical issue for governments and science. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have highlighted the observation that cognitive changes in the elderly, referred to as cognitive aging, are heterogeneous. This heterogeneity is characterized not only by cognitive decline, but also by the enhancement of top-down processing, which is adaptive or compensatory. Understanding these patterns is crucial for developing strategies to promote successful aging. Our research aims to explore the mechanisms of cognitive enhancement during aging and the patterns of differential aging by examining the enhancement of top-down processing in healthy elderly individuals. By revealing how top-down processing can be enhanced and how the degree of this enhancement varies, our research seeks to provide a theoretical foundation for using cognitive enhancement as a means to promote successful aging.
    Our research comprises three studies, each designed to investigate different aspects of cognitive enhancement and aging. Study 1 will use the classic saccade learning paradigm known as the "double-step" paradigm. This paradigm will be employed to separate the manifestations of cognitive enhancement from those of cognitive decline within saccade learning. The goal is to uncover the mechanisms that underpin the enhancement of top-down processing in the elderly. By differentiating between cognitive decline and enhancement, Study 1 will shed light on the specific processes that contribute to maintained or improved cognitive function in the elderly.
    Study 2 will focus on the dynamic integration of top-down and bottom-up processing in saccades. This will be achieved by manipulating the influence of top-down processing through rewards and punishments and manipulating the influence of bottom-up processing through the saliency of targets. By examining how top-down processing in saccadic movements can be modulated by value, we will investigate how different processing strategies affect decision-making. Specifically, we will look at the dependency of decision-making on reaction time, providing insights into the general conditions under which cognitive enhancement occurs. This sub-study aims to reveal how elderly individuals adapt their cognitive strategies in response to different incentives and task demands.
    Study 3 will use natural scene images as experimental stimuli to investigate how different types of processing and their interactions change with age. This will involve manipulating top-down processing (such as the consistency between the target and the scene) and bottom-up processing (such as the saliency of the target stimuli). By examining the interplay between these types of processing across different age groups, this study will reveal how cognitive enhancement varies with the ecological validity of scenes. It will provide a comprehensive understanding of how aging affects cognitive processing in more complex and realistic settings.
    The foundation of our research is based on the observation that elderly individuals perform comparably to younger individuals in most saccadic tasks. By using saccadic movements, which are closely related to cognitive functions, as a technical means, our research aims to investigate the mechanisms underlying differential cognitive aging. In particular, we focus on the mechanisms of cognitive enhancement in aging. Our research will differentiate between enhanced and declined cognitive functions in aging and examine how enhanced cognition varies with different tasks and scenarios. By elucidating the mechanisms of cognitive enhancement and the conditions under which it occurs, our research aims to provide valuable insights for promoting successful aging. Understanding these mechanisms will enable the development of targeted interventions that can leverage cognitive enhancement to mitigate the effects of cognitive decline. This, in turn, can reduce the economic and psychological burden associated with aging, thereby contributing to a healthier and more successful aging processes.
    In summary, this study seeks to advance the understanding of cognitive aging by focusing on the enhancement of top-down processing in the elderly. Through three carefully designed studies, we will explore the mechanisms, conditions, and patterns of cognitive enhancement, providing a robust theoretical basis for future research and interventions aimed at promoting successful aging.
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    Theoretical and practical exploration of the time-space framing effect
    KUANG Yi, HUANG Yuan-Na, MA Jia-Tao, YIN Shu-Fei
    2024, 32 (9):  1416-1429.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01416
    Abstract ( 116 )   PDF (944KB) ( 231 )   Peer Review Comments
    “Understanding and improving decision-making” is considered to be a major priority for researchers in behavioral decision-making. Investigating framing effects can simultaneously serve both goals. Currently, framing effects are extensively studied and applied in the fields of multi-attribute and risky decision-making, with relatively less attention given to intertemporal and spatial decision-making, despite their common occurrences in real-life scenarios. Given the interchangeable nature of time and space (i.e., distance = time × velocity, where the velocity is a constant), the same decision problem can be described either as a spatial decision problem using spatial framing or as an intertemporal decision problem using temporal framing. The scientific questions addressed in this study are as follows: (1) Whether there exists a phenomenon called the "time-space framing effect" in spatiotemporal decision contexts? Specifically, this effect refers to changes in people's decision preferences when the same decision problem is described using either a time or space frame. (2) If this effect indeed exists, what are its underlying psychological mechanisms? (3) Can the time-space framing effect be used to nudge people’s decision-making behavior in real life? To address the proposed question, this study will examine the phenomenon of the time-space framing effect (Study 1), unravel its psychological mechanisms (Studies 2 and 3), and ascertain its practical implications for nudging behavior (Study 4) by employing multiple methods, such as cognitive-behavioral approaches, eye-tracking techniques, and field experiments.
    The theoretical and practical implications of this study are primarily reflected in three aspects: Firstly, the approach to frame manipulation in this study differs from that of previous studies. Previous studies typically focused on manipulating frames within the same dimension, such as the attribute framing effect in the multi-attribute decision-making and the classic gain-loss framing effect in the risky decision-making. These studies usually involve changes in the positivity or negativity of attributes or outcomes within the same dimension, which can be categorized as a "qualitative" manipulation within the domain. In the domains of intertemporal and spatial decision-making, frame manipulation within the monetary/time/space unit effects entails altering numerical units within the same outcome dimension or the time/space dimension, which can be categorized as a "quantitative" manipulation within the domain. However, the manipulation of the time-space frames in this study spans across the domains of intertemporal and spatial decisions (i.e., frame manipulation within different dimensions), thus representing an exploration of a novel, cross-domain "qualitative" framing manipulation.
    Secondly, investigating the time-space framing effect and its mechanisms provides a new perspective and paradigm for understanding intertemporal and spatial decisions. This study integrates theories concerning the convertible relationship between time and space, psychological distance theory, construal-level theory, and theories concerning two broad classes of decision models regarding intertemporal and spatial decisions (i.e., the utility comparison models and the attribute-comparison models). It attempts to propose a theoretical hypothesis model that can simultaneously integrate the "binary choice" and the "single option" decision contexts to explain the mechanisms underlying the time-space framing effect. Furthermore, multiple research methods, including static behavioral outcome tests and dynamic eye-tracking techniques, are employed to examine the decision-making processes when people face spatiotemporal decision contexts and the underlying reasons leading to changes in decision preferences.
    Finally, while previous research has been limited to investigating the spatiotemporal framing effect in laboratory or virtual contexts, this study will conduct a series of field quasi-experiments to provide tangible evidence and relevant recommendations for examining the nudging effects of the time-space framing effect in real-world contexts.
    In sum, the findings of this study are expected to provide a new paradigm and theoretical contribution for understanding intertemporal and spatial decision-making, while offering some psychological insights to nudge individuals and organizations toward making more judicious decisions.
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    How virtual communication affects supervisor-subordinate power configuration? A perspective from self-construction and mutual construction of identity
    MAO Jiang-hua, CHEN Wen-wen, JIN Can
    2024, 32 (9):  1430-1449.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01430
    Abstract ( 78 )   PDF (675KB) ( 153 )   Peer Review Comments
    With the increasing utilization of information communication technologies (ICT) in organizations, virtual communication has emerged as the predominant method of communication. In contrast to traditional face-to-face communication, the filtering of cues and the geographically distributed nature of virtual communication significantly diminish power cues and social norm constraints. More importantly, the inherent asynchronicity of virtual communication interrupts the process of power expression and acceptance. All these have a significant impact on the existing power configuration between supervisor and subordinate. However, there is limited research on whether and how virtual communication affects traditional hierarchical power configurations. Systematic and detailed empirical studies on the specific influencing factors, mechanisms, effects, and boundary conditions are lacking.
    This study examines the effects and mechanisms of virtual communication on supervisor-subordinate power allocation from an organizational communication perspective. Virtual communication mainly includes technical cues, message exchange behaviors, and communication patterns. The configuration of hierarchical power focuses on the arrangement of power distribution in organizations, both from the structural perspective (e.g., the persistence and re-establishment of hierarchical power relationships) and from the psychological perspective (e.g., dynamics of supervisors’ sense of power and subordinates’ obedience). Since the expression and acceptance of power are closely linked to membership identity, this study will explore how virtual communication ultimately affects hierarchical power configurations by influencing the self-construction and mutual construction of identity in supervisors and subordinates, based on the leadership and followership identity perspective.
    Specifically, this study will examine the impact of technical cues, message exchange behaviors, and virtual communication patterns on supervisor power expression and subordinate power acceptance, considering individual-, episodic-, and interpersonal-level. Firstly, from the perspective of supervisor-subordinate identity self-construction, this study will explore the effects of technical power cues, both verbal and non-verbal, on supervisors' sense of power (Study 1a) and subordinates' obedience (Study 1b). At the individual level, it will combine leadership research with the information systems field to reveal the effects and mechanisms of ICT on the configuration of power between supervisors and subordinates. Second, from the perspective of supervisor-subordinate identity mutual construction, this study will explore the effects of message sending and replying behaviors on supervisors’ sense of power (Study 2a) and subordinates’ obedience (Study 2b). At the episodic level, it will combine leadership communication with communication research to reveal the effects and mechanisms of message exchange behaviors on hierarchical power configurations. Thirdly, from the perspective of supervisor-subordinate relationship identity, this study will explore the effect of virtual communication patterns on the persistence of power relationships (Study 3). At the interpersonal level, it will reveal the effects and mechanisms of supervisor-subordinate virtual communication patterns on the configuration of supervisor-subordinate power and will broaden the scope of research on the termination and reconstruction of these power relationships.
    By integrating the perspectives and theories of organizational behavior, information systems, and communication disciplines, this study aims to contribute to the theoretical advancement of research on the utilization of ICT and hierarchical power configurations, as well as to provide guidance for the design of communication software and the implementation of hierarchical virtual communication. This study will explore the interaction process between supervisors and subordinates based on the communication process from a microscopic perspective, to reveal the effect of supervisor-subordinate virtual communication and the essential dynamics of power and leadership impact, thus expanding the theory of the Communicative Constitution of Organization. Simultaneously, this study focuses on the static and dynamic characteristics of information technology as the research content rather than just the context, which will facilitate interdisciplinary integration between the fields of organizational behavior and information systems. It adopts the research paradigm of social formation theory, addressing the debate between technological determinism (i.e., information technology diminishes leaders’ power) and social formation theory (i.e., leaders maintain their power with the aid of technology) from the perspective of identity construction. Moreover, this study aims to offer systematic guidance on the design of communication software within organizations, the rational and efficient use of ICT, and the effectiveness of remote communication by managers, thereby offering crucial insights into organizational virtual communication practices.
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    Model construction for intensive longitudinal dyadic data analysis
    XIAO Yue, LIU Hongyun, XU Yongze
    2024, 32 (9):  1450-1462.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01450
    Abstract ( 76 )   PDF (1422KB) ( 152 )   Peer Review Comments
    Dyadic studies, in which two persons interacting with each other (called a dyad) are the fundamental unit of analysis, are widely used in psychological studies involving interpersonal phenomena. The integration of such studies with intensive longitudinal designs helps to further investigate the dynamics of both individual behaviors and interpersonal effects during social interactions. However, due to the data complexity, there is a lack of appropriate statistical approaches that can adequately answer the dyadic research questions of interest based on the characteristics of intensive longitudinal data.
    Drawing on the Dynamic Structural Equation Modeling (DSEM) framework for intensive longitudinal data from independent individuals, this study focuses on the construction, extension, and application of statistical models for intensive longitudinal data with different dyadic designs, which can describe and explain the dynamics of individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships in different social interaction contexts, as well as their between-person differences. Specifically, the main contents of this study are as follows. Study 1 focuses on the standard dyadic design in which information is collected from two persons who are interdependent (e.g., couples, siblings, friends). It aims to improve the existing extension of the actor-partner interdependence model in DSEM to better characterize the relationships between two dyad members, and more importantly, to compare and select the appropriate detrending approach based on the improved model, as DSEM assumes stationarity of variables but time trends, a possible source of non-stationarity, are common in longitudinal studies. We conjecture that the detrending practice based on the residual DSEM (RDSEM) framework would work well. Study 2 focuses on the one-with-many (OWM) design for examining features of multiple dyadic relationships, in which one set of focal persons (e.g., therapists, physicians) has with others (e.g., multiple clients, multiple patients). For the intensive OWM design, Study 2 is intended to develop an appropriate statistical model, as well as the corresponding parameter estimation algorithm, to examine the dynamic processes of multiple interpersonal relationships of focal persons. Specifically, a model assuming no time trends will first be constructed. Then it will be integrated with a detrending method based on the conclusion of Study 1 to be applicable to more complex data with time trends. Study 3 turns to a more complex dyadic context, that is, round-robin data, in which every member of a group has judged all other group members and is also judged by every group member. This study aims to develop an appropriate statistical model for the intensive longitudinal round-robin data, as well as the corresponding parameter estimation algorithm, and then to extend the model to data with time trends. Study 4 illustrates the application of the constructed or extended models under three intensive longitudinal dyadic designs through empirical data.
    Advances in data collection techniques and the deepening of research questions have posed new challenges to statistical analysis methods. The unique contribution of this research is to develop and extend a series of methodological tools for the newly emerging intensive longitudinal dyadic data. Considering the diversity of interpersonal interaction contexts, we consider three common dyadic designs. In addition, detrending is a non-negligible issue for the application of DSEM but has not yet been fully investigated. This research makes an exploration for detrending in dyadic contexts. Moreover, we plan to develop a user-friendly software package to include all the developed and extended models in this research, so as to provide a basis for the application of intensive longitudinal dyadic data analysis. This research will help applied researchers to gain a deeper and more scientific understanding of changes in individual behaviors and interpersonal effects in the context of social interactions, and to promote theoretical development in related fields.
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    Meta-Analysis
    Woe-fortune interdependence: A meta-analysis of the two-sided effect of narcissistic leadership on subordinate effectiveness
    SU Tao, ZENG Haowen, ZHONG Xiaolin, MA Wencong, CHEN Xiude
    2024, 32 (9):  1463-1487.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01463
    Abstract ( 86 )   PDF (976KB) ( 174 )   Peer Review Comments
    With the emergence of leaders with narcissistic personality in enterprises, scholars have gradually turned their attention to the role of narcissism in leadership. However, there are many disputes about the effectiveness of narcissistic leadership on subordinates’ effectiveness, and no consensus has been reached. Therefore, it is important and necessary to use the meta-analysis system to explore the specific relationship between narcissistic leadership and subordinate effectiveness, the process mechanism of action, and the boundary conditions of effectiveness.
    Based on the conservation of resources theory, this study conducted a meta-analysis of 73 independent empirical studies (total sample of 30493) on the relationship between narcissistic leadership and subordinate effectiveness in order to obtain phased conclusions. Specifically, the system clarifies the effect of narcissistic leadership on subordinate effectiveness and its degree of influence, explores the internal mechanism of the relationship between narcissistic leadership and subordinate effectiveness, and studies the regulatory role of many situational factors and demographic characteristics. Through publication bias test, main effect test, mediating effect test, adjustment test and other analysis steps, this study obtained the following periodic conclusions.
    First of all, narcissistic leadership has a two-sided effect, which is manifested in that it will inhibit subordinates’ work attitude, behavior and performance, increase their work pressure, but promote subordinates’ innovation. The study found that although the overall effect of narcissistic leadership is negative, it does have a double-sided effect. On the one hand, it is harmful to subordinates’ work attitude, workplace behavior and work performance, and will increase subordinates’ work pressure. On the other hand, it is beneficial to subordinates’ innovation. Among the specific indicators, narcissistic leadership has a greater impact on subordinate organizational cynicism and knowledge sharing behavior, and has a prominent positive impact on subordinate innovation. The study comprehensively and systematically clarifies the two-sided effect of narcissistic leadership and its specific impact on the effectiveness of the five major categories of subordinates, and answers the question of ‘whether narcissistic leadership truly exhibit an interdependence of fortune and misfortune’.
    Secondly, industry type, organizational attributes, employee category, employee education and measurement tools can significantly regulate the relationship between narcissistic leadership and subordinates’ work results. Specifically: (1) Compared with the service industry, narcissistic leadership has a stronger negative impact on manufacturing. (2) Compared with non-profit organizations, narcissistic leadership is more destructive to subordinates’ work efficiency in for-profit organizations. (3) Compared with knowledge workers, narcissistic leadership is more harmful to non-knowledge workers. (4) Compared with highly educated employees, narcissistic leadership is more harmful to low-educated employees. (5) Compared with the NPI-16 scale, the negative impact of using the Hochwarter and Thompson scales to measure narcissistic leadership is stronger. In general, narcissistic leadership is particularly harmful to non-knowledge-based low-educated employees in manufacturing enterprises, and its negative impact is stronger when using Hochwarter and Thompson scales to measure narcissistic leadership. This finding fully explains the boundary mechanism of the relationship between narcissistic leadership and subordinates’ work efficiency, and also answers the question of ‘when is narcissistic leadership exhibit an interdependence of fortune and misfortune’.
    Finally, the two-sided effect of narcissistic leadership is stably realized through employees’ psychological safety and innovative self-efficacy. It exerts a negative effect by affecting employees’ psychological safety, that is, it negatively affects subordinates’ work attitude, behavior and performance, and exerts a positive effect by affecting employees’ innovative self-efficacy, that is, it promotes innovation. The study found that narcissistic leadership produces a double-sided effect through two paths: cognition (psychological safety) and motivation (self-efficacy). This finding reveals the ‘black box’ of the formation process of the double-sided effect of narcissistic leadership, and also answers the question of ‘how narcissistic leadership exhibit an interdependence of fortune and misfortune’. The research provides a basis for developing the effectiveness of narcissistic leadership.
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    Regular Articles
    The mechanism of phonetic position encoding in spoken word recognition
    HAN Haibin, LI Xingshan
    2024, 32 (9):  1488-1501.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01488
    Abstract ( 75 )   PDF (567KB) ( 126 )   Peer Review Comments
    Across various languages, there exists a set of words that retain their meaning even when their phonetic components are transposed. A typical illustration can be found in Chinese with words like “牛黄/niu2 huang2/” and “黄牛/huang2 niu2/,” and in English with words like “bus” and “sub.” Investigating how these transposable words are processed during language comprehension has become a crucial research topic. Within the field of reading, scholars have been engaged in discussions regarding the mechanisms for encoding word positions. However, there persists a controversy regarding the cognitive mechanisms governing phonetic position encoding in spoken word recognition.
    Early theories posited that phonetic position encoding primarily followed a sequential approach. These models assume that words are represented as sequences of phonemes, with activation based on linear positional matching during the temporal unfolding of spoken words, as exemplified by models like the COHORT or TRACE model. The COHORT model suggests that word activation follows an all-or-none rule, where only words matching at onset compete for activation. Later models diverge from this principle, proposing that word activation and recognition stem from the linear matching of input speech signals with phonemic segments, as seen in models like TRACE, NAM, and Shortlist models. These slot-based models postulate that the phonetic information of words is encapsulated within fixed ‘slots’, and word activation hinges on the degree of match between each slot’s phonetic and positional features.
    Nevertheless, in the field of reading or visual word recognition, researchers have discovered that the encoding of words may adopt a coarse-grained encoding approach. Throughout the process of reading sentences, readers consistently maintain a sense of uncertainty regarding recently encountered words during the comprehension process. The Noisy-channel model of speech perception proposed by Gibson et al. (2013) also elucidates how we understand language amid ‘noise.’ Findings regarding this ‘uncertainty’ shed light on the possibility of employing coarse-grained encoding of phonetic information during spoken word recognition. Indeed, recent studies have shown the flexibility of phonetic position encoding at levels of phonemes, syllables, and sentences. For instance, researchers have discovered mutual activation between anadromous word pairs such as “sub” and “bus,” or “/byt/” and “/tyb/,” demonstrating a transposed-phoneme effect in spoken word recognition. This position-independent phoneme encoding suggested that phonetic encoding adopts a coarse-grained, more flexible approach, independent of positional information.
    However, current research mostly focuses on alphabetic writing systems and lacks universality. Exploring logographic languages like Chinese can provide broader evidence for this flexible encoding mechanism. Chinese characters, as ideographic symbols, exhibit several distinctive features worthy of investigation. Foremost is the spelling-sound dissociation in Chinese, allowing for the identification of word pairs with entirely different forms and meanings yet sharing anadromic phonetic sequences, such as “冰锥/bing1 zhui1/, meaning ice pick” and “追兵/zhui1 bing1/, meaning pursuing soldiers.” The peculiarities of spelling-sound association rules in Chinese characters enable the examination of phonetic encoding independent of visual form, offering more precise and meticulous insights into phonetic position encoding in spoken word recognition. Additionally, the phonetic processing units in Chinese lexicon are distinctive. Unlike alphabetic languages, Chinese, with its syllabic nature, possibly operates at the syllable level, with each character corresponding to a syllable. Finally, the unique relationship among syllables, morphemes, and semantics in Chinese spoken word recognition differentiates it from alphabetic scripts, highlighting the importance of investigating phonetic position encoding in logographic languages.
    In conclusion, the encoding of phonetic positions in spoken word recognition likely adopts a flexible, position-independent approach. However, additional empirical evidence is required to substantiate this hypothesis. Further exploration is needed on four key questions regarding phonetic position encoding in spoken word recognition: (1) Elucidating the universality of flexible encoding across languages by examining the phonetic encoding peculiarities of Chinese characters; (2) Unraveling the neural mechanisms underlying temporal processing of phonetic positions utilizing techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); (3) Leveraging existing research findings to guide language acquisition and learning processes across diverse populations; (4) Harnessing insights into the mechanisms of human speech signal processing to facilitate the development of more advanced and comprehensive functionalities in artificial intelligence, which is rapidly permeating various facets of modern life and evolving alongside advancements in information technology.
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    The cognitive mechanism and neural basis of written production in aging
    LIU Yueyue, HE Wenguang
    2024, 32 (9):  1502-1513.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01502
    Abstract ( 69 )   PDF (502KB) ( 89 )   Peer Review Comments
    Writing is a complex perceptual-motor process that involves both central cognitive coding and peripheral motor execution. It requires a lot of cognitive resources and is therefore susceptible to physiological aging. Specifically, physiological aging not only weakens the muscle strength of the elderly, but also reduces the coordination between their multi-sensory systems, and leads to a decline in their language cognition. All of these inevitably impact the writing abilities of older adults, reducing the legibility of their written products and their fluency in the writing process.
    The legibility of written products is primarily measured by indicators such as the size, alignment, smoothness, and error rates of the letters. Research based on written products has found that older adults always show variations in font size, stroke inversions, reduced smoothness, and increased error rates. Fluency in the writing process is generally measured by indicators such as writing latency, inter-letter interval, whole word duration, writing speed, and pen pressure. Studies on the writing process have revealed that older adults tend to show slower responses, increased pauses, prolonged execution, decreased speed, and uneven pen pressure.
    There are three primary reasons for writing aging: The first reason involves the neurodegeneration of the brain. With the decrease in nerve density, the volume of gray matter gets smaller and the integrity of the white matter fiber tract becomes impaired, which inevitably affects the executive function, attention regulation, and processing speed in writing. In addition, the reduction of motor neurons leads to a decline in their function, which weakens the strength of the muscles in the writing-related areas such as the arm, wrist, and fingers. The second reason involves the deterioration of sensory-motor mechanisms. With the tactile and kinesthetic recession, older adults need more time to process the upcoming sensory information, which may affect the fluency in the writing process, the size and layout of the font, the pressure of the pen, and the stability of the writing movements. The third reason involves other physiological processes that may easily affect hand strength. With the interference from hormonal changes or bone loss to hand movements, hand-eye coordination, proprioceptive feedback, sensory perception, grip strength, and the ability to independently control the hand muscles are all adversely affected.
    Future research should focus on the following unanswered questions: The first question involved the synchrony and asynchrony of aging in different writing processes. Specifically, are the phases of central cognitive coding and peripheral motor execution simultaneously affected by aging, or do they exhibit independent phase aging? The second question involved the universality and specificity of cognitive aging in writing. On the one hand, from the perspective of language type, it is highly necessary to explore the aging characteristics and patterns exhibited in Chinese character writing, which may show great differences from alphabetic languages. On the other hand, from the perspective of the relationship between writing and other linguistic processes (such as speech and reading) or non-specific motor (such as painting), will the aging of “writing-specific” brain regions exhibit aging-specific characteristics, while the aging of the shared brain regions with other linguistic or motor processes exhibit general patterns? Finally, research should also be conducted to develop and apply clinical diagnostic criteria for cognitive aging in writing, as the kinematic analysis of online and offline writing behavior has become a new perspective for diagnosing and assessing symptoms of AD/PD recently.
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    The influence of social networking site use on adolescents' body dissatisfaction and its internal mechanism
    ZHANG Tianyu, ZHANG Yali, ZHANG Xiangkui
    2024, 32 (9):  1514-1527.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01514
    Abstract ( 733 )   PDF (579KB) ( 706 )   Peer Review Comments
    Body dissatisfaction, an unpleasant emotional experience related to one's own body, is prevalent among adolescents. The use of social networking sites is considered a risk factor. Scholars from different countries have initiated investigations on the influence of social networking site use on body dissatisfaction in adolescents through empirical studies. Although some theoretical and empirical findings have been obtained, they are fragmented, impeding a comprehensive understanding of research progress in this area. Building upon prior studies, we aim to present a thorough overview of how social networking site use influences body dissatisfaction in adolescents while also examining the underlying mechanisms. This study assists future researchers in gaining a precise and rapid understanding of the impact of social networking site use on adolescents' body dissatisfaction. Additionally, it offers theoretical guidance and recommendations to reduce adolescents' body dissatisfaction and enhance their mental health and subjective well-being.
    Initially, we conducted a structural summary of the association between various levels of social networking site use and adolescents' body dissatisfaction. The extent, mode, behavior, and motivation related to social networking site use may influence adolescents' body dissatisfaction. Specifically, the extent of social networking site use was defined as the duration, frequency, and intensity. The mode of social networking site use encompasses active and passive engagement. Behaviors linked to social networking site use included body talk and selfie-related activities. Motivations for social networking site use included seeking appearance-related feedback, fashion-focused incentives, and others.
    Building on this foundation, we investigated three pathways through which the use of social networking sites influences adolescents' body dissatisfaction within the framework of established theories. The first pathway entails comparing appearance and internalizing the ideal body, as posited by the tripartite influence model. The second pathway involves the development of self-objectification and body surveillance, as suggested by objectification theory. The third pathway encompasses appearance self-schema and appearance self-discrepancy, rooted in self-schema theory and self-discrepancy theory.
    We then further elucidated three categories of moderators of the effects of social networking site use on adolescents' body dissatisfaction. The first category encompasses personality factors, including the Big Five personality traits, narcissism, and perfectionism, which are primarily associated with an individual's personality traits and psychological structure. The second category includes self-cognitive factors such as self-compassion and self-concept clarity, mainly related to an individual's inner emotions and self-awareness. The third category consists of media-cognitive factors such as social media literacy and appearance-related social media consciousness, primarily linked to an individual's use of social networking platforms and their attitudes toward social networking content.
    Furthermore, in conjunction with the findings above, we constructed an integrative model of how social networking site use affects adolescents' body dissatisfaction. The model seeks to elucidate the mechanisms of action and boundary conditions of social networking sites affecting adolescents' body dissatisfaction. It also aims to provide a systematic framework for researchers in the field to advance the prevention and intervention of adolescents' body dissatisfaction.
    In conclusion, the article provides valuable suggestions and reference directions for future research. For example, future research should focus on exploring the relationship between social networking site use and body dissatisfaction in China, expanding the scope of research to include various aspects such as research subjects, methods, and content, and further validating and simplifying the theoretical framework, which will help in developing more effective online intervention programs to address adolescents' body dissatisfaction.
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    Why is it difficult to reach consensus in interpersonal value conflict situations? Theoretical explanations and mediation strategies
    YUE Tong, WANG Hong, FU ANguo, XU Hao, LI Wenqiao
    2024, 32 (9):  1528-1538.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01528
    Abstract ( 310 )   PDF (590KB) ( 446 )   Peer Review Comments
    Harinck and Ellemers (2014) classify interpersonal conflicts into two types: conflicts based on the distribution of interests (or resources) and conflicts based on differences in values. The former is essentially caused by disagreements over the distribution of scarce resources, such as time, space, money, and possessions, while the latter is often related to identity and personal stance. In terms of the underlying motives of the conflicting parties in constructing a situation, interpersonal conflict of interest involves the distribution of resources, with the root of the conflict lying in the satisfaction of each party's interest claims. In contrast, when an individual constructs a conflict situation based on differences with other people's values, the interpersonal conflict often involves the issue of right and wrong, and thus is more abstract and complex. Interest-based interpersonal conflicts can often be mitigated or resolved through negotiation, resource reallocation, and compromise. However, when interpersonal conflicts involve values, the differences at issue can easily be seen as non-negotiable and non-transactional: not only is it difficult to reach a consensus, but the conflict can easily lead to tensions and further escalation. Moreover, mediation strategies that are effective in conflicts of interest, such as give-and-take, compromise, or trade-offs, do not work in interpersonal value conflicts.
    Based on a systematic review of previous studies, this paper will first clarify the specific manifestations of interpersonal values conflicts that make it difficult to reach a consensus by comparing them with interpersonal conflicts of interest. Then the relevant theoretical explanations and corresponding mediation strategies will be introduced, with a view to providing theoretical inspiration for both basic research and practical applications in this field.
    Compared with interpersonal conflicts based on the distribution of benefits or resources, interpersonal conflicts arising from differences in values are more difficult to resolve. This difficulty is mainly manifested in the following two aspects. First, people in interpersonal value conflicts seem to be unwilling to take the initiative to solve the problem. This psychological and behavioral tendency is also reflected in the corresponding physiological indicators; specifically, in the face of interpersonal value conflicts, people will exhibit obvious signs of pressure or even perceive that they are under threat. Second, compared with conflicts of interest, individuals in value conflicts will experience more negative perceptions and emotions, and even display hostile behaviors towards their opponents, which increases the interpersonal distance between them. Thus, people are unwilling to solve the problem through contact and communication.
    Currently, researchers mainly focus on two aspects - self-threat and the illusion of personal objectivity - to explain why it is difficult to reach consensus in interpersonal value conflicts. The former suggests that individuals may develop self-threat perceptions during value confrontations with others, the avoidance of which makes people reluctant to compromise and accept mediation on their originally held values. The latter suggests that the main reason why interpersonal value conflicts are so difficult to resolve is that individuals suffer from a cognitive bias of the illusion of personal objectivity. Specifically, individuals overestimate the rationality and correctness of their own views, perceiving opponents who disagree with them as uninformed, irrational, or biased, and subsequently are unwilling to compromise on or revise the values they hold.
    Based on current research, self-affirmation and other-affirmation are the more common and proven mediation strategies for interpersonal values conflicts. Self-affirmation theory suggests that people are motivated to maintain self-integrity. Specifically, individuals believe that the self is positive overall and that they have the ability to control a socially adaptive image. Thus, when an aspect of the self-concept is threatened, individuals can restore their perceptions of self-integrity and sense of worth by utilizing a resource base that includes values. Relevant empirical research suggests that self-affirmation mitigates interpersonal values conflict through two main pathways. On one path, the source of an individual's sense of self-worth is broadened beyond the specific domain of self-threat through the process of self-affirmation. In other words, the perceived threat to the self-concept due to the values clash is “decoupled” from the current self-concept, and thus the negative impact of the perceived self-threat is diminished. On the other possible path of action, self-affirmation interventions can be effective in reducing adversarial bias and hostility during interpersonal value conflicts. Other-affirmation, or asking individuals in an interpersonal conflict to think about the positive qualities of their opponents (that are not directly related to the conflict), has been suggested as an alternative strategy for mitigating interpersonal values conflict. On one hand, other-affirmation can effectively weaken the ego threat posed by the adversary in the process of interpersonal values conflict. On the other hand, it can effectively enhance people's perception of common identity and thus improve conflict adjustment strategies.
    As shown in the previous discussion, current research on the theoretical explanations of and mediation strategies for interpersonal values conflict comprise a single step forward and should be further explored. First, the theoretical explanation of interpersonal values conflict needs to be further verified and expanded. Second, the influencing factors and their effects in the process of interpersonal values conflict are also worthy of attention. Finally, the mediation strategies and related applications to interpersonal values conflict need to be further expanded.
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    The invisible disadvantaged: A review and theoretical explanation of interpersonal invisibility towards the disadvantaged groups
    HE Jiani, YANG Jie, JI Tingting, DING Yi
    2024, 32 (9):  1539-1550.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01539
    Abstract ( 303 )   PDF (534KB) ( 312 )   Peer Review Comments
    Interpersonal invisibility is considered a subtle form of interpersonal bias and stigmatization. Unlike explicit negative attention to specific targets, interpersonal invisibility essentially reflects implicit devaluation and rejection of specific targets in social interactions. Our analysis identifies three main characteristics of interpersonal invisibility: (1) it occurs in interpersonal interaction contexts; (2) it is a state where the perceivers show minimal cognitive, emotional, and behavioral investment in the target during interactions; (3) it can be intentional or unintentional by the perceiver, and is easily perceived and experienced by the target in interactions.
    Interpersonal invisibility is closely related to social hierarchy. Evidence shows that individuals of lower (vs. higher) social hierarchy are more likely to experience interpersonal invisibility. Specifically, some early studies conducted in workplaces, schools, and medical settings have shed light on the prevalence of interpersonal invisibility among individuals within lower social hierarchies. For example, these studies have found that nurses, building cleaners, hotel staffs, and other similar workers often report feeling invisible by others. More importantly, recent social cognitive research on interpersonal invisibility has further examined how people’s social processing characteristics towards targets from different social hierarchies, clarifying that people are more prone to interpersonal invisibility towards lower social hierarchy targets compared to those of higher social hierarchy.
    Additionally, we argue for some theoretical explanations for interpersonal invisibility towards lower social hierarchy individuals from both societal and individual perspectives, including sociocultural mechanisms explanation, status hypothesis, affordance-management theory, and intersectional invisibility theory. Firstly, the sociocultural mechanisms explanation and intersectional invisibility theory are grounded in the social level, focusing on external factors that influence interpersonal invisibility towards lower social hierarchy individuals, such as sociocultural and mainstream ideologies. The former rationalizes inequality through the sociocultural environment, whereby social concepts and ideologies are shaped and internalized, placing disadvantaged groups at a disadvantage across various social hierarchies. The latter further specifies this by focusing on the prototypicality of identities constructed by mainstream ideologies, pointing out that individuals with multiple non-prototypical identities are more prone to interpersonal invisibility. The status hypothesis and affordance-management theory are based on the individual level, focusing on individual internal and situational factors that affect interpersonal invisibility.
    The status hypothesis posits that individuals are motivated by status, with a tendency to direct their attention towards high-status individuals (as opposed to low-status individuals) in order to enhance their own status. However, this theory emphasizes the intrinsic motivation for universal status pursuit and overlooks the relevance of interpersonal targets to current goals in different contexts. The affordance-management theory further deepens and refines the status hypothesis by focusing on the moderating role of goal relevance assessment from a cognitive perspective. It proposes that in addition to the opportunity dimension (potential interpersonal value and benefits), threat is also an important assessment dimension influencing individual attention to targets. When lower social hierarchy targets are perceived as irrelevant to the goals of the perceiver, they are at a higher risk of experiencing interpersonal invisibility. Additionally, the interplay between theories at the societal and individual levels is interrelated, shaping and reshaping individual interaction patterns over time.
    Finally, considering the limitations of existing research on interpersonal invisibility, some future research directions are proposed: (1) refining the conceptual definition and measurement of interpersonal invisibility; (2) deepening theoretical research on interpersonal invisibility of lower social hierarchy individuals; (3) exploring the interaction effects of social hierarchy of both interactants; (4) focusing on and intervening in the negative consequences of interpersonal invisibility; (5) exploring the potential unique effects of interpersonal invisibility in the context of Chinese sociocultural background.
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    Being a good parent helps to be a better leader? A leadership development model from parent-leader enrichment perspective
    LIU Zhengguang, LI Mengyin
    2024, 32 (9):  1551-1566.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.01551
    Abstract ( 81 )   PDF (610KB) ( 162 )   Peer Review Comments
    Leadership development is a cutting-edge research topic in the field of organizational management and a pressing issue in human resource management practice. Previous studies have often focused on the role of training courses and challenging work experiences inside enterprises to cultivate leadership, but these approaches face limitations in enhancing effectiveness. Recent research has focused on leadership development across multiple domains with the “whole person” approach, particularly the effects of non-work experience on leadership development in the working domain. Based on this new perspective, family and work, as the two main domains in which adult leaders are situated, are not mutually exclusive or even conflicting in terms of leadership development. On the contrary, taking on family roles, especially the role of a parent, should contribute to the development of leadership.
    Therefore, we adopt the family-work enrichment perspective and the parent-leader similarity hypothesis. Firstly, we summarize existing research findings on leadership development and family-work enrichment, highlighting the enrichment relationship between the specific roles of parent and leader. Next, we focus on two important variables in the parental and leadership roles: parental experience and leader effectiveness, exploring how parental experience influences leader effectiveness through instrumental, affective, and efficiency enrichment pathways. Theoretically, we propose a leadership development model based on the “parent-leader enrichment” perspective. Specifically, the instrumental enrichment process guided by role accumulation theory suggests that skills acquired through the parental role, such as parenting skill, patience, and empathy, can transfer to the workplace, enhancing leadership skills. The affective enrichment process guided by spillover effect theory posits that positive emotions from the parental role can spill over into the work domain, leading to similar positive emotions in the leadership role. The efficiency enrichment process guided by conservation of resources theory indicates that time pressure from child-rearing can increase leaders' work engagement and decision-making efficiency. The model also considers the moderating effects of individuals' awareness, identity, and efficacy regarding “parent-leader enrichment” in the three enrichment processes. Finally, considering the needs of leadership development programs, the model proposes intervention experiments that can be conducted from the aspects of awareness, identity, and efficacy of enrichment to enhance the effects of instrumental, affective, and efficiency enrichment between parental and leadership roles.
    We adopt a positive perspective of interdisciplinary integration, helping to maximize the enrichment effect and has significant theoretical and practical implications. Theoretically, our study offers the following contributions: first, we provide a new perspective and approach for leadership development research, extending the focus beyond the workplace to include the family domain. Second, we explore and supplement the positive “work-family enrichment” perspective in organizational management, contributing to a shift from the predominantly negative “work-family conflict” theories. Third, we clarify the potential enrichment relationship between the specific and important roles of parent and leader within the domains of work and family, supplementing and refining the parent-leader similarity hypothesis. Finally, we investigate the instrumental, affective, and efficiency mechanisms of enrichment, revealing the internal processes of enrichment between the two roles. Practically, our study aims to enhance leadership capabilities and effectiveness by providing innovative and effective training interventions for corporate leadership development programs, focusing on awareness, identity, and efficacy of enrichment. Second, we help corporate leaders update and transform their perceptions, turning conflict into enrichment, viewing parental responsibilities as a positive factor in leadership development, thus achieving a win-win situation between the roles of parent and leader. Finally, we address the current work-family conflict faced by the workforce (especially leaders) and the absence in child-rearing, promoting and implementing family-friendly policies in corporate organizations, contributing to the establishment of a family-friendly society.
    Future research could clarify the qualitative and quantitative relationship between parental experience and leader effectiveness, examining whether leaders who are parents are more effective in their leadership skills and outcomes compared to those who are not parents, thereby further validating the arguments presented in our study. Additionally, future studies could investigate the enrichment mechanisms through which parental experience enhances leader effectiveness, while also considering the impact of gender on these mechanisms. Finally, future research could explore intervention studies aimed at enhancing awareness, identity, and efficacy of enrichment, to promote leadership development in practice.
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