ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    15 September 2003, Volume 11 Issue 05 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Decision Making under Uncertainty: Adaptation and Cognition
    Zhu Liqi,Huangfu Gang
    2003, 11 (05):  481-485. 
    Abstract ( 1678 )   PDF (935KB) ( 2989 )  
    Decision-making under uncertainty is being widely concerned among economists and psychologists, yet they have different theories to explain people’s decision-making behavior. The paper reviewed some theories on decision-making by economists and psychologists,including expected utility theory, subjectively expected utility theory and prospect theory. It mainly introduced some relevant research under “ecological rationality” approach, and described several heuristics discovered, such as one-reason rule. It also discussed the relationship between heuristics and adaptation. At the end, the paper analyzed the current trend of the research
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    Language Mechanisms in the Deaf
    Zhang Ming,Chen Qi
    2003, 11 (05):  486-493. 
    Abstract ( 1087 )   PDF (958KB) ( 1848 )  
    Researches on language mechanisms of deaf individuals provide special viewpoints to explore the organization of the specialized language systems in the human brain. This paper reviewed recent lesion and functional imaging studies in this field and focused on: (1) the properties of sign paraphasia caused by left and right brain damages; (2) the activation patterns in the left and right hemisphere during the processing of sign language; (3) the activation patterns in human brain and the possible function of the posterior cingulate during the process of speechreading
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    Neural Substrates Underlying Consolidation And Storage Of Declarative Memory
    Zhao Jinghui,Wang Yan,Weng Xuchu
    2003, 11 (05):  494-499. 
    Abstract ( 1297 )   PDF (956KB) ( 1876 )  
    In this paper we reviewed recent progress in studies on the formation and consolidation of declarative memory and proposed some modifications and extension for the classical model of memory storage. We argue that (1) consolidation and storage of declarative memory depends on the development of associations between anatomically separated regions in the neocortex, in which the medial temporal lobe plays a critical role; (2) after memory becomes consolidated, memory storage and retrieval completely rely on the network within the neocortex; (3) the episodic and semantic information in declarative memory is closely related but separately stored in different brain areas
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    The Effect Of Repetition On Accurate And False Memories
    Dong Changfeng,Zhang Jijia
    2003, 11 (05):  500-504. 
    Abstract ( 2117 )   PDF (930KB) ( 1483 )  
    A lot of studies indicated that repetition can have different effects on accurate and false memories. Accurate memory increased with list repetition, but there is no consistent conclusion of false memory so far. This article sums up some studies on the effect of repetition on accurate and false memories and introduced two theories: the implicit activation response hypothesis and fuzzy trace theory
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    The Lens Model In Researches Of Emotional Communication In Music
    Wang Naiyi,Li Hong
    2003, 11 (05):  505-510. 
    Abstract ( 2055 )   PDF (954KB) ( 1844 )  
    How can performers communicate emotions to listeners? What means do they use to accomplish this task? These are issues of paramount importance to musical behavior. The article introduces the Lens Model, a theoretical framework to illustrate how performers use a number of probabilistic (uncertain) but partly redundant cues (e.g. tempo, sound level, articulation) to express certain emotions, and how listeners use these cues to arrive at reliable judgements of the expression. Lens Model Equation (LME) is also introduced, by which regression models of performers and listeners can be mathematically related to each other. Based on the Lens Model and LME, a useful method of improving emotional communication called cognitive feedback (CFB) is put forward, that is, giving performers a chance to compare their own cue utilization to an optimal model for emotional communication on the basis of listeners cue utilization. We assume that except for improving musical performers’ skill, we can also use this method to improve listeners’ level of enjoying music
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    Liu Zhengkui,Shi Jiannong
    2003, 11 (05):  511-515. 
    Abstract ( 1382 )   PDF (938KB) ( 1487 )  
    Inspection time (IT) is an important index of human information processing, and IT has been shown to correlate reliably with general intelligence. A common interpretation of this pattern has been that IT provides an index of a cognitive or biological substrate underpinning individual difference in IQ. The article first introduced the correlative studies between IT and IQ, discussed different theoretical explanation on the nature of correlation between IT and IQ, and then summarized the studies of the nature of correlation nature between IT and IQ from the viewpoint of biology and development. Some problems pertaining studies in this field are highlighted, and new orientation is discussed in the article
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    Developments of Research on the Mental Mechanism in Children’s Understanding of Irony
    Gai Xiaosong,Fang Fuxi,Li Bing
    2003, 11 (05):  516-522. 
    Abstract ( 1310 )   PDF (961KB) ( 1667 )  
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    Hao Meiling,Shu Hua
    2003, 11 (05):  523-528. 
    Abstract ( 1426 )   PDF (947KB) ( 1433 )  
    Age of acquisition is the age at which a word is first learnt. Age of acquisition effect is that words acquired earlier are processed faster than those acquired later. This paper summarized the methods of collecting of age of acquisition and the role of age of acquisition in adult’s lexical processing. It also described the relationship between age of acquisition effect and frequency effect, indicating that frequency is not merely age of acquisition effect in disguise. Finally, the paper introduced the mechanism of age of acquisition and emphasized the phonological completeness hypothesis
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    A Meta-Analytic Review On The Correlation Of Children’s Aggression And Self Perceived Competencies
    Guo Boliang,Chang Lei
    2003, 11 (05):  529-533. 
    Abstract ( 1429 )   PDF (953KB) ( 1402 )  
    Meta-analysis based on multilevel modeling was used to review the latest 20 years of studies on the correlation between children’s aggression and self perceived competencies, the results showed significantly negative but lower level correlation between child aggression and general self worth and self perceived cognitive competency. No significant relationship was found between aggression and self perceived social competency, only 3 studies reported the correlation coefficient between aggression and self perceived physical competency, 2 negative and 1 positive. More studies in this area are needed to generalize the relationship between child aggression and self-perceived competencies and to study its correlates
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    The Summarize Of Research On Suggestibility Of Children’s Memory
    Zhou Lihua,Liu Ailun
    2003, 11 (05):  534-540. 
    Abstract ( 1581 )   PDF (942KB) ( 2709 )  
    Research on suggestibility of children’s memory is a rising field of study. At first this study aimed at eyewitness in legal cases, but in fact this plays an important role in avoiding independent variables in an experiment. This article looks back to the major conclusions and ideas on children’s suggestibility. The following is our focus: history of this research, the interviewer bias and suggestibility techniques, causal mechanisms, future directions
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    On The Social Constructivist Theory Of Emotion
    Qiao Jianzhong
    2003, 11 (05):  541-544. 
    Abstract ( 2481 )   PDF (933KB) ( 2638 )  
    The social constructivist theory of emotion argues that although emotion is built upon one or more biological systems of behavior, the functional significance of emotion is to be found primarily within the sociocultural system. Emotions are among the roles society creates and individuals enact. Emotions are social constructions, and they can be fully understood only upon a social level analysis
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    A Review On the Relationship Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
    Zhang Jian, Guo Dejun
    2003, 11 (05):  545-550. 
    Abstract ( 2686 )   PDF (942KB) ( 5030 )  
    The relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has taken much attention for a long time. The authors outlined the development of the experimental studies,and suggested that the conflict conclusions resulted from the different standpoints owned by different researchers. Based on the review of various theories on the topic,especially the new trend of the self-determination theory,the authors believe that the concept of psychological needs may help to solve much more problems than other theories,and will realize the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation at a higher level. The article proposed further studies
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    Oversea Researches on Implicit Self-esteem
    Zhang Zhen
    2003, 11 (05):  551-554. 
    Abstract ( 2198 )   PDF (930KB) ( 2200 )  
    As one research direction of implicit social cognition, Implicit self-esteem is the introspectively unidentified effect of the self-attitude on evaluation of self-associated and self-dissociated objective. According to recent findings, Greenwald and Banaji generalized implicit self-esteem effects into three types: experimental implicit self-esteem, including effect of role playing, mere ownership and minimal group effect; naturally mediated implicit self-esteem, including similarity-attraction in sociality, cognitive responses to persuasion, postdecisional spreading of choice alternative, preference for name letter; second order implicit self-esteem, including self-positivity in judgment, Implicit affiliation and rejection, displaced self-esteem
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    A Review Of The Studies On The Functioning Mechanisms Of Psychotherapeutic Relationship
    Jiang Guangrong
    2003, 11 (05):  555-561. 
    Abstract ( 1223 )   PDF (953KB) ( 1817 )  
    To review the theoretical viewpoints on the functioning mechanisms of psychotherapeutic relationship. It is found that there are three major ones. The first, social influence theory, considers that the therapeutic relationship enhances the reliability of a counselor, and thereby enhances the influence of the information given by the counselor on the client respect to attitude change. The second, psychodynamic view, claims that transferential relationship makes it easy to recognise the attachment style of a client, and thereby is helpful to the analysis work. The third, client-centered approach, holds that a good therapist-client relationship reduces the defense of a client, and thereby facilitates the client in getting higher congruency. The author argues for a new approach to the studies in this field, which takes a “ cross-theory ” standpoint on constructing a theoretical model
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    Cognitive Impairments In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
    Wang Yamin,Li Long,Han Buxin
    2003, 11 (05):  562-566. 
    Abstract ( 1922 )   PDF (947KB) ( 1294 )  
    Studies conducted in recent 10 years to study the cognitive impairments of patients with type 2 diabetes were reviewed. It was confirmed that hyperglycemia can cause cognitive problem, although inconsistent conclusions still remain. Some studies found impairment while the others didn’t. So far, most studies confirmed the impairment of learning and memory function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cognitive threshold theory was used to explain the remain controversy, by which only the patients aged from 60 to 70 will display impairment compared with the controls. Reduced level of insulin in central nerves system was also studied. Reasons of cognitive impairment and more sensitive measurements were suggested
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    Review of Foreign Studies on What Causes Job Burnout
    Wang Xiaochun,Gan Yiqun
    2003, 11 (05):  567-572. 
    Abstract ( 1276 )   PDF (940KB) ( 3958 )  
    In this review, foreign studies of causes of job burnout are reviewed in four parts. In the first part, the paper introduced the concept of job burnout and relevant questionnaires. Then it briefly introduced the development of research in job burnout. The third part reviewed the causes of burnout, which can be classified as work-related or individual factors. And the forth part discussed about some models explaining how burnout take places. Lastly, some summarization and evaluation are made, and prospect is put forward
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    Chen Huafeng,Meng Qingmao
    2003, 11 (05):  573-578. 
    Abstract ( 1972 )   PDF (948KB) ( 2020 )  
    Television program quality research began at 1940’s, different indices were designed to evaluate program quality in different countries, such as Appreciation Index, Television Quotient, Enjoyment Index, Worthwhile Index, Interest Index, Audience Satisfaction etc. After having an overview of the history, main results and developments on Television program quality research, the article systematically introduced the most impressive Appreciation Index survey, and the relations between Appreciation Index and Television rating, program types, audience demography etc. Finally, the article analyzed and summarized the deficiencies of present researches
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    Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Literature Review Between 1991 and 2000
    Fan Jinyan,Ye Bi,Zhang Zhenyu,Liu Baoxia
    2003, 11 (05):  579-585. 
    Abstract ( 1392 )   PDF (959KB) ( 3539 )  
    The purposes of this article was to: 1) clarify some confusing issues in exploratory factor analysis (EFA) among Chinese psychologists, and 2) critically review how Chinese psychologists have been applying EFA in their research during the last decade (1991~2000). In the first part of this article, the following issues were discussed: (a) estimating the number of common factors, (b) the rotation problem, and (c) the myth of simple structure. The authors searched Psychological Science and Acta Psychologica Sinica between 1991~2000 and identified 95 EFAs from feature articles that used EFA as their major quantitative method. All the identified EFAs are coded on the following characteristics: (a) scale reliability, (b) ratio of item number to factor number, (c) ratio of sample to item number, (d) sample size, (e) methods to determine number of factors, (f) rotation method, (g) software, and (h) report practice. Simple statistics such as, frequency and percentage, revealed the major problems many Chinese psychologists have in employing EFA include: (a) exclusive reliance on some mechanical methods to determine factor numbers, (b) using orthogonal rotation without justification, (c) overuse of SPSS, and (d) failure to report major information and results so that peer-evaluation is essentially impossible. The possible reasons for the current situation are discussed
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    A Review on Longitudinal Data Analysis Method and It’s Development
    Liu Hongyun Meng Qingmao
    2003, 11 (05):  586-592. 
    Abstract ( 2459 )   PDF (978KB) ( 6880 )  
    Longitudinal method is one of the central topics in psychology. A series of theoretical and application advances have been made recently. In this article, these advances are reviewed briefly and overlapping Hierarchical Linear Model(HLM) and Latent Growth Curve Model(LGM) are mainly discussed. In addition, the difference of several longitudinal methods are discussed briefly
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    Methods and Recent Research Development in Analysis of Interaction Effects between Latent Variables
    Wen Zhonglin, Hau Kit-Tai, Herbert W. Marsh
    2003, 11 (05):  593-599. 
    Abstract ( 2327 )   PDF (1005KB) ( 5259 )  
    Analysis of interaction, the phenomenon that the effect (including the size and direction) of a certain independent variable (or predictor) depends on the state (size, value) of another independent variable, has always been important in psychological or social research. Methods for the analysis of interaction effects between observed variables were briefly reviewed. The main concern of the article was the detailed comparison and discussion on the analysis of latent variable interactions. Four basic approaches, including regression on factor scores, multiple-group structural equation modeling, structural equation modeling with product terms, and two-stage least square regression, were illustrated and contrasted. Advances in these and other analytical methods, including recently developed latent moderated structural equations (LMS) approach and generalized appended product indicator (GAPI) procedure, were also described and evaluated
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