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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    15 November 2003, Volume 11 Issue 06 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    A Cognitive-Ecological Sampling Approach To Judgment Biases
    Zhang Li, Fu Xiaolan, Sun Yuhao
    2003, 11 (06):  601-606. 
    Abstract ( 1688 )   PDF (161KB) ( 1364 )  
    Lots of research on judgment biases held assumptions that the judgment biases were derived from the individual’s motives and cognitive shortcomings. However, the studies of cognitive-ecological sampling offered an alternative account that the sampling process was not fully under the individual’s cognitive control but was greatly affected by the distribution of information in the environment. The resulting samples tend to be biased for the interaction between cognition and the environment, and the sampling biases carry over to subsequent judgments. From the cognitive-ecological approach, the studies of judgment biases should focus on the following four aspects: the variants of sample-based judgment,the distribution of stimuli in the environment, the sampling process and the resulting samples, psychological assumptions and limitations. Future research issues are presented and discussed
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    Research On The Psychological Effects Of Inductive Inference
    Chen Antao, Li Hong
    2003, 11 (06):  607-615. 
    Abstract ( 1359 )   PDF (169KB) ( 1894 )  
    Inductive inference psychological effects point out the extent that various factors in the inductive arguments affect the inductive judgment power, according to the factors and their effective ways, which mainly includes category effect, property effect, and mutual effect. The authors suggest that individuals usually judge the power with dividing-integrating ways, and more important is that the reasoning array formed during the inductive judgment and the smooth feeling sequentially produced directly affect the evaluation to the inductive power. Lastly, the authors gave proof to this model
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    Theoretical Models on the Mechanisms of Feature Binding
    Chen Caiqi,Liu Zhihua,Jin Zhicheng
    2003, 11 (06):  616-622. 
    Abstract ( 1239 )   PDF (187KB) ( 2391 )  
    Binding problem is regarded as one of the central themes of cognitive science and neuroscience. The research on feature binding has given a great impetus to studies on cognitive and neural mechanisms of many mental processes. There are two approaches to the research on the mechanisms of feature binding, that is, the cognitive paradigm and the neuroscience paradigm. Among the cognitive theories, Feature Integration Theory (FIT) is the most representative; the formal theory is characterized by its modification in the measurement of illusory conjunction and in other aspects that were not properly dealt with by FIT, while the two-stage theory bridges the gap between pre-attentive binding and post-attentive binding. The temporal synchronization theory in neurosicence has been the most influential theory on binding mechanisms up till now, whereas the newly proposed neural network model appears to provide a more specific insight into the neural mechanisms of feature binding. Two trends were predicted that the integration of cognitive paradigm and neuroscience paradigm and deepening from researches of binding in basic cognitive processes to those in high-level psychological processes might be the focus of relevant researches in the future
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    The Dual-Rayleigh Match And The Measurement Of Color Vision
    Wen Junqing, Han Buxin, Sun Xiuru, Sun Pei,Liu Yuhua, Li Donghui
    2003, 11 (06):  623-628. 
    Abstract ( 1533 )  
    Anomaloscopes were widely used in the color vision field recently, most of them are based on the classical Rayleigh Match theory. The mechanism and the clinical application of the classical Rayleigh Match and the improved Rayleigh Match were introduced first in this paper. Based on this, then, the dual-Rayleigh Match theory and a new instrument for measuring color vision were introduced in detail, including several investigated datum collected with this instrument
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    Review of Gross’s Research on Emotion Regulation Process and Strategy
    Wang Zhenhong, Guo Dejun
    2003, 11 (06):  629-634. 
    Abstract ( 2921 )   PDF (461KB) ( 4252 )  
    Gross suggested that emotion regulation generated in emotion regulation process. It acted in any point of five stages of emotion-generative process, situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation. Situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, and cognitive change comes early in emotion-generative process. They belong to antecedent-focused emotion regulation. Response modulation comes later in emotion-generative process. It belongs to response-focused emotion regulation. There are two commonly used strategies in emotion regulation process, namely reappraisal and suppression. Reappraisal and suppression strategies have different influence on affective, cognitive, and social consequences
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    Goal Theory On Motivation
    Jiang Jingchuan, Guo Yongyu
    2003, 11 (06):  635-641. 
    Abstract ( 2040 )   PDF (481KB) ( 2751 )  
    This essay discusses the developmental process,researching methods and the latest achievements in the field of motivation goal research. By analyzing the common ground and differences, the essay makes prospects in the field. The author holds the view that goal theory will cause the combination of organically emotion, motivation and cognition , which indicates a integration trend. Meanwhile, as goal theory put emphasis on the importance of the function of personality ,emotions and health, it will definitely makes the research in the field relate to daily life. The author also thinks that the future trend of the research will be the joint of motive tendency and individual goals
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    Review on the Research for Addition and Subtraction Word Problem Solving
    Zhou Xinlin,Zhang Meiling
    2003, 11 (06):  642-650. 
    Abstract ( 1736 )   PDF (509KB) ( 1447 )  
    Addition and subtraction word problems refer to a type of mathematical word problems that can be solved by applying addition and subtraction. They can be mainly classified into three categories: combine, change and compare. There are four types of methods to investigate the mental processes: solving problem, recalling and constructing problems, building simulation model of computer, and recording eye-movement. Previous research found that the mental processes could be significantly affected by these factors: semantic type, age, phrase and sentence, narrating format, context personalization, the structure of problem text, number size, the type of unknown set and strategies to solve problems. Researchers mainly proposed two theoretical explanations for the mental processes: mathematical knowledge applying model and language comprehension model
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    Review On Dynamic Testing Of Children’s Cognitive Development
    Zhang Lijin,Gai Xiaosong,Fang Fuxi,Fang Ge
    2003, 11 (06):  651-657. 
    Abstract ( 1585 )   PDF (489KB) ( 2363 )  
    The emphasis of this paper is the interpretation and review of dynamic testing. Dynamic testing refers to both diverse approaches that share some basic assumptions and a kind of measuring paradigm based on Vygotsky’s ideas and experiments of the zone of proximal development (ZPD). Its main goal is to develop a new evaluative model of children’s potential to substitute or remedy traditional static testing being regarded as an underestimate of cognitive abilities of the disadvantaged children and the lack of valid guidance to instructional practice. It adopts the items similar to intelligence test and methods of coaching, tutoring or intervention at the time of administering and uses the learning and transfer efficiency and cognitive modifiability as the indicator to examine the level of the individual potential cognitive development. We’ll interpret a variety of contemporary measurement techniques and instruments designated by several labels—e.g. mediated learning (Feuerstein), training test (Budoff), graduated-prompts approach (Campione & Brown), learning test (Guthke) and testing-the-limits (Carlson & Wiedl), and at last briefly evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of dynamic testing
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    Children’s Cognition Of The Cause Of Illness
    Liu Guangyi, Zhu Liqi
    2003, 11 (06):  658-662. 
    Abstract ( 1268 )   PDF (472KB) ( 1479 )  
    Research concerning children’s causal cognition of illness has both theoretical and practical values. In the last two decades, research in this field has shifted from Piagetian to naïve theory framework. Researchers gave greater emphasis on “domain specific” and “content dependent” and got much progress on the approach and methods. Further research should be carried within more specific aspects
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    Relations Between Adults' Criticism / Praise And Children's Responsive Patterns
    Zhao Jingxin,Wang Meifang
    2003, 11 (06):  663-667. 
    Abstract ( 1828 )   PDF (479KB) ( 1411 )  
    This paper reviewed the recent studies on the relations between adults' criticism/praise and children's responsive patterns after briefly introducing the types of criticism/praise. The research findings showed that person criticism/praise could lead children to display helplessness responses, and process criticism/praise could result in children’s mastery-oriented responses. The mechanism through which adults' criticism/praise influenced children’s responses was empirically found that different types of criticism/praise could foster children’s different theory of intelligence, achievement goal and the attribution for performance, and then result in different responsive patterns. It was also suggested that there were some key issues that need to be further explored in the future
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    Review On The Researches Of Victimization In Schools
    Zhao Li,Lei Li
    2003, 11 (06):  668-674. 
    Abstract ( 1969 )   PDF (498KB) ( 1954 )  
    By comparing the concepts and methodology in the areas, and analyzing the types of victimization and the characteristics of victims, the article reviewed the researches of victimization in schools. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods were pointed out in studying victimization. While the nature of the types of victimization and the related factors being delineated, some unresolved problems were clarified too. Also some future works to be done were discussed
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    The Study Of Mental Behavior Problems Of Learning Disability Children
    Wang Yongli,Yu Guoliang
    2003, 11 (06):  675-679. 
    Abstract ( 2400 )   PDF (473KB) ( 2175 )  
    The mental behavior problems of children with learning disabilities are topics that psychologists are extremely interested in. From the view of mental health, the mental behavior problems of children with learning disabilities are as follows: social skill, life adaptation, learning, deregulation, depression, suicide and others; The main factors causing the mental behavior problems of children with learning disabilities include lower self-concept, negative influence of family, defect in social cognition. To improve the mental health, we can intervene and rectify the mental behavior problems of children with learning disabilities effectively
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    Job Burnout: A Developing Research Area
    Xu Changjiang,Shi Kan
    2003, 11 (06):  680-685. 
    Abstract ( 2121 )   PDF (483KB) ( 2988 )  
    This article discussed the development of studies on job burnout from five aspects. First, its conception and construct has changed to adapt more general people. Second, the theories of burnout emphasize the balance of job demands and resources instead of personal appraisal. Third, the concept of burnout is being supplemented and enlarged by its positive antithesis of job engagement. Fourth, the problems of burnout in new organization structure design becomes a new area in future study. Lastly, the burnout research has extended beyond its original American borders and the cross-culture study is emerging in many countries. The main domains and developmental trends of job burnout are also predicted
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    Advances In Research On Constructive Group Decision Making Process
    Zeng Jianhua, He Guibing
    2003, 11 (06):  686-691. 
    Abstract ( 1550 )   PDF (486KB) ( 2113 )  
    Group decision making, as an important managerial issue, has been a research emphasis on many subjects. Researchers are paying more and more attention on how decision makers construct their knowledge during decision making process. They are interested in how people utilize and integrate information, then modify their original cognitive pattern and reconstruct the following process pattern. This paper investigated the input, process and outcome factors that may affect the constructive process in group decision making. It also summarized the measure methods and variables that have been recently used in the research of constructive process
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    A Review Of Researches On Country-Of-Origin Effect
    Huang Heshui
    2003, 11 (06):  692-699. 
    Abstract ( 2043 )   PDF (502KB) ( 2125 )  
    A review of the literature indicated that country-of-origin effect research has emerged as an important area of investigation in consumer behavior after Schooler’s(1965)study. The previous studies, which utilized methodologies of survey, experimentation, conjoint, meta-analysis, in-depth interview, and so on in the setting of consumer marketing and industrial (or business-to-business) marketing, had convincingly demonstrated the effects of country-of-origin on buyers’ product perception. However, country-of-origin effect has been shown to be mediated by other external product attributes, consumer’ knowledge and experiences, product attribute information, type of product and consumer’s race. Four models, which are signaling, independent-attribute, summary construct and flexible model, has been established to explain country-of-origin effect
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    A Review of Research on the Influencing Factors of Cross-cultural Adaptation
    Chen Honglei, Zhou Fan
    2003, 11 (06):  700-703. 
    Abstract ( 1659 )   PDF (468KB) ( 1937 )  
    Past view of traditional study of the structure of work values indicated that different results existed. Recent work values researches employ the Facet Theory approach, and they contribute to the integration of the various previous studies. The application of Facet Theory and SSA, integration of the basic values and work values studies, culture-based values studies represent the future trend of the work values structure research
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    A Review of Research on the Influencing Factors of Cross-cultural Adaptation
    Chen Hui,Che Hongsheng,Zhu Min
    2003, 11 (06):  704-710. 
    Abstract ( 3423 )   PDF (482KB) ( 6625 )  
    Cross-cultural contact influences the adaptation of people. Many researchers paid attention to the influencing factors of cross-cultural adaptation. The influencing factors include external and internal factors. The external factors are life change, Social support, sojourning time, cultural distance, prejudice and discrimination. The internal factors are appraisal styles, coping styles, personality, culture knowledge and skills, demographic factors
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    Current Research On Vygotsky’s Psychology Theory In Russia
    Zheng Faxiang,Ye Haosheng
    2003, 11 (06):  711-719. 
    Abstract ( 1821 )   PDF (511KB) ( 1706 )  
    The author explored current research on Vygotsky’s psychological theory in Russia from the following aspects: (1) organization, publication and the modem significance research of Vygotsky’s psychological theory; (2) research on the developmental stages and the logic structure of concept of Vygotsky’s theory; (3) new development of Vygotsky’s theory; (4) critics on Vygotsky and cultural history psychology in Russia’s psychological domain. In the author’s opinion, there are several important reasons for the “Vygotsky craze” in the West rather in Russia , such as the current social situation in Russia, the defects of Western psychology and the cultural turn of modem western psychology et
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