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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 16 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Study on Language Deficits from Brain-damage:
    An Approach of Cognitive Neuropsychology
    SHU Hua
    . 2008, 16 (01): 1-3.  
    Abstract   PDF (693KB) ( 1941 )
    Since the 90s of last century, studying the neural mechanisms of language processing from the cognitive neuroscience perspective has been a major trend in science. Cognitive Neuropsychology is a unique approach in which various types of selective language impairments due to brain damage are studied to uncover the functional architecture and processes of language, as well as the anatomical basis of such functions. This scientific approach has had great positive impacts on the clinical assessments and treatments of aphasia. Chinese has many special characteristics as a language. The research on Chinese aphasia will have important contribution to the development of theories about the human conceptual system and human language processing. It will also provide theoretical frameworks for the development of effective treatment plans for Chinese aphasic patients
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    An Introduction to Cognitive Neuropsychology
    Max Coltheart
    . 2008, 16 (01): 4-9.  
    Abstract   PDF (673KB) ( 2186 )
    Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology. Its aim therefore is to discover what the mental information-processing procedures are that people use when executing acts of cognition, and it seeks to do this by studying ways in which cognition can break down after brain damage. It is distinct from cognitive neuroscience; cognitive neuropsychology is about the mind whereas cognitive neuroscience is about the brain (specifically, about brain mechanisms subserving cognition). The methods of cognitive neuropsychology can also be used to study developmental disorders of cognition such as dyslexia or specific language impairment: such work is known as developmental cognitive neuropsychology. These methods can also be used to study high-level aspects of cognition such as belief formation or theory of mind. Disorders of such high level aspects of cognition are the province of psychiatry, and so this kind of cognitive neuropsychology (which studies such conditions as delusion, hallucination or confabulation) is known as cognitive neuropsychiatry. Characteristic features of cognitive neuropsychology are (a) that it investigates symptoms, not syndromes; (b) that it uses single-case studies, not group studies; (c) that its chief source of data is double dissociations between symptoms; and (d) that it is committed to modular modelling of cognition.
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    Assessment of Cognitive Impairments
    Lyndsey Nickels
    . 2008, 16 (01): 10-13.  
    Abstract   PDF (660KB) ( 1330 )

    This paper addresses the requirements for best practice in clinical assessment of people with cognitive deficits. It is proposed that a significant goal for assessment should be to enable formulation of a hypothesis regarding the areas of strength and weakness in functioning, in order to set appropriate aims for rehabilitation, and to evaluate the outcome of the rehabilitation process. Meeting this goal requires appropriate assessment before rehabilitation begins, during the rehabilitation process and after rehabilitation (by the clinician) has ended. Two approaches are contrasted: the ‘battery’ approach and the ‘hypothesis testing approach’. In order to measure change in both cognitive impairments and the handicaps they cause, testing is required that is reliable, sensitive and valid (measures changes that are of real consequence). It will be argued that assessment batteries often fail on all three of these requirements, and the hypothesis testing approach is superior in this regard. The paper provides an example of the use of the hypothesis testing approach in the assessment of word production impairments in acquired aphasia

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    Cognitive Neuropsychology and Word Retrieval Disorders in Aphasia: Theory and Therapy

    Lyndsey Nickels

    . 2008, 16 (01): 14-17.  
    Abstract   PDF (681KB) ( 1390 )
    This paper describes levels of processing in word production and how they may be impaired in acquired language disorders (aphasia). Specifically, it addresses how treatment of word retrieval impairments can inform not only our understanding of the disorders but also the underlying theories. This is illustrated using two examples. One example focuses on the use of different tasks in the treatment of word retrieval disorders, evaluating their efficacy and determining the nature of their effects. A second example uses the treatment of word retrieval disorders to address the contentious debate regarding whether homophones (e.g. pour/paw) share a single phonological representation, or have distinct representations for word production
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    Cognitive Neuropsychological Research on Chinese Language
    HAN Zai-Zhu;SHU Hua;BI Yan-Chao
    . 2008, 16 (01): 18-25.  
    Abstract   PDF (755KB) ( 1694 )
    The cognitive neuropsychology provides a new way to explore the psychological mechanism of languages. It has made the researchers learn the mental lexicon more and more. The current article describes the cognitive neuropsychological studies on Chinese language in past few years. The studies focus on the internal cognitive mechanism of semantic system, phonological output lexicon, phonological output buffer, writing and oral reading
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    Theories about Word Writing: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia
    LIU Jie;BI Yan-Chao;HAN Zai-Zhu
    . 2008, 16 (01): 26-31.  
    Abstract   PDF (717KB) ( 1376 )
    Acquired dysgraphia resulting from brain damage can manifest in various ways and have provided unique opportunities to uncover the cognitive and neural mechanisms of normal word writing. In the current article we introduce a major theoretical framework of the writing process, review the cognitive neuropsychological evidence, identify the debating issues concerning the model, and finally propose how the model can be generated to account for the performance of Chinese dysgraphic patients
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    Research on Deep Dyslexia
    ZHENG Xiu-Li;YIN Wen-Gang
    . 2008, 16 (01): 32-35.  
    Abstract   PDF (676KB) ( 1253 )
    Deep dyslexia is a specific reading disorder. This type of dyslexia provides evidence for the existence of semantic route in oral reading. Deep dyslexia is not very common in English speakers while it has a high occurrence in Chinese speakers. It may indicate that the mechanism of reading is between Chinese and English language. This paper introduces the performance of deep dyslexia, and compares the research results of deep dyslexia between in Chinese and in English. Cognitive neuropsychological rehabilitation of deep dyslexia is also discussed
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    A Neuropsychological Approach to Category Learning
    Liu Wanlun;Zhang Qi
    . 2008, 16 (01): 36-41.  
    Abstract   PDF (689KB) ( 1321 )
    The neuropsychological approach to category learning is an effective pattern to identify theories in category learning. It can not only help us to understand and explore the category learning theories, but also help us to know about cognitive process and brain function. We reviewed the researches to category learning that the patients suffering from basal ganglia, such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amnesia, and other nervous dysfunction conducted. We discussed the single-system and multiple-systems theories about interpreting these learning. We pointed out some problems about sampling in these researches, and some suggestions about which need to be improved in the research means, design, and sampling. We hoped that these suggestions can give future researches some help to category learning
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    Acquisition of Native-language Phonemic Category in Infancy: Evidence from Speech Perception
    Liu Wenli;Yang Yufang;Yin Tingwei
    . 2008, 16 (01): 42-49.  
    Abstract   PDF (716KB) ( 1640 )
    Researches about speech perception in infancy indicate 1-4-month-old infants can discriminate most phonetic category contrast, including native category contrasts and nonnative category contrasts. With more exposure to native-language, the effects of native-language phonology on infant speech perception emerge: perception of consonants evidences the increasing sensitivity to native phonetic category boundaries and the decreasing sensitivity to nonnative category boundaries, the nonnative phonetic category being assimilated with the native category, and perception of native vowels exhibits “the perceptual magnet effect”. These facts indicate infants come to acquire native-language phonemic category, the order of native category acquisition possibly depends on some factors, such as the acoustic characteristics and the frequency of occurrence of category example
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    The Commentary of the Research of Language and Music’s Action Brain Mechanism

    Hou Jiancheng;Liu Chang

    . 2008, 16 (01): 50-58.  
    Abstract   PDF (768KB) ( 1610 )
    The argument of whether language and music have the same process mechanism had lasted for a long time. Making a brief review for aphasia and amusia, combing with the research of ERP and functional neuroimaging for language and music’s contrast process and synchronous process, it is found that, to a large extent, both of them exist coincidence of process mechanism; it means that they have ‘the common neural process resource’. Making research for more domains of music’s process is helpful to the advance of language’s process research. It also has profound and lasting applied prospect if they are combined with together
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    Neural Mechanism about Scalar Timing Model
    Yin Huazhan;Huang Xiting;Li Dan Zhang Ying
    . 2008, 16 (01): 59-64.  
    Abstract   PDF (737KB) ( 1099 )
    Scalar timing model (STM) was taken as a framework with analyzing many references about temporal cognition neural mechanism.Taking the reference of the results of present cognitive neuroscience studies, it could be concluded that the neural correlates of internal clock were cerebellum, basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, presupplementary motor area and inferior parietal lobe, etc.; the neural correlates of duration memory period were basal ganglia, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior prefrontal cortex and lateral premotor, etc.; the neural correlates of duration comparison period were basal ganglia, anterior cingulate cortex, and superior temporal cortex, etc. In addition, the characteristic of scalar of timing was demonstrated on the view of neural mechanism, and further study about the confirmability of study results, the limits of research methods, and applicability of STM were discussed
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    Analogical Transfer of Problem-Solving Strategies in Children
    Chen Zhe;Wang Ruiming;Mo Lei
    . 2008, 16 (01): 65-70.  
    Abstract   PDF (706KB) ( 1851 )
    Analogical transfer of problem-solving strategies, which refers to the generalization of problem-solving strategies across isomorphic tasks, is a fundamental issue in the study of children cognitive development. Until fairly recently, analogical transfer has received little sustained attention in child development research. However, numerous studies have been conducted over the past decade, thus providing insights into issues central to children’s thinking and analogical problem solving. This article describes recent advances in the research on children’s analogical transfer. Several trends in research focus have emerged: from performance to early competencies, from age differences to facilitative factors, from abilities to underlying processes, from demonstration of skills to generalization to various domains, and from near to remote transfer. Finally, directions for future research in this field are suggested
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    Theories about Personal Epistemology
    WAng Tingting;Wu Qinglin
    . 2008, 16 (01): 71-76.  
    Abstract   PDF (702KB) ( 1545 )
    Personal epistemology is individuals’ belief about knowledge and knowing, which has an important mediated impact on individuals’ cognitive processing and behavior. Based on an analysis of those literatures, the article introduces various theories of personal epistemology, which including several developmental models, multiple dimensions epistemological belief system, epistemological theories perspective and epistemological resources perspective. Finally, the article gives some suggestions for future research, such as to provide a more integral theory by using diverse method and to resolve the issue of domain generality versus domain-specificity
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    The Features of Attachment in Old Adulthood
    Liu Chunhua;Wang Dahua;Chen Cuiling;Liu Yongguang
    . 2008, 16 (01): 77-83.  
    Abstract   PDF (700KB) ( 2707 )
    It’s just from last 90’s that the area of old people’s attachment began to raise interests among psychologists. Despite of its short history, numbers of researches have been taken in many aspects. Various attachment objects, such as siblings, adult children, spouse, parents and God as a symbol, were found in elderly. Age effects were indicated in terms of attachment styles. And the mental function of attachment has been examined mainly within two fields. One was care giving and chronic illness; the other was adjustment and subjective well-being. Apparently though, some challenges are facing researchers at the moment, such as the relationship between concepts of attachment behavior and attachment style, development of measures for specific situations, and the implication of culture to attachment in elderly etc
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    Cultural Differences of Parenting Goals
    Diao Zhongwei;Zheng Gang
    . 2008, 16 (01): 84-90.  
    Abstract   PDF (707KB) ( 1717 )
    Cultural differences of parenting goals exist widely. Theories of these differences have been switching from group-level to individual-level, and from uni-dimension to dual-dimension. Relating researches have focused on the examination of these theories as well as the effects of parenting goals on parenting styles, parenting strategies and children development of different cultural groups. The two most used measuring methods of parenting goals are structural questionnaire and open-ended listing, which are suitable for different kinds of studies. Researches in the past decades have problems such as over-generalization, neglect of children’s role and effects, etc., which have to be solved in future researches
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    An Integration of Social Information Processing Modal
    on Aggression and Moral Domain Theory
    Gao Cen Huichang
    . 2008, 16 (01): 91-97.  
    Abstract   PDF (715KB) ( 1732 )
    Social information processing modal provided by Dodge with his associates on aggression, is mainly about how the online information processing affects later social behaviors, whereas lacks exact descriptions on database of social knowledge and past experiences. Domain Theory is about moral cognition, which indicates distinctions among individuals’ social judgments in moral, conventional and individual domains, also emphasizes individual differences in mixed-domain situations. After integrating emotion processes into social information processing modal, it is argued that domain theory which is relevant for describing underlying mental structures regarding the nature and boundaries of what is moral, could be used to explain what the database is like and its influence on the information processing. The integrated modal shows interactions between cognitive processes and emotion processes under social contexts, and leads to further consideration on multiple mental components, finally gives new directions for empirical researches and a considerable way for integrating different paradigms
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    Intrinsic Motivation and Its Antecedents
    Chen Zhixia;Wu Hao
    . 2008, 16 (01): 98-105.  
    Abstract   PDF (713KB) ( 2068 )
    This paper systematic introduced the development of research on intrinsic motivation and its antecedents, discussed the problems on the present research and the direction of future research. Intrinsic motivation is a kind of motivation which origin from the process of work and intrinsic spirit need. Its antecedents mainly include individual’s interests and needs, traits of work task, achievement goal, self-efficacy, empowerment and exchange, extrinsic rewards, etc. The topics which need pay more attention in future research include the construct of intrinsic motivation, moderate and mediate factors, interaction of multi-variables, the multi-model of the mechanism of intrinsic motivation,etc
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    A Review of Study on Self-managemen
    Sun Xiaomin;Xue Gang
    . 2008, 16 (01): 106-113.  
    Abstract   PDF (734KB) ( 2070 )
    Self-management is a goal-management process during which individual proactively applies cognitive and behavioral strategies to his/her thinking, mood, behavior and the environment. It is vital for individual’s study, living, and life-long development. Based on systematic review of self-management’s concept, theoretical basis, evaluating methods and measurement tools, the study concluded the core characteristics of self-management: emphasis on initiative, goal- oriented, and employment of behavioral and cognitive strategies. Based on the analysis of the shortcomings of existed studies, the author pointed out that the training and evaluation of average people’s self-management ability would be the focus of future research
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    A Brief Introduction of Self-disclosure Research in the Western
    Jiang Suo;Zou Hong;Hu Xian
    . 2008, 16 (01): 114-123.  
    Abstract   PDF (731KB) ( 2451 )
    Self-disclosure is one of the most important concepts in social psychology and clinical counseling and therapy. This article sums up the self-disclosure researches on the conception, including static and dynamic opinion, and types, including descriptive and evaluative self-disclosure or positive and negative self-disclosure. Moreover, its functions, related theories such as social penetration, inhibition, communication privacy management and primary measurements are introduced. Early researches focus on the following aspects, such as subjects, target persons, gender difference, and the relationship between self-disclosure and loneliness or close relationship. Disclosures of AIDS/HIV, child sexual abuses, emotions and traumas have become the research focuses in recent years. Expending the definition of self-disclosure, further study of adolescent self-disclosure and perfection of tools are the trends of research in this field
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    The Appliance and Development of Planned Behavior Theory
    in HIV Sexual Risk Behavior
    Liu Huijun;Cai Yanzhi
    . 2008, 16 (01): 124-133.  
    Abstract   PDF (749KB) ( 1545 )
    This paper reviewed the applying results and model improvements of Planned Behavior Theory in the fields of HIV sexual risk behaviors. The model could explain HIV sexual risk behaviors in different culture context and samples properly, while it was unstable for the exact prediction of the whole model and the significance of inner variables. Since 21 century the model had been improved greatly as the key variables being operated, new variables being input, and structure relationship being regulated. In spite of that, there was still large developing scope left for such aspects as the model efficacy retest, gender views incorporation, the limitation of individual behavior model, and the intervening applicability of model intensification
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    The Study of Psychological Separation in Western Country
    Tu Cuiping;Xia Cuicui;Fang Xiaoyi
    . 2008, 16 (01): 134-142.  
    Abstract   PDF (742KB) ( 1716 )
    In recent years, researchers interested in the influence of family on the development of children, while foreign family researchers and therapists began pay attention to the study of psychological separation. psychological separation is the process of individual separates from their family and develops their individuation psychologically. The article focuses on the definition of psychological separation, the theoretic background of psychological separation, which consists of Mahler’s developmental phases theory and Bowen’s systemic family theory, measurement of psychological separation,and conclusions of previous researches, expatiate the inspiration which psychological separation researches bring to our national family research and therapy, and prospect the research of future
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    The Research of Trait Orientation on Job Satisfaction
    Zhang Xinggui;Guo Yang
    . 2008, 16 (01): 143-153.  
    Abstract   PDF (731KB) ( 1873 )
    The paper reviewed past research on the dispositional source of job satisfaction. It provided detailed studies of relationship between personality and job satisfaction with different theories and frameworks describing the structure and nature of personality, and introduced how personality influenced job satisfaction. Then it reviewed the studies of dynamic relationships among personality, affect and job satisfaction. Finally, areas for further research were put forward, such as the psychological mechanisms and the dynamic relationships among personality, affect and job satisfaction
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    Voluntary Control of Saccadic Eye Movements: Experimental Paradigm, Nerve Mechanisms and Application
    Chen Yuying;Sui Guangyuan;Zhai Bin
    . 2008, 16 (01): 154-162.  
    Abstract   PDF (730KB) ( 1468 )

    Voluntary control of saccadic eye movements is one type of the saccades. The experimental paradigm of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements has provided an important research instrument for studying a variety of brain lesions, neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders, and provided an important research method for studying brain nerve mechanisms of saccades and higher cognitive functions of the brain such as response inhibition and spatial working memory. This article introduces two types of experimental paradigms of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements: anti-saccades and memory-guided saccades. Then, it introduces the brain nerve mechanisms of the voluntary control of saccadic eye movements and the application of these two types. Finally, it makes a conclusion and gains a perspective on the presen

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    Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis
    in Psychology Research
    Zhou Mingjie;Zhang Jianxin
    . 2008, 16 (01): 163-168.  
    Abstract   PDF (689KB) ( 2030 )
    Discussions of research methodology in psychology tend to be dominated by a contrast, and often conflict, between two approaches, the quantitative and the qualitative. Although they both have their superiority, their disadvantages are also obvious. What we are now thinking about is how to integrate these two methods in order to exert their advantages and avoid their disadvantages. The premise of integrating these two methods is to de-emphasize the terms of quantitative and qualitative research and put these two kinds of data into the same scale while integrating. Here, a heuristic example was shown to illustrate how to apply this mixed-methodological analysis
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    Everyday Experience Study:A Unique and Heuristic Research Method
    Li Wenjing;Zheng Quanquan
    . 2008, 16 (01): 169-174.  
    Abstract   PDF (716KB) ( 1656 )
    As a method to explore phenomenon and processes in spontaneous and natural context by examining ongoing experience as it occurs in the ebb and flow of everyday life, everyday experience method is designed to get information about the persistence, cyclicity, change, and temporal structure of thought, emotion, and behavior that extract from detailed descriptions of specific moments or events in person’s life, as well as identifying situational and dispositional correlates of these patterns. Participants are asked to frequently report events and experiences of their daily lives so as to provide information that are hard to get by using traditional research designs. The value of this method is, in company with other methods, to help researchers to understand psychological phenomenon and processes under the guidance of methodological triangulation, so as to explore and comprehend human’s inner world as deeply as we can
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    Statistical Methods for Detecting Answer Copying
    Han Dan;Guo Qingke;Wang Zhao;Chen Xuexia
    . 2008, 16 (01): 175-183.  
    Abstract   PDF (742KB) ( 1554 )
    Answer copying is the hardest form of cheating to detect. There are two types of statistical methods to detect it: answer-copying statistics (ACS) and person-fit statistics (PFS). In ACS the likelihood of two examinees to give same answer pattern is calculated, the copier is detected if the likelihood is rather small. PFS compares an observed item score pattern with a test model predicted, examinees who give aberrant item pattern are suspected to be the copier. Many other factors besides answer copying can give rise to inflated PFS. While ACS is especially presented to detect answer copying. Many researches were found that the detection rate of ACS was higher than PFS. ACS has been broadly used to detect answer copying in SAT, Licensure and certification examinations in America
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    Latency-based Implicit Measures of Personality and the Relevant Methodological Issues
    Li Ming;Du Jianzheng
    . 2008, 16 (01): 184-191.  
    Abstract   PDF (702KB) ( 1776 )
    Implicit social cognition research has brought a renaissance of interest in personality processes that operate outside of awareness or deliberate behaviour. However, contemporary methods no longer focus on latent or unconscious, but rather on implicit or automatic processes; the many recently developed implicit measures tend to be based on response times rather than on the interpretation of content of narratives. Methods like the Implicit Association Test and its variants, such as Multifactor Trait IAT, Personalized IAT, Implicit Association Procedure, and Single-Target IAT etc, have sparked a lot of interest, which have been developed to assess individual differences in many aspects of the self-concept of personality. This paper reviewed these new methods, as well as some relevant methodological issues. Several questions were also put forward to clarify the current consideration on these issues
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    Thanks to all reviewers 2007
    editor
    . 2008, 16 (01): 192-192.  
    Abstract   PDF (109KB) ( 1759 )
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