ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    15 November 2007, Volume 15 Issue 06 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    The Application of EEG Coherence Analysis
    in Language Comprehension
    Wang Lin;Zhang Qingfang;Yang Yufang
    2007, 15 (06):  865-871. 
    Abstract ( 1558 )   PDF (872KB) ( 1796 )  
    The EEG coherence reveals information exchanges among the EEG signals which are elicited in different brain areas, it can be used to explore the communication pattern of functional networks in different cognitive processes. The present paper firstly introduces the principles of the method, and then reviews the application of the EEG coherence analysis in language comprehension studies at word processing level and sentence processing level. We present the experiment results at word level from the aspects of common cognitive process, grammar process and semantic process, and sentence level from the aspect of semantic integration. Finally we indicate the advantages and disadvantages of EEG coherence methods, in the meanwhile the directions for future research are prospected
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    Electrophysiological Basis of Individual Differences of Intelligence: Evidence from EEG and ERP Data
    Ma Yanyan;Li Shouxin
    2007, 15 (06):  872-877. 
    Abstract ( 1533 )   PDF (870KB) ( 1948 )  
    The electrophysiological research of individual differences of intelligence has developed greatly in recent years. This article includes the application of EEG and ERP electrophysiological techniques in research of individual differences of intelligence and the new development of this field, which is the negative correlation between intelligence and brain activation can be influenced by task difficulties, the content of task and sex of subjects. Furthermore, this article discusses the problems in the previous electrophysiological research of individual differences of intelligence, such as the task in ERP research is too simple to reflect actual intelligence activities. At last, this article points the more and more obvious trend of using multi-electrophysiological techniques for the research of individual differences of intelligence
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    Self-Conscious Emotions: Advanced Emotions of Human
    Feng Xiaohang;Zhang Xiangkui
    2007, 15 (06):  878-884. 
    Abstract ( 1929 )   PDF (850KB) ( 2220 )  
    Self-conscious emotions (SCE) are based on self-evaluation of individual, and are produced by self-reflection. There are some relationships and differences between SCE and basic emotions. Self-awareness, self-representation and self-evaluation are the most important elements for the production of SCE. The main functions of SCE are to adjust the self-regulation of the individual’s behavior, serve interpersonal communication and reciprocity, and serve the need of intra-psychics. SCE are formed and developed following the development of cognition. SCE are also influenced by culture. The main methods of SCE include self-report scales, coding of nonverbal behavior skills, verbal reports and behavioral measures, and measures on nerve imaging. The universality and particularity of SCE need to be validated through cross-culture study
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    The Differentiation Hypothesis of Intelligence Structure
    Zeng Yi;Chen Shaohua
    2007, 15 (06):  885-889. 
    Abstract ( 1988 )   PDF (845KB) ( 1214 )  
    This paper discussed the possibility that intelligence structure might be changed with individual differences such as ability and age. The cognitive-differentiation hypothesis indicates that higher-ability individuals have ‘more’ intelligence and the effect of g factor descends with IQ increasing in their intelligence structure. The age-differentiation hypothesis states that from childhood to early maturity, the effect of g factor decreases with increasing age in cognitive ability. However, from early maturity to late adulthood, an increase in the importance of g factor and a decrease in the number and importance of the remaining abilities are predicted. Future researches in this field should resolve the problem of measurement & assessment instruments, and extend the range of subjects’ ability and age
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    A Summary of Integrity Test in Western Countries
    Teng Zhaohan;Chen Guohai
    2007, 15 (06):  890-898. 
    Abstract ( 1856 )   PDF (867KB) ( 1475 )  
    Integrity test, one paper-pencil test, is used to evaluate employees’ honest, integrity, and reliability during personnel recruitment and selection, and predict their stealing behaviour, counter-productivity, and performance. This article summarizes the development and application of the integrity test in Western Countries. Integrity test generally showed acceptable reliability and validity. Conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability dimensions of the Big-Five personality traits were found to be the potential constructs of the integrity test, and other individual constructs beyond of the Big-Five personality traits were also found to have a significant relationship with integrity test. The integrity test scores were significant predictors of counter-productivity and overall job performance. Based on a few controversies and problems for the integrity test in Western countries, several suggestions for its development and application in China are proposed
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    A Review of Coping Questionnaires Based on Different Approaches
    Xiang Xiaomi,  Zhang Jinfu,  Han Jingjing
    2007, 15 (06):  899-907. 
    Abstract ( 1333 )   PDF (862KB) ( 1629 )  
    Coping is among the most widely studied topics in contemporary psychology. This paper gives an overview of the main theories of coping research and the questionnaires based on different approaches. The five studying approaches in coping research are proposed: the process approach, the trait approach, the cognitive thinking approach, the coping ability approach, and the specific-situation approach. In the end, the methodological challenges, theoretical advances and clinical applications for future research on stress and coping are discussed
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    The Impact of Caregiving
    on Family Caregivers’ Psychological Well-Being
    Su Wei;Zheng Gang
    2007, 15 (06):  908-915. 
    Abstract ( 2182 )   PDF (856KB) ( 1484 )  
    Caregiving to dependent family members has both positive and negative effects on caregivers’ psychological well-being via separate paths and different factors. Early studies mostly focused on the negative outcomes of family caregiving at individual level. More recently, the positive aspect of caregiving and factors concerning cultural context and interpersonal relationship were more emphasized. This article introduces the advance in theoretical approaches in family caregiver research from the Stress Process Model to the Two-Factor Model, and summarizes studies on relevant factors that could affect caregivers at different levels in both positive and negative dimensions. Two trends are represented in family caregiver’s studies, a) more integrated and systematic theoretical perspectives, and b) the foci of studies on factors concerning interpersonal relations and the interaction between individuals and the cultural context. Problems and future orientation in the studies in China are also discussed
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    Vocational Rehabilitation for Outpatients with Mental Illness

    Wang ;Hector Tsang3;Shi Kan

    2007, 15 (06):  916-922. 
    Abstract ( 2000 )   PDF (854KB) ( 1166 )  
    Vocational rehabilitation is a focus of concern among psychiatric rehabilitation researchers in western countries. Vocational rehabilitation helps those with severe mental illness achieve and maintain jobs which supply them with a source of income, provide a source of self-esteem and identity, advance their quality of life, and facilitate them towards community re-integration. In this article, recent advances in research and practice of vocational rehabilitation are reviewed which include the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model, Work-related Social Skills Training (WSST), and the newly developed Integrated Supported Employment (ISE) service protocol. Their implications for further development in mainland China are discussed
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    The Development of Interpersonal Psychotherapy
    Xu Haiyan,  Huang Xiting
    2007, 15 (06):  923-929. 
    Abstract ( 2178 )   PDF (855KB) ( 1801 )  
    Interpersonal psychotherapy is a time-limited, manual-and-life-event based, diagnosis-targeted, and empirically tested treatment, which was originally developed for adult out-patients diagnosed with major depression and now for many sorts of disorders. There are some changes in its therapy process, including whether or not to give patients a “sick role”, what to include in its problem areas, and how to deal with its termination and arrange time. Besides, this article provides a few process studies, analyses its briefness and integration with other psychotherapeutic factors and at last offers a discussion of features and problems of interpersonal psychotherapy’s development
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    he Work-Family Conflict:
    Its Antecedents, Consequences and Intervention Strategies
    Luo Yaoping, Fan Huiyong, Zhang Jinfu
    2007, 15 (06):  930-937. 
    Abstract ( 1771 )   PDF (893KB) ( 1718 )  
    Along with the tremendous change in labor structure and job characters, the issues of work-family conflict became imperative. The domestic and international researches, based on the perspective of job, family and individual, conducted profound investigations on antecedents, consequences and intervention strategies of work-family conflict. The antecedent variables mainly referred to demand from work and family, gender and so on; and the consequence variables mainly included work/family satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover and well-being; and the intervention strategies comprise family-friendly policies, individual coping strategies and so forth. The authors proposed that future researched pay more attention on the positive sides of work-family conflict and cross-cultural study etc
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    Review of Job Insecurity
    Hu Sanman
    2007, 15 (06):  938-947. 
    Abstract ( 2271 )   PDF (862KB) ( 3449 )  
    Job insecurity refers to employees’ perceptions and concerns about the threats of imminent job loss and loss of valued job features. The issue of job insecurity has received growing recognition in the research fields of organizational behavior and occupational health psychology since 1980’s. This paper recommended five distinct ways to clarify the opaque and then focused on the measures and research approaches. Moreover, a great deal of empirical work about antecedents, consequences and moderators of job insecurity has been systematically reviewed. Finally, new trends pertaining to the future research of job insecurity were discussed as follows: (1) standard measurement; (2) situation of organizational changes; (3) antecedents and consequences; (4) moderators; (5) longitudinal research; (6) cross-culture comparison
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    Principal Theories, Measurement and Relevant Variables of Organizational Identification
    Wei Jun;Cheng ZhongYuan;Zhang Mian
    2007, 15 (06):  948-955. 
    Abstract ( 2176 )   PDF (882KB) ( 1796 )  
    Organizational identification (OID) is an individual’s perception of himself deriving from his knowledge of his membership of a particular organization. It differs markedly from other concepts of organization behavior research such as organizational identity (OI) and organizational commitment (OC). This paper reviewed three principal theories of OID: difference theory, resource theory and information theory. It compared their findings and discusses the relationship between them. Furthermore, it focused on introducing ways of measuring OID and on antecedents at the level of both organization and individual, and it investigated the possible consequences of OID for relevant variables such as a “tendency to leave”. Finally the paper pointed to several areas for future research, such as how the definition of OID might be expanded, antecedents and cultural differences
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    A Review of Research on Work Ethic in Organization
    Wang Minghui;Guo Lingling;Ling Wenquan
    2007, 15 (06):  956-961. 
    Abstract ( 2060 )   PDF (848KB) ( 1479 )  
    Work ethic is generally defined as a psychological construct that is based on individual’s evaluation about the occupational behaviors and interpersonal transaction in the organization, including internal attitudes/values and external behaviors. The article reviews the state of work ethic researches in organization, presenting the development of work ethic conception, construct and measurement, relatively experimental researches, cross-cultures researches and comparative researches. Finally, the authors point out some promising fields that the research will be conducted from theory and practice
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    A Review of the Development of Research on Ambivalent Attitude
    Chen Zhixia;Chen Jianfeng
    2007, 15 (06):  962-967. 
    Abstract ( 910 )   PDF (850KB) ( 1401 )  
    This paper introduced and discussed the development of research on general ambivalent attitude and specific ambivalent attitude on race, gender, etc. The concept of ambivalent attitude refers to the simultaneously existence and its degree of positive and negative evaluations and feelings to an attitude object. The operations of ambivalent in current researches were variety, included direct and indirect measurements. The relevant researches mainly concentrated on its antecedents, consequences and strength, etc
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    Social Relation Model (SRM): A New Strategy for Individual Difference Research
    Zhang Hongyu;Xu Yan; Liu Hengchao
    2007, 15 (06):  968-973. 
    Abstract ( 1450 )   PDF (879KB) ( 1629 )  
    It was promising that personality should be understood better under the social culture context and interpersonal relationship background. The theorical model of personality, especially the interpersonal theory of personality represented this trend that the individual behaviors were rooted in the social relation. As a new method and a broad, general analytical tool of resent decade years, the Social Relation Model (SRM) arose from the field of interpersonal perception and person perception. According to this model, three effects, including “perceiver effects”, “target effects” and “relation effects” could be apart from the interpersonal interactions statistically. In this article, from the perspective of interpersonal theory of personality, by introduction the meaning of SRM and its applications in other research topics, it suggested that the SRM would be useful to provide another strategy and specific tool to analyze the individual difference effectively. Furthermore, it could be a renovated way that facilitate to answer the questions of some aspects in personality research
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    The Effects of Money on Subjective Well-being
    and Their Psychological Mechanism
    Li Jing Guo Yongyu
    2007, 15 (06):  974-980. 
    Abstract ( 1637 )   PDF (851KB) ( 2414 )  
    Traditional economists suggest that more income will lead to greater well-being, while psychologists are more cautious on this question. They investigated the relationship between money and subjective well-being in many ways, and have drawn some think conclusions. Studies have shown that money has effects on subjective well-being through such mediate variables as personality, goals, motives, social comparison, adaption and stress. Future studies should improve on the research subjects and methods, and be more conducted on the psychological mechanism. What’s more, more studies based on the Chinese culture are needed as they have important practical meaning in China
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    A Influence Factor of Prejudice: Authoritarian Personality
    Lee Qiong;Guo Yongyu
    2007, 15 (06):  981-986. 
    Abstract ( 1534 )   PDF (846KB) ( 1856 )  
    The term authoritarian personality, introduced by Adorno and his colleagues, is to discribe the personality dimension of prejudice. Basing on this, Altemeyer introduced Right-Wing Authoritarianism, which consists of three components: authoritarian submission, conventionalism, and authoritarian aggression. But later some researchers suggested that these concepts should be regarded as attitudes, the foundation of which is the personality dimension of social conformity versus autonomy. The authoritarians are very sensitive to the violation of conventional values, which is an important source of threat, and the perception of threat is the trigger for prejudice
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    Poverty and Anti-poverty: Psychologic Approaches

    Wu Shangtao;Zhang Jianxin

    2007, 15 (06):  987-992. 
    Abstract ( 2132 )   PDF (851KB) ( 1851 )  
    Poverty amid plenty is the world’s greatest challenge, so an important mission of psychologists is to understand poverty with corresponding mental models and decision-making, and to improve happiness and justice of human beings. The present article illuminated the role of psychology in understanding and addressing poverty, and introduced approaches of poverty psychology, including research design, measurement and other relevant factors. The authors also suggested that, special target groups, more reliable measurement and sociogenic and personalistic factors should be concerned in the future directions of poverty psychology, based on a summary of achievements and existing problems
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    Stigma Phenomenon and Its Psychological Effects
    Zhang Baoshan;Yu Guoliang
    2007, 15 (06):  993-1001. 
    Abstract ( 1968 )   PDF (874KB) ( 2116 )  

    Stigma in essence is a negative stereotype. It is a devalued and insulted label which is imposed on some individuals or groups by the public. Stigma has profound effects on its targets. This article reviews the stigma-related literatures in three aspects. First, some important definitions of the stigma are introduced. Then the psychological effects of stigma are interpreted, including the function of stigmatizing others, the influences of stigma on the stigmatized individuals and the public attitudes and reactions to stigmas. Third, researches in two main areas of stigma are reviewed: 1. studies on discrimination of stigmas, and 2. studies of concealable stigma, e.g. psychological process and emotions of concealing stigma, implications of disclosing stigma etc. Finally, prospects of stigma studies in the future are recommended: studies of concealable stigmas, implicit social cognition and intervention to eliminate the negative influences of stigma

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    Expert Psychological Witnesses of British and American Law System
    He Xiaoling;Chen Jun;Zhang Jijia
    2007, 15 (06):  1002-1008. 
    Abstract ( 1677 )   PDF (849KB) ( 1345 )  
    Expert witnesses are correlative experts who provide scientific written report and give directly testimony on the court with professional knowledge and technology at the require of court. Expert psychological witnesses are psychologists who stand on the court and give the testimony. British and American law system is very different from continental law system which is mainly used in our country. This article intents to open a new eyesight for national law area and psychology area by introducing the history、the working process、the controversy and the existed experimental researches of expert psychological witnesses of British and American law system, and also intent to explore the possibility of applying Expert psychological witness for our country law system
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