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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    15 March 2008, Volume 16 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Five Dimensions of Situation Models Constructing in Text Processing
    Hu xiaoling;Chen Jun;Zhang Jijia
    2008, 16 (02):  193-199. 
    Abstract ( 2171 )   PDF (653KB) ( 1537 )  
    Situation Models Theory is one of the most important theories of contemporary western reading research. This article made a complicated introduction of five dimensions space, time, causation, protagonist and intention in order to be helpful for the whole understanding of the theory. According to the paper, we can know that there are more research results in space, time and protagonist dimensions, and the research paradigm are more mature; the research results are less in time and intention dimensions
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    The Dynamic Text Comprehension View
    and Application of Computer Simulation
    Li Ying;Mo Lei;Leng Ying;Wang Ruiming
    2008, 16 (02):  200-206. 
    Abstract ( 1051 )   PDF (715KB) ( 1349 )  
    he study of information process in discourse reading is a hot point in discourse psychology and other related researches. Recently, dynamic text comprehension view and computational model of discourse has been more and more popular. Compared to previous discourse theories, dynamic text comprehension view integrates the on-line process and off-line representation in reading course and the correlation between each other. It also tries to capture the activation fluctuation of all text concepts in the whole reading cycles. The method of using computational model to investigate discourse reading differs from other methods recording subjects’ reading responses. The computer programme simulates information activation of readers and the outcome after reading. The simulation data is consistent with the result of behavior studies
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    Why People Underestimate the Time of Completing a Task: A Review
    Zou Zengli;Zhang Zhijie;Wang Yujuan
    2008, 16 (02):  207-212. 
    Abstract ( 1576 )   PDF (645KB) ( 1521 )  
    People frequently underestimate how long it will take them to complete a task. The view of planning fallacy theory is that during the prediction process, people incorrectly use or ignore their memories of how long similar tasks have taken in the past because they take an overly optimistic outlook. Memory bias theory holds a different explanation: People base predictions of future duration on their memories of how long past events have taken, but these memories are systematic underestimates of past duration. People appear to underestimate event duration because they underestimate past event duration. Although there are some argues between these two theories, from the view of Construal Level Theory, theorists can find the sameness between them, they can coexist
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    Review on Binocular Rivalry
    Feng Chengzhi;Jia Fengqin
    2008, 16 (02):  213-221. 
    Abstract ( 2342 )   PDF (885KB) ( 1850 )  
    Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon of the dynamic alternations in perception that occur when different images are presented to the two eyes. It has been the subject of intensive investigation for nearly two centuries. The present paper reviewed the definition, the measuring indices in common use, the characteristics and influential factors of binocular rivalry. The relationship between binocular rivalry and the other multistable perception had been well described. Based on the psychophysical studies, newer imaging and electrophysiological research results, the low-level interocular competition between monocular neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) or in the lateral geniculate nucleus (early processing model) and binocular rivalry transpires later in visual processing (later processing model) all had their own shortcomings to account for the results coming from different research fields and resolve the discrepancies. Finally, the new emerging hybrid model was introduced and which could account for the paradoxical properties of binocular rivalry and provide insights into the neural bases of visual awareness. Although unanswered questions remained, this review of binocular rivalry might allow us to focus on the mainly unresolved issues and controversies, and help us make use of it as a powerful tool to investigate the charming filed: unconsciousness
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    Theory of Object File: Past, Present and Future
    JIang Huaibin
    2008, 16 (02):  222-227. 
    Abstract ( 1926 )   PDF (682KB) ( 1146 )  
    Theory of Object File (OF) is one of important theories which formulate how to build up persisting representation of objects in dynamic situation. Begin with the theory of FIT which firstly refers to the concept of OF, the article reviewed the model of OF and its experimental demonstration. Based on OF theory, some issues as to the underlying characteristics of forming, persisting and updating of OF are discussed. Then, the article introduces theory of Event File developed from OF theory recently. Finally, some suggestions are made regard to some contradictions of research on OF in dynamic temporal-spatial condition such as the core hypothesis of OF, the type of information stored in OF and theirs’ relationship, etc
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    Hemispheric Asymmetry Effects in Global/Local Processing
    Zhang Xiaocong;Cau Houde
    2008, 16 (02):  228-233. 
    Abstract ( 1000 )   PDF (647KB) ( 1358 )  
    Evidence from researches in the later 20th century suggested that there was a debate about whether the hemispheric asymmetry emerged at an early or a later stage in the processing of global /local aspects of Navon-hierarchical stimulus. Recent electrophysiological and functional imaging studies have shown that hemispheric asymmetry effect in global/local processing may be a complex and dynamic system modulated by many factors; hemispheric asymmetry at early information representation stage may be mainly affected by perceptual factors, while hemispheric difference at the later stage of perceptual processing may be mainly modulated by attentional manipulation and response conflicts
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    fMRI Studies on Identity Recognition
    Zhao Lixiang;Hu Zhiguo;Zhang Xuexin
    2008, 16 (02):  234-239. 
    Abstract ( 1530 )   PDF (684KB) ( 1307 )  
    Identity recognition plays a vital role in our daily life. Identity recognition can be based on face, voice, or both. Firstly, this article reviews fMRI studies on identity recognition through face and voice processing, including recognition of integrative identity and the subcomponent of identity, such as race, age, sex, and familiarity. The relationship between face and voice processing in identity recognition is then discussed. Finally, the article analyzes the existing research in the area and suggests several directions for future research
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    The Generation of Multiple Saccadic Sequences and Its Function in Psychology
    Yang Yongsheng;Ding Jinhong
    2008, 16 (02):  240-249. 
    Abstract ( 1554 )   PDF (757KB) ( 1325 )  
    A series of saccades are carried out during viewing visual scenes in our daily life. In recent years, lots of in-depth discussions on the phenomenon of multiple saccadic sequences were made. However, controversies still exist. This paper reviews mechanism of multiple saccadic sequences from four aspects: its neurophysiological basis, its impact on updating of visual information, the role played by attention in this phenomenon, and the relationship between it and memory as well
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    A Review of Cognitive Neuroscience Studies on Empathy
    CUI Fang;NAN Yun;LUO Yue-Jia
    2008, 16 (02):  250-254. 
    Abstract ( 1784 )   PDF (641KB) ( 2064 )  
    Empathy is the understandings and feelings about other people’s emotion and thoughts, which is vital for individual development and human society. Recently, the neural basis of empathy is attracting more and more attention in neuroscience research. Functional imaging studies have demonstrated activation of some key areas associated with empathy in the human brain. Basic and clinical evidence also suggests that a better understanding of neural basis of empathy has important implications for autism and anti-social personality. This article reviews empathy-related research and highlights its possible future
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    Cognitive Bias of Panic Disorder
    An Xianli;Zheng Xigeng
    2008, 16 (02):  255-259. 
    Abstract ( 1575 )   PDF (641KB) ( 1509 )  
    This paper reviewed the cognitive bias of Panic Disorder on attention, interpretation and memory. We concluded that the attention bias can enhance anxiety feelings, the interpretative bias can increase anxiety levels and the memory bias can facilitate the retrieve of anxiety experiences. As studies have shown that these three kinds of cognitive bias maybe are the vulnerable factors of PD, and also maybe are the key factors in developing and maintaining of PD
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    Attentional Bias in Major Depressive Disorder

    Dai Qin;Feng Zhengzhi
    2008, 16 (02):  260-265. 
    Abstract ( 1049 )   PDF (645KB) ( 2097 )  
    Attentional bias in major depressive disorder is an important problem in cognitive research of depression. This article discussed it in several aspects including paradigm, character of attentional bias and theory explaining, according to paradigms, there were Stroop, probe-detection and cue-target several paradigms; according to character of attentional bias in major depressive disorde, it included that the object should be clinical patients, needed long exposure time and the intensity of the stimulus shouldn’t be too low et al; according to the theories of attentional bias, there were attentional element, attention narrow with focusing, cognitive load and arousing level et al. The article also discussed the future research field at last
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    Perception and Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotion in Schizophrenia
    Mo Shuliang;Chen Chuqiao
    2008, 16 (02):  266-273. 
    Abstract ( 2199 )   PDF (655KB) ( 1745 )  
    Previous studies have found the impairment of emotional facial expressions processing in schizophrenia. But controversy still exists as to whether this deficit is generalized or emotion-specific, and how to associate with clinical symptomatology and cognitive functions. In this paper, we first reviewed some researches on emotional facial expressions in the patients with schizophrenia. Then, some issues were discussed including negative and positive emotions processing, differential deficit design and the relationship between emotional facial expressions and symptomatology and cognition. Some training studies improving the ability to perceive facial emotions for schizophrenia and some studies exploring the neuro-mechanisms underlying the deficit of perceiving emotional facial expressions for schizophrenic were introduced. Finally, the directions of future research and some problems need to be resolved were discussed
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    Psychological Stress and DNA Damage
    Zheng Ping;Zhang Junjian;Guo Yongyu
    2008, 16 (02):  274-281. 
    Abstract ( 2160 )   PDF (672KB) ( 1481 )  
    Psychological stress affects human beings not only at behavior levels but also at physical levels, which even results in some diseases. DNA-damage is one of the ultimate outcomes of those behavior disorders or diseases. However, the mechanism how psychological stress leads to DNA-damage is unclear. This article critically reviews what effects psychological stress has on DNA damage and the possible mechanisms of those effects. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the process of psychological stress leading to DNA damage. With a theoretical model in health psychology being integrated into some experimental research about acute and chronic stress,the relationship between the psychological stress and the DNA-damage has been clarified. Moreover, potential measures of intervention for clinical practice have been proposed to prevent diseases
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    Brain Overgrowth in Autism During the Early Life and Its Implication

    Cao Shuqin;Fang Junming

    2008, 16 (02):  282-289. 
    Abstract ( 1522 )   PDF (683KB) ( 1534 )  
    In the study of brain structure of autism, an important conclusion has recently been drawn that the brain of autism overgrows in their early life compared with normal individual. Further, It has been revealed that the brain overgrowth is primarily due to the abnormality in white matter. Moreover, it has been found that the overgorwth is more obvious in the later developmenting cerebral areas mediating higher-order functions. As a result, the finding can be applied to the early identification of autism. In addition, it also can be deduced that autism is not attributed to localized neurological abnormalities. Actually, there may be a distributed neurological disorder in autism
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    The Advance of the Temporal Dynamics of Affective Responding
    LI Gai;FANG Ping;JIANG Yuan
    2008, 16 (02):  290-294. 
    Abstract ( 1546 )   PDF (641KB) ( 1507 )  

    he temporal dynamics of affective responding refers to the time course feature of affective responding. It is an important feature of affective style, emotion regulation and the resilience of emotion. The researches on the temporal dynamics of affective responding have both practical and theoretical significance in improving the physical and mental health, as well as perfecting the emotion theory. On the basis of extant literature, the paper expounds the connotation and extension of the temporal dynamics of affective responding and other relevant theories, illustrates the present study of its various parameters and influential factors and suggests that future researches should integrate the index of autonomic physiological responses and culture context etc

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    The Relationship of Positive and Negative Emotion: Theories and Researches
    LIU Hong-Yan1;HU Zhi-Guo;PENG Dan-Ling
    2008, 16 (02):  295-301. 
    Abstract ( 1094 )   PDF (653KB) ( 2692 )  
    The relationship of positive and negative emotion is one of the most hot-debated foci in the field of emotion research. In this article, we reviewed the models and corresponding researches addressing this issue from four aspects, including: (1) Bipolar model of emotion and corresponding evidences; (2) Bivariate model of emotion and corresponding evidences; (3) Mixed model of emotion and corresponding evidences; (4) New view to resolve the conflict among these models: conditional theory. In the end, the deficiencies in this area were analyzed and some suggestions were provided for future studies
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    Arnold’s Emotion Theory in the Perspective of Emotions Research Today
    Qiao Jiaozhong
    2008, 16 (02):  302-305. 
    Abstract ( 2011 )   PDF (635KB) ( 1560 )  
    The extent and depth of Arnold’s emotion theory and the enlightenment from the issues of the study on emotion are being looked on by the emotion researchers. Nowadays, Arnold’s emotion theory has great life-force and influence on today’s emotion field. The paper, integrating with the related literatures and personal understanding, generally comment on the thesis and the influences of Arnold’s emotion theory on today’s emotion research, which still hasn’t been studied in detail by the researchers in our country
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    Self, Memory and Culture:
    Advance in Cross-Cultural Researches of Autobiographical Memory
    Zhang Zhen;Zhang Jiangxin
    2008, 16 (02):  306-314. 
    Abstract ( 2402 )   PDF (660KB) ( 1782 )  
    Autobiographical memory reflects not only the processing and retrieving of self-knowledge, but also the specific social and cultural background. In recent decade, researches of cross-culture on autobiographical memory suggested that, in general, the differences existed in the age of earliest recollection, volume and specialty, using of internal state language, autonomous orientation between the east and the west. In addition, this paper regarded different self-view as the root of cross-cultural differences of autobiographical memory, and discussed its influence from the perspectives of self-concept, narrative style and parent-child memory sharing, transferring of society and multi-culture. The paper also dynamically explored effects of endogenous and exogenous factors on cultural and individual differences from developmental perspective based on Social Culture Developmental Theory. Finally, the paper referred to main methods in current and research trends in futur
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    A Review of the Theory of Planned Behavior
    Duan Wenting;Jiang Guangrong
    2008, 16 (02):  315-320. 
    Abstract ( 2863 )   PDF (874KB) ( 4199 )  
    Theory of planned behavior (TPB) is the most famous theory about attitude-behavior in social psychology and has been found to be well supported by empirical evidences. According to TPB, intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. In this paper, various aspects of TPB were introduced, including its derivation, general picture, measurements, new researches and developments. Other issues that remain unresolved and further studies were discussed in the end
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    Organizational Health: Concept, Features and Dimensions
    Wang Xingqiong;Chen Weizheng
    2008, 16 (02):  321-327. 
    Abstract ( 2164 )   PDF (682KB) ( 1528 )  
    Because organizations are facing unprecedented challenges and intense pressure, organizational health which has long been neglected is being the concern and attention of academics and business people at home and abroad. The authors review and sort out the existing research results, define the concept of organizational health, sum up the characteristics of it, such as environmental adaptability, self-regulation, learning innovation, sustained growth and the coexistence of organizational, staffs’ and social health, and enumerate the types of dimension partition. At present, the study on organizational health is still in the exploratory stage, and the basic problems such as the connotation and dimensions of organizational health and its measurement are the premises of the further cause-and-effect research on organizational health, then reliable managemental proposals for promoting organizational health can be provided
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    Interpersonal Initial Trust within Organizations
    Wei Huimin;Long Lirong
    2008, 16 (02):  328-334. 
    Abstract ( 2178 )   PDF (648KB) ( 1931 )  
    High initial trust is needed in new organizational relationships which are becoming more and more common and frequent. Initial trust could be predicated on some factors, i.e., disposition to trust and resource status of trustor, group membership and organizational role of trustee, third-party relationship and organizational features, which might reduce the risk of decision making. The further development of trust, perceived breach of psychological contract, cooperation, work attitudes, OCB and performance, were influenced by initial trust level. Finally, the research orientation in Chinese context is suggested
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    Current Studies on Bullying at Work
    Qing Yi;Shi Kan
    2008, 16 (02):  335-339. 
    Abstract ( 1919 )   PDF (640KB) ( 1677 )  
    Studying “Bullying at work” helps the development of healthy organization. Recently, it has become the focus of studies of work and health psychology. The studies on the result of bullying’s negative behavior go deeper and deeper. And, what’s more, the exploring of bullying and organization situation emerges as a new direction. The paper first introduces the meaning of bullying, then describes the newest methods and current studies on bullying at work, including incidence, process, coping ways of bullying and the relation between bullying and leadership. At last, the paper makes the conclusion and prospects of the two direction
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    Research on Perceived Supervisor Support: Review and Prospect
    Li Rui;Ling Wenquan
    2008, 16 (02):  340-347. 
    Abstract ( 2002 )   PDF (669KB) ( 1691 )  
    Perceived supervisor support (PSS) is defined as employees’ general views concerning the degree to which supervisors value their contributions and care about their well-being. Studies have indicated that PSS is related to a host of outcome variables, including work-related behaviors and attitudes as well as psychological stress and strains. Factors such as individual characteristics and job characteristics are significantly predictive of PPS. This paper summarized the theories and studies on PSS in the domain of OB and HRM, and pointed out some prospects for the future research such as the forming and intervening mechanism of PSS
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    Computerized Automatic Item Generation: An Overview
    Li Zhongquan;Zhang Houcan
    2008, 16 (02):  348-352. 
    Abstract ( 1958 )   PDF (654KB) ( 1107 )  
    Computerized automatic item generation has been gradually recognized as one of the promising techniques to deal with test exposure in recent years. Based on principles of cognitive psychology and psychometrics, items at target difficulty levels can be generated automatically during testing. The present article first introduced its theoretical foundation and popular approaches briefly, and then illustrated how to conduct automatic item generation with one of its approaches-cognitive design system approach. Finally the limits and further development of this technique were discussed
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