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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    2009, Volume 17 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Fast and Frugal Heuristics: The Related Debates and Brief Comments
    LIU Yong-Fang
    2009, 17 (5):  885-892. 
    Abstract ( 1210 )   PDF (752KB) ( 2838 )  
    In the basis of the bounded rationality and ecological rationality hypotheses, Professor Gigerenzer and the ABC group under the guidance of him discover and propose a series of “fast and frugal heuristics” such as recognition heuristis,take the best, priority heuristic,moral heuristic. Although a large number of studies show that these simple decision rules are rational and efficient cognitive strategies that save information, some researchers express doubts about them.In this article,the writer review and summarize the general debates about these heuristics as well as the specific debates around take the best, priority heuristic and moral heuristics,and give some brief comments.Fast and frugal heuristics are a promising research field with a lot of difficulties.In order to carry out their magnificent research project,the ABC group still need to do more works with more efforts.
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    The Mental Image Representation Underlying the Law of Parsimony: Interpreting the MHD
    in Another Way
    LI Xiao-Ping;GE Ming-Gui;LI Fei-Fei;XUAN Bin
    2009, 17 (5):  893-900. 
    Abstract ( 1288 )   PDF (751KB) ( 1317 )  
    A new interpretation of the MHD is given in this paper. According to it, most of the people are supposed to represent the MHD by mental image and obey the law of parsimony in their representation; Based on the two of these, people can only represent the MHD by dynamic mental image in the first stage of the problem, i.e., people can only imagine that the car appears randomly among the three doors; And at the second stage of the problem, people can also only imagine that the car appears randomly between the two doors which were left for the same reasons; though, they should have imagined that the car appears between the two doors underlying the ratio of 1:2. That is why the reasoning illusion exists.
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    The Development and Debate of Diversity Effect in Inductive Reasoning
    CHEN Qing-Fei;LEI Yi;OUYANG Han-Lu;LI Hong
    2009, 17 (5):  901-908. 
    Abstract ( 987 )   PDF (522KB) ( 1435 )  
    Diversity is one of the factors which affect inductive strength, that is, the more given number or variable of observations are, the stronger the inductive confidence is. The diversity effects among adults have been reported in a number of studies using a variety of methods. However, there has been considerable debate about whether children also prefer diverse samples as the basis for induction. While several initial developmental studies suggested that children do not consider the degree of sample diversity, some recent studies argue that children as young as 5 years old value sample diversity under certain circumstances. In the present review, the debate among these studies was analyzed from several differences of the research methods, such as the experimental paradigms, the difference between premises, experimental materials and the way to present, scope of properties and conceptual category, form of reasoning, and knowledge context. For future studies, paradigms in the research of other field and variety of materials should be widely adapted. Furthermore, the influential factors of diversity effect need to be explored in depth. What’s more, the diversity of other field should be mentioned, so as to translate basic research findings to clinical applications.
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    Discrepancy and Rethink of Models for Homophone Representation
    FANG Jie;LI Xiao-Jian
    2009, 17 (5):  909-916. 
    Abstract ( 1108 )   PDF (787KB) ( 1589 )  
    Both speech production and comprehension involve the representation of homophones in lexical access. The shared representation model by Levelt and the independent representation model by Caramazza for homophones were derived from the Two-Step Activation Model and Independent Network Model, respectively, in studies of speech production. These two models were tested with word frequency effect in language experiments and phonological treatments on patients. The article reviews the advance in related studies and explores the differences of the two models for homophone representation, suggesting that the representation of homophones has much to do with language difference, processing paradigms, perceptual modalities, and etc. From the studies on speech comprehension (speech perception and word recognition), however, it shows that the two representation models for speech production have difficulties explaining the representation of homophones, especially of Chinese homophones. Suggestions are made for feasible models of homophone representations according to the findings of resent studies on speech comprehension.
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    The Behavior and Brain Function of Word Processing in Illiterate Subjects
    CAO Xiao-Hua;LI Kui-Min;CHEN Chang-Ming;WENG Xu-Chu
    2009, 17 (5):  917-922. 
    Abstract ( 1088 )   PDF (770KB) ( 1348 )  
    Many studies have revealed the cognitive ability of illiteracy who had not receive normal school education. Originally, the studies of illiteracy concentrated on spoken processing and phonological awareness.Then, those studies of illiteracy investigated phonological and semantic processing of words. With the development of brain imaging techniques, many researchers focused on the illiteracy’ cognitive mechanism of word processing and how the early spelling ability modulated the organization of brain function. These researches discussed the function of the left fusiform gyrus in the word recognition and the laterality of brain function of illiteracy. In the future the studies of how the brain change with the illiteracy learning spelling and how the influence of cultural cognition to aging are interesting.
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    A Functional Approach to Memory Research
    Li Jing-Guang;Guo Xiu-Yan
    2009, 17 (5):  922-930. 
    Abstract ( 1230 )   PDF (784KB) ( 1769 )  
    Function of human memory, supported by the “design” (mechanism) of memory system, results from the adaption to environment. Thus, by inquiring into the adaptive problems in face of memory system, researchers could suggest solutions of the system, and finally verifies it empirically. This promising viewpoint is entitled the functional approach to memory research. Survival advantage (when recalling, participants perform better concerning the words rated for relevance to survival scenario than words encoded under other control processing conditions), the separation and cooperation of multiple memory systems, and remembering for future were exemplified to show how functional analyses could facilitate the understanding of memory mechanisms.
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    Semantic Memory in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    WANG Peng-Yun;LI Juan

    2009, 17 (5):  931-937. 
    Abstract ( 1095 )   PDF (768KB) ( 1361 )  
    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a transitional state between the cognitive decline of normal aging and that of dementia and describes patients with cognitive impairments beyond that expected for their age and education. This article reviewed recent studies on semantic memory in MCI patients by comparing their experimental tasks and summarizing the inconsistent results, and concluded that MCI patients have semantic memory deficits to some extent due to various reasons, and semantic memory tests may have provide important diagnostic and prognostic information in MCI patients. Future research needs combing multiple cognitive tasks including semantic memory test to find potential MCI patients as early as possible and to provide longer time window for intervention.
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    Integrative and Emotional Memory Model for Depression
    LIU Qing-Ying;FENG Zheng-Zhi
    2009, 17 (5):  938-943. 
    Abstract ( 1201 )   PDF (744KB) ( 2328 )  
    The earlier emotional memory models attempt to reveal the pathogenicity and mechanism of depression. There are multiple factors, while each model only stresses on some aspect. As a result, it is difficult to comprehensive, systematically, accurately explain it.The integrative and emotional memory model integrates cognitive structures, self-schemas, autobiographical memory and implicit memory, explaining the occurrence, maintenance and treatment of depression from the following pionts of view -encoding processes and retrieval processes, and providing new ideas for prophylaxis and treatment of depression.
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    The Cognitive Neuroscience Mechanisms of Synesthesia
    CHENG Da-Zhi;SUI Guang-Yuan;CHEN Chun-Ping
    2009, 17 (5):  944-950. 
    Abstract ( 1200 )   PDF (812KB) ( 2412 )  
    Synesthesia is a psychological process in which stimulation in one sensory modality also give rise to an experience in a different modality. With a combination of behavioral and neuroimaging methods, recent research has begun to identify the cognitive and neural basis of synesthesia. It summarizes the research results of grapheme–color synesthesia which were most intensively studied. The results suggest that synesthesia occurs in early sensory-perceptual processing and is akin to normal perceptual experiences in nature. The brain regions involve in fusiform gyrus (V4) and the specific areas of parietal cortex. In future research, the field of synesthesia will be broadened by comprehensive use of various research methods.
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    Pylyshyn’s Index Theory: A New Perspective of Visual Representation
    JIANG Huai-Bin;GONG Yan-Yan;YANG Li-Zhuang
    2009, 17 (5):  951-956. 
    Abstract ( 1040 )   PDF (745KB) ( 1399 )  
    The FINST model is a new theory explaining how human represent the outer world. Based on the context of index theory, some hypotheses of FINST and its experimental demonstrations in different paradigms such as multiple object tracking, line-illusory motion, pre-conceptual selection and subitizing are formulated in details. Then, some applicable areas including special education, human-computer interaction and linguistics are introduced. At last, some suggestions are put forward as to challenges to the basic hypotheses made by recent findings.
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    Neural Mechanism of Subjective Well-being
    GU Yuan-Yuan;LUO Yue-Jia
    2009, 17 (5):  957-963. 
    Abstract ( 1250 )   PDF (803KB) ( 2529 )  
    Well-being has been an everlasting theme of the human lives. Kahneman and his colleagues proposed the he Appraisal System, which provided the framework for studying subjective well-being (SWB). Relevant researches and significant findings in the neural basis for SWB in the past decade were reviewed in details, which covered four aspects (instantaneous utility, remembered utility, decision & predicted utility) of the Appraisal System and internal & external factors for global SWB.
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    Related Theories and Exploration on Dynamic Model of Empathy
    LIU Cong-Hui;WANG Yong-Mei;YU Guo-Liang;WANG Yong-Jun
    2009, 17 (5):  964-972. 
    Abstract ( 1435 )   PDF (800KB) ( 3961 )  
    Empathy is a kind of psychological process of interpersonal interaction. Appropriate empathy can not only increase the occurrence rate of pro-social behaviors, but also inhibit aggressive behaviors effectively. Previous researchers paid more attention to the definition, components, dimensions and mechanism of empathy from the static point of view, but few have built up empathy model from the dynamic perspective. However, with the occurrence and development mechanism of its own, empathy is a psychological phenomenon which happens in the process of interpersonal interaction. Elaborating on the empathy model with dynamic viewpoint is essential to the understanding of the core of empathy. In this article, firstly, we review the definitions given by previous researchers, based on which we raise the connotation of empathy. Secondly, we comment on the models and theories related to empathy, and then put forward the dynamic model of empathy, and compare it with the previous models. Finally, we summarize this article and give some outlooks for future research.
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    Biological Approaches to Explain Gender Development: Review and Prospect
    ZOU Ji-Lin;WANG Mei-Fang;CAO Ren-Yan;YAN Xiu-Mei
    2009, 17 (5):  973-982. 
    Abstract ( 1223 )   PDF (767KB) ( 1380 )  
    Biological, socialized and cognitive approaches represent three dominant theories about gender development. In recent years, biological approaches are remarkable and have obtained acceptability. The biological approaches of gender development can be divided into two perspectives, including the distal and proximal explanations. Distal evolutionary explanations generally involve evolutionary psychology, evolutionary developmental psychology and cross-species comparisons. Oppositely, proximal explanations involve behavioral genetics, and studies focusing on sex chromosomes, genes, hormones and brain structures and functions. This article summed up some specific influences of these biological factors on gender development, and pointed out several problems about research contents, methods and techniques in behavioral genetics studies, hormone studies and brain imaging studies. Moreover the prospects for the future studies are showed.
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    The Development of Children’s Mental Time Travel
    BAI Wen;WANG Mei-Fang;YAN Xiu-Mei
    2009, 17 (5):  983-989. 
    Abstract ( 1297 )   PDF (790KB) ( 1708 )  
    Mental time travel refers to the faculty that allows humans to mentally project themselves backwards in time to re-live, or forwards to pre-live events. There is growing interest in mental time travel in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, evolutionary psychology, comparative psychology, and developmental psychology. Current developmental studies on mental time travel suggested that the key developments of mental time travel occur between the ages of 3 to 5. In the end, the possible trends for the future developmental research were pointed out from the aspects of the paradigms, the techniques, the mechanism, the cultural differences and so on.
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    Review of the Studies on Rural Left-Behind Children in China
    LUO Jing;WANG Wei;GAO Wen-Bin
    2009, 17 (5):  990-995. 
    Abstract ( 2435 )   PDF (742KB) ( 6411 )  
    The left-behind children in the rural China is a special group whose parents or only father/mother went out to the urban and leave their children behind in the hometown. They generally have been taken care of by the other person even by themselves. The present study summarize literatures about the historical background, the definition of the rural left-behind children, some conclusion on their mental health, self-consciousness, emotion and social support, social behavior, personality, achievement and interpersonal relationship in school, family and life etc. The characteristics of former researches appear the “22N” model which has some problems. It certainly has some shortcoming and limitation of practice. As a result, new ideas of theoretic research and intervene strategy are:the left-behind children are not the problematic group, and they have individual difference. Most of important is they hold psychological resource of development and mature. However, the correlated researches and intervene must be on the basis of social needs.
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    Generativity:Individual Differences and Influencing Factors
    HE Jin-Lian;GUO Shao-Dan;ZHANG Li-Yan
    2009, 17 (5):  996-1001. 
    Abstract ( 1175 )   PDF (783KB) ( 1822 )  
    Generativity is a main psychosocial developmental task of the mid-adult individual, which involves productivity, parenting, leadership, interpersonal and social care, encompassing some domains such as generative concern, commitment, and action as well. It can be found in some life stages in varieties of forms. Recent researches suggest that generativity emphasizes a positive existence and development pattern of individual, which can promote interpersonal relationship and social harmony. The individual differences of generativity can be manifested in state level, age and gender role. And its main influencing factors are social culture demand, individual’s inner desire, and parenting styles. Future research will focus on integrating measure methods, and exploring the relationship between generativity and subjective well-being.
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    The Clinical Significance Methods for Analyzing Psychotherapy Outcomes
    ZHOU Jing;ZHENG Yong
    2009, 17 (5):  1002-1009. 
    Abstract ( 973 )   PDF (779KB) ( 1632 )  
    It is a key link in the study of psychotherapy outcomes that how to analyze the outcomes measure data. In the course of the study, the researchers found that the statistical significance methods used to were problematic. Therefore the concept of clinical significance was introduced in evaluating treatment efficacy. Western scholars have put forth the JT, GLN, EN and HA to verify the clinical significant change of clients. These methods were trying to afford the accurate information, however some issues still exist in the study of psychotherapy outcomes, such as the clarity of the concept, the integrity of the standards and data collection. Future research should focus on innovating or amending methods, or concern about the data interpretation is the currently two arguments. Our country should fetch in the clinical significance methods in consideration of the establishment of evaluating indicators and measurement tools, in order to evaluate the psychotherapy outcomes correctly and to enhance the efficacy of psychotherapy finally.
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    Review of Studies on Forgiveness Intervention: Effect of Forgiveness on Psychotherapy
    ZONG Pei;BAI Jin-Rong
    2009, 17 (5):  1010-1015. 
    Abstract ( 1152 )   PDF (740KB) ( 1798 )  
    Forgiveness is helpful to reduce anger, relieve pain and heal a harmful experience. In western countries, forgiveness intervention has been used in clinical and educational areas. The results show that it can significantly decrease the participants’ negative emotions such as anger, depression and anxiety and increase their positive feelings like hope and self-esteem. The Process Model and REACH Model are two typical theoretical models concerning forgiveness intervention. Both theories comprise many phases, among which defining forgiveness, recalling the hurt, building empathy, acknowledging one’s own offenses, committing to forgiving and overcoming unforgiveness are important phases to promote individual forgiveness and deserve special attention during forgiveness intervention.
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    Advice Taking in Decision-making Process
    XU Jing-Zhe;XIE Xiao-Fei
    2009, 17 (5):  1016-1025. 
    Abstract ( 1220 )   PDF (765KB) ( 1676 )  
    When facing a decision, people often rely on others’ advice. In the past two decades, research on advice taking has investigated how people take and use advice to make decisions. Specifically, three issues have been addressed: (a) the extent of advice-taking, (b) improvement in decision accuracy, and (c) confidence of both advisor and judge. This article first introduces the Judge-advisor system paradigm, and then summarizes the measurement and empirical results regarding the above three issues. It is suggested that future research should enrich the content of “advice”, pay more attention to “advisors”, extend the scope to decisions of taste, and explore the role that emotions might play in advice-taking process.
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    The Retrospect and Prospect of Judge-Advisor System Model
    LI Yue-Ran;LI Shu
    2009, 17 (5):  1026-1032. 
    Abstract ( 1131 )   PDF (776KB) ( 1310 )  
    Since the Judge-Advisor System (JAS) was proposed by Sniezek in 1995, it has attracted more and more research attention. Western psychologists have conducted a series of researches on the relationship between the Judge and the Advisors in JAS. Chinese scholars, however, paid little attention to JAS. The paper reviewed the literature that reported the paradigm, variables and the process model of JAS, and compared JAS with the group decision-making and team decision-making. Our analysis and discussion focus on the relationship among variables, trust mechanism, advice giving and the effects of task type. Finally, future research directions, such as cross-cultural role plays, are outlined.
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    A Review of Overseas Brand Personality Research
    WANG Bao-Li;JIANG Si-En;SUN Wei
    2009, 17 (5):  1033-1040. 
    Abstract ( 1257 )   PDF (751KB) ( 2809 )  
    Brand personality refers to a set of personality traits which consumer could perceive. According to the trail of overseas research documents on brand personality, The paper firstly introduces a definition of brand personality from the groups of brand image and brand image dimension, and then also reviews the composition dimensions of brand personality based on the personality type theory and personality trait theory, further summarizes and analyses the influence of brand personality on consume behavior and enterprises operating. Eventually the paper discusses the existing shortcomings of the present research and looks forward to the trend of brand personality research from three aspects just as research content, research method and theory reference.
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    Dual Mechanism of the Effects of Leader-member Exchange on both Leaders and Subordinates’ Work- related Outcomes
    ZHONG Li-Feng;ZHOU Ni-Shang;DONG Xiang;SONG Guang-Wen
    2009, 17 (5):  1041-1050. 
    Abstract ( 1007 )   PDF (772KB) ( 1424 )  
    Firstly, the present article reviewed the conceptualization, empirical studies of leader-member exchange. Then, from dual, social exchange, cross-cultural, and exchange network’s perspectives, discussed the empirical research of dual mechanism of the effects of leader-member exchange on both leaders and subordinates’ work-related outcomes, which included: (1) studying of the effects of leader-member exchange on both leaders and subordinates’ work-related outcomes from dual perspective; (2) exploring the mechanism of the effects of leader-member exchange on both leaders and subordinates based on social exchange theory; (3) testing the individual and organizational conditions which might moderate the relationship between leader-member exchange and both leaders and subordinates’ work-related outcomes. Based on reviewing of the relevant literature, the authors put forth specific research hypotheses, and finally indicated the future research domains and trends of the dual mechanism of the effects of leader-member exchange on both leaders and subordinates’ work-related outcomes.
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    Abusive Supervision in Organizations and the Relevant Studies
    LI Nan-Nan;CHEN Wei-Na;LING Wen-Quan
    2009, 17 (5):  1051-1058. 
    Abstract ( 1438 )   PDF (764KB) ( 1990 )  
    Abusive supervision was defined as subordinates’ perceptions of the extent to which supervisors engage in the sustained display of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors, excluding physical contact. Studies have indicated that abusive supervision is related to a host of outcome variables, including psychological and behavioral outcomes as well as effectiveness of employees and organizations. Factors such as supervisors’ perceptions of injustice and contract breach and some characteristics of subordinates and industrial environment are significantly predictive of abusive supervision. This paper summarized the theories and studies on abusive supervision in the domain of OB, and pointed out some prospects for the future research such as the preventing and intervening mechanism of abusive supervision.
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    Parsing the Definition and Typology of Enterprise Counterproductive Work Behavior
    ZHANG Jian-Wei;LIU Yu-Xin
    2009, 17 (5):  1059-1066. 
    Abstract ( 1256 )   PDF (773KB) ( 1952 )  
    Counterproductive Work Behavior(CWB)is an indispensable part of performance management. The introduction of CWB could both broadens and enriches the category of contextual performance. This paper first discussed details on the creation and development of CWB, and then systematically cleared up and defined the connotation of CWB from four aspects: main body, objects, nature and outcomes of CWB. The paper analyzed CWB’s construct from the historical perspective. In conclusion, the paper suggested that CWB’s research methodology should be improved scientifically and the CWB construct study should take Chinese cultural background into consideration to advance with the development of time.
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    Small Group Process and Interaction Analysis System
    HE Quan;Hora W TJITRA
    2009, 17 (5):  1067-1074. 
    Abstract ( 1075 )   PDF (754KB) ( 1826 )  
    A dynamic and complex group process can be defined by members’ actions and interactions. Much research focused on the interaction process and developed different observation analysis systems with frameworks of equilibrium, group function, or time theory. This study discussed the reliability, validity, theoretical orientation, analysis unit, and coding difficulty of these analysis systems, and suggested that a more sophisticated analysis system should take into account of the dynamic features of group task, the relationship between interaction process and group performance, and the utility of interaction coding systems.
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    Research on Induction-Deduction Asymmetry in Social Cognition
    DU Wei;YAN Chun-Ping;SUN Xiao-Min
    2009, 17 (5):  1075-1080. 
    Abstract ( 1124 )   PDF (732KB) ( 1370 )  
    It is argued that people tend to make more inductive inference from behaviors to traits (induction) than deductive inferences from traits to behaviors(deduction). Maass named this phenomenon as Induction-Deduction Asymmetry (IDA) and testified this phenomenon in the western culture. Researches showed that stereotype moderate this phenomenon. Whether the behavioral information consistent with one’s stereotype or not influences people’s induction, not deduction. People make more induction for the information consistent with their stereotype. What is more, the mechanism of IDA differs in different cultures. There is no significant preference for one of the two inference process of induction and deduction among easterners. The article introduced IDA and generalized the underlying reasons of this phenomenon and the advancement of related researches.
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    The Researches of Social Axioms
    MA Li-Li;ZHANG Jian-Xin
    2009, 17 (5):  1081-1087. 
    Abstract ( 1091 )   PDF (760KB) ( 1630 )  
    Over the years, in the field of psychology, researches of culture and culture difference have been based on values. In 2002, Leung and his colleagues developed a framework of generalized beliefs called social axioms, which gave a new approach to define culture. As a new psychological concept different from social attitude, values or personality traits, social axioms may be conceptualized as one’s social beliefs about oneself, the social and physical environment, or the spiritual world, and are in the form of an assertion about the relationship between two entities or concepts. Researchers conducted social axioms survey (SAS) in over 40 nations, and found that the psychometric property is satisfactory, moreover, SAS showed five dimensions worldwide: Social cynicism, Social complexity, Reward for application, Religiosity and Fate control. The researches of social axioms provide a different prospect for understanding culture difference as well as the relationship between psychological mechanism and behavioral tendencies, exploring a new research area for social psychology.
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    Attitude Structural Consistency and Its Effect on Attitude and Behavior
    ZHOU Jie;FENG Jiang-Ping;WANG Er-Ping
    2009, 17 (5):  1088-1093. 
    Abstract ( 1199 )   PDF (745KB) ( 2427 )  
    Attitude structural consistency which is a dimension of attitude strength has typically been defined as the extent to which one aspect of individual’s attitude is consistent with either his or her overall attitude toward the object or the other aspect of the attitude. The three types of structural consistency are (a) evaluative-affective consistency (EAC), (b) evaluative-cognitive consistency (ECC), and (c) affective-cognitive consistency (ACC). The present article introduced the manipulation and the measurement of structural consistency, and the previous researches about the effect of structural consistency on attitude formation, attitude accessibility and attitude-behavior relation. Furthermore, we pointed out that the future researches should focus on the interactions of three types of structural consistency and the effect of structural consistency on group attitude-behavior relation in social monitoring.
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    Exploratory Factor Analysis, Target Rotation and Factorial Agreement
    LI Yui-Hui;HUANG Fei;ZHANG Jian-Xin
    2009, 17 (5):  1094-1101. 
    Abstract ( 1144 )   PDF (760KB) ( 1661 )  
    Applications of structure-oriented techniques to investigate cross-group or cross-situation factorial agreement/similarity are common practices in psychological researches (e.g. cross-cultural research). Exploratory factor analysis followed with target/Procrustes rotation and factorial agreement/similarity assessment is an approach to accomplish this purpose. In this article, the brief principle of orthogonal Procrustes rotation is introduced, then, the application in psychological researches is reviewed, and some related software and procedure are recommended. After target rotation, factorial agreement can be measured by some indications like congruence coefficient, which can be tested according to empirical sampling distribution or rule of thumb. The proposed analysis procedure for assessing factorial agreement is illustrated with empirical data of positive affect and negative affect of male and female adolescents. Finally, most of the important issues in the three stages of the procedure are summarized.
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    Review of Setting Cut-Off Score: Bookmark Method
    CHEN Meng-Zhu;ZHANG Min-Qiang
    2009, 17 (5):  1102-1108. 
    Abstract ( 1039 )   PDF (759KB) ( 1459 )  
    Based on the classical test theory, the traditional setting methods are grade point or specified cut-off scores, with reference to test result. Thus the setting methods of cut-off score, far from efficient and precise, urgently need to be improved. Bookmark method based on item response theory, can set up multiple cut scores, which accord to the ability parameter of test materials and the quantitative relation between the percentage we grasped and ability level due to testee, more efficient and accurate compared to the traditional methods of setting. This paper discussed the traditional methods’ experimental situation and deficiency, and reviewed the basic principle, specific application methods and prospect of Bookmark method. Future work should systematize the specific application methods and focus on reliability study, validity study and the research of standard error estimate and the response probability of item study.
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